Willibald Pirckheimer was a German Renaissance lawyer and Renaissance humanist, a wealthy and prominent figure in Nuremberg in the 16th century, a member of the governing City Council for two periods. He was the closest friend of the artist Albrecht Dürer, who made a number of portraits of him, a close friend of the great humanist and theologian Erasmus. Born in Eichstätt, the son of a lawyer, Dr Johannes Pirckheimer, he was educated in Italy, studying law at Padua and Pavia for seven years, his wife was called Cresencia, they had at least a daughter, Felicitas. His elder sister Caritas was Abbess of St Clare's Franciscan convent in Nuremberg and was a gifted classical scholar, he met Dürer in 1495. He was a member of a group of Nuremberg humanists including Conrad Celtis, Sebald Schreyer, Hartmann Schedel, he was consulted by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I on literary matters. He translated many classical texts into German, was a believer in translating "by the sense" rather than over-literally, a great question of the day.
Among other works, he edited and had published an edition of Ptolemy's Geographia in 1525. In 1499 Pirckheimer was chosen by the City Council to command their contingent of troops in the Imperial army during the Swabian War against the Swiss. On his return he was presented with a gold cup by the City; this may be referred to in Dürer's engraving Nemesis of about 1502. As Dürer had not received a classical education, it is assumed that much of the display of classical and humanist learning in his works his prints, reflected his discussions with Pirckheimer. A notable example is Melencolia I. Pirckheimer lent Dürer the money for his second trip to Italy in 1506/07, ten letters to him from Dürer in Italy demonstrate the closeness of the friendship, with much teasing. After the death in 1560 of the last of Dürer's immediate family Pirckheimer's grandson Willibald Imhoff bought the remaining Dürer collections and papers. Most of Pirckheimer's own library, famous in its day, was sold by another Imhoff descendent to the Earl of Arundel in 1636.
Much of this passed via the collection of Sir Hans Sloane to the British Library. He died in Nuremberg, aged 60. Like Dürer, he is buried in the cemetery of the Johannis-kirche in Nuremberg. A portrait of Pirckheimer appears on the 100 Billion Mark note issued during Germany's Weimar Republic. Bartrum, Giulia. Albrecht Dürer and his Legacy. British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-2633-0. Online Galleries, History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries High resolution images of works by and/or portraits of Willibald Pirckheimer in.jpg and.tiff format
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Dr Alexander Barclay was an English/Scottish poet. Barclay was born in about 1476, his place of birth is matter of dispute, but William Bulleyn, a native of Ely, knew him when he was in the monastery there, asserts that he was born "beyonde the cold river of Twede". His early life was spent at Croydon, but it is not certain whether he was educated at Oxford or Cambridge, it may be presumed that he took his degree, as he uses the title of "Syr" in his translation of Sallust's Bellum Jugurthinum, in his will he is called Doctor of Divinity. From the numerous incidental references in his works, from his knowledge of European literature, it may be inferred that he spent some time abroad. Thomas Cornish, suffragan bishop in the diocese of Bath and Wells, provost of Oriel College, from 1493 to 1507, appointed him chaplain of the college of Ottery St Mary, Devon. Here he wrote his satirical poem, The Ship of Fools a translation from Sebastian Brant; the death of his patron in 1513 put an end to his connection with the west, he became a monk in the Benedictine monastery of Ely.
In this retreat he wrote his eclogues, but in 1520 "Maistre Barkleye, the Blacke Monke and Poete" was desired to devise "histoires and convenient raisons to florisshe the buildings and banquet house withal" at the meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. He at length became a Franciscan friar of Canterbury, it is presumed that he conformed with the change of religion, for he retained under Edward VI the livings of Great Baddow, of Wokey, which he had received in 1546, was presented in 1552 by the dean and chapter of Canterbury to the rectory of All Hallows, Lombard Street, London. He died shortly after this last preferment at Croydon, where he was buried on 10 June 1552; the Ship of Fools was as popular in its English dress. It was the starting-point of a new satirical literature. In itself a product of the medieval conception of the fool who figured so in the Shrovetide and other pageants, it differs from the general allegorical satires of the preceding centuries.
The figures are no longer abstractions. Thus, the work is of interest as throwing light on the manners and customs of the times to which it refers. Barclay translated the Mirrour of Good Manners, from the Italian of Dominic Mancini, wrote five Eclogues, printed by Wynkyn de Worde about 1518, his style is stiff and his verse uninspired. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Barclay, Alexander". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Chambers, Robert. "Barclay, Alexander". A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen. 1. Glasgow: Blackie and Son. Pp. 139–140 – via Wikisource. "Barclay, Alexander". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Works by Alexander Barclay at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Alexander Barclay at Internet Archive Works by Alexander Barclay at LibriVox
Satire is a genre of literature, sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"—but parody, exaggeration, comparison and double entendre are all used in satirical speech and writing; this "militant" irony or sarcasm professes to approve of the things the satirist wishes to attack. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, plays, television shows, media such as lyrics; the word satire comes from the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin, he was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes: As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; the odd result is. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus. Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, in England, by the 16th century, it was written'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time. Laughter is not an essential component of satire. Conversely, not all humour on such topics as politics, religion or art is "satirical" when it uses the satirical tools of irony and burlesque. Light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, make them think". Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study, they provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power, by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse. For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions; the satiric impulse, its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations. Satire is a diverse genre, complex to classif
Syndic is a term applied in certain countries to an officer of government with varying powers, secondly to a representative or delegate of a university, institution or other corporation, entrusted with special functions or powers. The meaning which underlies both applications is that of delegate. Du Cange, after defining the word as defensor, advocatus, proceeds "Syndici maxime appellantur Actores universitatum, societatum et aliorum corporum, per quos, tanquam in republica quod communiter agi fierive oportet, agitur et fit," and gives several examples from the 13th century of the use of the term; the most familiar use of syndic in the first sense is that of the Italian sindaco (or, the head of the administration of a comune, comparable to a mayor, a government official, elected by the residents of commune. As indicated above, in Italy and parts of Switzerland, the term sindaco or sindaca is equivalent to the English term mayor, in this case, the head of the administration of a comune. In areas where Catalan or Occitan are spoken, the term has been used since Medieval times.
At present it is used in a variety of cases. The president of Andorra's parliament is known as the Síndic General Councillor; until the 1993 Constitution, the Síndic was the effective head of government of Andorra. The Sindic d'Aran / Síndic d'Aran is the head of the administration of this small region in Catalonia. In Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and the Valencian Community, the Síndic de Greuges or Síndica de Greuges is the ombudsman or ombudswoman, while the Síndic de Comptes or Síndica de Comptes is a board member of the Public Audit Office in each of the three regions. In the Valencian Parliament, the spokesperson or speaker of a parliamentary group is called a síndic or síndica, together they form the Junta de Síndics, while in the Horta de València region, a síndic is a member of the Water Tribunal, the body in charge of regulating irrigation matters. In Alguer, the síndic is the equivalent of mayor. In Europe in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, nearly all companies and the University of Paris had representative bodies the members of which were termed syndici.
In England, the Regent House of the University of Cambridge, the legislative body, delegates certain functions to special committees of its members, appointed from time to time by Grace. The term sindicat in Catalan is used in a broad sense to mean an association for the defence of the economic or social interests of its members, therefore is used generically to refer to labour organizations, as well as in the titles of certain labour organizations or federations, student organizations and journalist organizations, among others; the members or leaders of these organisations, are not called síndics. In some countries, notably France and Belgium, a syndic de copropriété is an important figure in millions of lives, elected by owners of condominiums to represent property owners in the management of the co-owned building or property. While the profession is regulated, fees are not, complaints of overcharging are frequent; the Association des responsables de copropriété reported that fees rose by 4% in 2016, though the rate of inflation was only 0.2%, since 2014 three of the largest syndics in Paris have raised their fees by amounts ranging from 26% to 37%.
One special use of the term applies to the Franciscan order of brothers. The Order of Friars Minor, as opposed to the Order of Friars Minor Conventual is forbidden by its constitutions from owning property, as part of its commitment to communal poverty. Various arrangements therefore exist whereby churches and houses of the order are owned by the Holy See itself, or the local diocese or, sometimes, by a "syndic," an independent layman, the actual owner of the land but who loans it to the friars. Within Syndicalist and Anarcho-syndicalist organizations, a syndic is a member of an autonomous union called a Syndicate, which make up the basic organizational unit of society; as these models are organized along principles of non-hierarchy and direct democracy, the title syndic is applied to all in the syndicate and does not imply a position of power over any other member, unlike older usages of the title. Bankruptcy Syndicalism Trustee The Dispossessed, a novel with syndics