An order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform. Coming down to the present from Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman civilization, the architectural orders are the styles of classical architecture, each distinguished by its proportions and characteristic profiles and details, most recognizable by the type of column employed; the three orders of architecture—the Doric and Corinthian—originated in Greece. To these the Romans added, in practice if not in name, the Tuscan, which they made simpler than Doric, the Composite, more ornamental than the Corinthian; the architectural order of a classical building is akin to the key of classical music. It is established by certain modules like the intervals of music, it raises certain expectations in an audience attuned to its language. Whereas the orders were structural in Ancient Greek architecture, which made little use of the arch until its late period, in Roman architecture where the arch was dominant, the orders became decorative elements except in porticos and similar uses.
Columns turned into pilasters. This treatment continued after the conscious and "correct" use of the orders following Roman models, returned in the Italian Renaissance. Greek Revival architecture, inspired by increasing knowledge of Greek originals, returned to more authentic models, including ones from early periods; each style has distinctive capitals at the top of columns and horizontal entablatures which it supports, while the rest of the building does not in itself vary between the orders. The column shaft and base varies with the order, is sometimes articulated with vertical hollow grooves known as fluting; the shaft is wider at the bottom than at the top, because its entasis, beginning a third of the way up, imperceptibly makes the column more slender at the top, although some Doric columns early Greek ones, are visibly "flared", with straight profiles that narrow going up the shaft. The capital rests on the shaft, it has a load-bearing function, which concentrates the weight of the entablature on the supportive column, but it serves an aesthetic purpose.
The necking is visually separated by one or many grooves. The echinus lies atop the necking, it is a circular block that bulges outwards towards the top to support the abacus, a square or shaped block that in turn supports the entablature. The entablature consists of three horizontal layers, all of which are visually separated from each other using moldings or bands. In Roman and post-Renaissance work, the entablature may be carried from column to column in the form of an arch that springs from the column that bears its weight, retaining its divisions and sculptural enrichment, if any. There are names for all the many parts of the orders; the height of columns are calculated in terms of a ratio between the diameter of the shaft at its base and the height of the column. A Doric column can be described as seven diameters high, an Ionic column as eight diameters high and a Corinthian column nine diameters high, although the actual ratios used vary in both ancient and revived examples, but keeping to the trend of increasing slimness between the orders.
Sometimes this is phrased as "lower diameters high", to establish which part of the shaft has been measured. There are three distinct orders in Ancient Greek architecture: Doric and Corinthian; these three were adopted by the Romans. The Roman adoption of the Greek orders took place in the 1st century BC; the three Ancient Greek orders have since been used in neo-classical European architecture. Sometimes the Doric order is considered the earliest order, but there is no evidence to support this. Rather, the Doric and Ionic orders seem to have appeared at around the same time, the Ionic in eastern Greece and the Doric in the west and mainland. Both the Doric and the Ionic order appear to have originated in wood; the Temple of Hera in Olympia is the oldest well-preserved temple of Doric architecture. It was built just after 600 BC; the Doric order spread across Greece and into Sicily where it was the chief order for monumental architecture for 800 years. Early Greeks were no doubt aware of the use of stone columns with bases and capitals in Ancient Egyptian architecture, that of other Near Eastern cultures, although there they were used in interiors, rather than as a dominant feature of all or part of exteriors, in the Greek style.
The Doric order originated on western Greece. It is the simplest of the orders, characterized by short, heavy columns with plain, round capitals and no base. With a height, only four to eight times its diameter, the columns are the most squat of all orders; the shaft of the Doric order is channeled with 16 flutes. The capital consists of a necking or Annulet, a simple ring; the echinus is convex, or circular cushion like stone, the abacus is square slab of stone. Above the capital is a square abacus connecting the capital to the entablature; the Entablature is divided into three horizontal registers, the lower part of, either smooth or divided by horizontal lines. The upper half is distinctive for the Doric order; the frieze of the Doric entablature is divided into metopes. A triglyph is a unit consisting of three vertical bands. Metopes are the carved reliefs between two triglyphs; the Greek forms of the Doric order come without an individual
Château d'Ancy-le-Franc is a Renaissance-style château of the 16th century located in the town of Ancy-le-Franc in the department of Yonne, in France. The site was occupied by a 12th-century fort, which survived until the end of the sixteenth century. Construction of the existing château began in 1544, at the request of Antoine III de Clermont, brother-in-law of Diane de Poitiers and son of Anne de Husson, countess of Tonnerre; the design of the building is traditionally attributed to the Italian architect Sebastiano Serlio, invited to France by King Francis I. Following Serlio's death in 1554 at Fontainebleau, architect Pierre Lescot, took over the work, respecting the original plans of Serlio; the interior design is the work of Francesco Primaticcio, working at château de Fontainebleau at the time. Antoine de Clermont died in 1578 and his grandson Charles-Henri de Clermont, completed the interior. Completed, the château was now able to host prestigious guests such as Henry III, Henri IV in 1591, Louis XIII in 1631 and Louis XIV in 1674.
In 1683, the Clermont-Tonnerre family was forced to sell the land of Ancy-le-Franc and the château to François-Michel Le Tellier, minister of Louis XIV. The following year, Louvois acquired the entire County of Tonnerre. Following this, he employed well-known landscape architect André Le Nôtre for creating pathways and gardens within the grounds. After the French Revolution, the family managed to regain possession of the château, he restored the grounds as well as the interior of the château to its former glory. In 1844, Ancy-le-Franc was sold to Louis Aimé Gaspard de Clermont-Tonnerre, a descendant of Antoine III of Clermont, it passed between various hands, including those of the princes of Merode. The château is owned by a private company, Société Paris Investir SAS, which undertook its restoration, recognition as a national historical monument; the architecture of the château is the result of a mixture of French and Italian styles, a consequence of compromise between the French owner and Italian architect.
The château is built on a rectangular central plan. Four houses are each flanked by a projecting pavilion walls; this plan is based on plans called "pi" used in France at that time. Serlio separated the two levels by a wide ledge upon. Tuscan columns were used on the main level and Doric columns were used on the second level. On both levels, the bays were framed by pilasters. While there are windows within each bay, this was not the case. Serlio wanted to create a rhythm alternating between empty bays. Additional windows filled all the empty bays in the 17th century. For the facade of the interior, Serlio used Corinthian columns on the first level and Composite columns on the second level. Again, he created a rhythm alternating between open niches framed by pilasters; these niches are adorned with an inner shell. Serlio created a triple arcade on the ground floor, reminiscent of the Villa Madama. Serlio was able to comply with the weight requirements of the building and it's steeply pitched roof in a manner similar to the Château de Villandry, using limestone from Burgundy.
Inside the château there are murals from drawings of Primaticcio or Niccolò dell'Abbate, as well as coffered ceilings, fine wood carvings, various colorful ornaments. Ancy-le-Franc website Photographs of architectural details High-resolution 360° Panorama of Château d'Ancy-le-Franc | Art Atlas
Tutte l'opere d'architettura et prospetiva
Tutte l'opere d'architettura et prospetiva is an architectural treatise by Italian Renaissance architect Sebastiano Serlio. Serlio is sometimes regarded as one of the most important; the treatise is composed of eight books, the sixth of, lost for some centuries and the eighth of, not published until recently. The eighth book is not always considered to be part of the treatise; the first five books cover Serlio's works on geometry, Roman antiquity, the Orders and church design. The sixth illustrates domestic designs ranging from peasant huts to royal palaces, providing a unique record of Renaissance house types, including up-to-date fortresses for tyrants and mercenaries as well as Serlio's unbuilt design for the Louvre; the seventh book illustrates a range of common design problems ignored by past theorists, including how to remodel, or'restore', Gothic façades following antique principles of symmetry and proportion. The eighth book, called "Castrametation of the Romans", reconstructs a Roman encampment after the description by Polybius, followed by a military city and monumental bridge built by the Emperor Trajan.
With its forum, consul's palace and baths, the book is part-fantasy and part-archaeology, quite unlike Serlio's other more practical works
Hans Vredeman de Vries
Hans Vredeman de Vries was a Dutch Renaissance architect and engineer. Vredeman de Vries is known for his publication in 1583 on garden design and his books with many examples on ornaments and perspective. Born in Leeuwarden and raised in Friesland, in 1546 Vredeman de Vries went to Kampen. In 1549 he moved to Mechelen. Sebastian, his brother, was the organist in the local church. Vredeman de Vries designed ornaments for merry parades of Charles V and Philip II. Studying Vitruvius and Sebastiano Serlio, he became an internationally known specialist in perspective, he continued his career in Antwerp, where he was appointed city architect and fortification engineer. After 1585 he fled the city because of the Spanish occupation by Alessandro Farnese; the Protestants had to leave the city within two years. Vredeman de Vries moved to Frankfurt and worked in Wolfenbüttel, designing a fortification and a new lay-out of the city for Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. After his death the project was cancelled and Hans worked in Hamburg, Danzig and Amsterdam.
On his trips Vredeman was accompanied by his son Paul, both painters. His son Salomon was a painter. Vredeman de Vries tried to get an appointment at the University of Leiden in 1604, it is not known when and where Hans Vredeman de Vries died, however, it is recorded that his son Paul was living in Hamburg when he inherited. "Vredeman de Vries, Hans". Winkler Prins encyclopedia. 1975. Lombaerde, Piet. Hans Vredeman de Vries and the "Artes Mechanicae" revisited. Brepols. Hans Jantzen, Das Niederländische Architekturbild, Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1910 Bernard G. Maillet, La Peinture Architecturale des Ecoles du Nord: les Intérieurs d'Eglises 1580-1720, Pandora Publishers Wijnegem, 2012, ISBN 9789052353371 Christopher P. Heue, The City Rehearsed Object and print in the worlds of Hans Vredeman de Vries, ISBN 9780415433068 Architectura website of the Centre d'études supérieures de la Renaissance at Tours The Delft University on Vredeman de Vries University of Heidelberg 28 Prints from "Pictores, architecti, latomi, et quicunque principum magnificorumque virorum memoriae aeternae inservitis, adeste" Ornaments by Vredeman de Vries in a museum in Schleswig-Holstein Hans Vredeman de Vries on Artcyclopedia Vermeer and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Hans Vredeman de Vries
Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi was an Italian architect and painter, born in a small town near Siena and died in Rome. He worked for many years with Bramante and Sangallo during the erection of the new St. Peter's, he returned to his native Siena after the Sack of Rome where he was employed as architect to the Republic. For the Sienese he built new fortifications for the city and designed a remarkable dam on the Bruna River near Giuncarico, he seems to have moved back to Rome permanently by 1535. He was buried in the Rotunda of the Pantheon, near Raphael, he was a painter of frescoes in the Cappella San Giovanni in the Duomo of Siena. His son Giovanni Sallustio was an architect. Another son, learned painting from his father became a Dominican priest in the convent of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva in Rome, he stopped painting until requested by his superiors at San Romano di Lucca to paint the organ doors of the church. All art critics ascribe the design of the Villa Chigi in Rome, now known more as the Villa Farnesina, to Peruzzi.
In this villa, two wings branch off from a central hall with a simple arrangement of pilasters, a decorative frieze on the exterior of the building. Some of the frescoed paintings which adorn the interior rooms are by Peruzzi. One example is the Sala delle Prospettive, in which Peruzzi revived the perspective schemes of Melozzo da Forli and Mantegna under the influence of both; the walls of the room are painted so that when one stands toward the left, one has the illusion that one is standing in an open-air terrace, lined by pillars, looking out over a continuous landscape. The decoration of the façade, the work of Peruzzi, has entirely vanished, but it is documented by an anonymous French artist in a drawing, now held by the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. To decorate this villa on the Tiber many artists were employed, just as the style of the villa in no wise recalls the old castellated type of country-house, so the paintings in harmony with the pleasure-loving spirits of the time were antique and uninspired by Christian ideas.
Raphael designed the composition of the story of Psyche as a continuation of the Galatea. On a plate-glass vault Peruzzi painted the firmament, with the zodiacal signs, the planets, other heavenly bodies; the interior room has a striking use of illusionistic perspective Peruzzi had produced a mosaic ceiling for the church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome. Other paintings ascribed to him are to be found in Sant ` San Pietro in Montorio; that Peruzzi improved as time went on is evident in his works, e.g. the "Madonna with Saints" in Santa Maria della Pace at Rome, the fresco of Augustus and the Tiburtine Sibyl in Santa Maria in Portico a Fontegiusta at Siena. As our master interested himself in the decorative art he exercised a strong influence in this direction, not only by his own decorative paintings but by furnishing designs for craftsmen of various kinds. While being an architect, of his great loves was drawing and he was well known for his extraordinary studies of antique buildings, as seen in The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine in the Allen Memorial Art Museum.
His final architectural masterpiece, the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne located on the modern day Corso Vittorio Emanuele, is well known for its curving facade, ingenious planning, architecturally rich interior. The exterior details display a Mannerist-style, he made significant but unspecified contributions to what would become the Seven Books of Architecture, published in installments after Peruzzi's death by his pupil, Sebastiano Serlio. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Web Gallery of Art: Perspective View of the Sala delle Prospettive The Catholic Encyclopedia:Baldassare Peruzzi Italian Paintings: Sienese and Central Italian Schools, a collection catalog containing information about Peruzzi and his works
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol; the city became a World Heritage site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis c. 60 AD when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century.
Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a major centre for tourism, with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy and the Holburne Museum; the city has two universities – the University of Bath and Bath Spa University – with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C.. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset; the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.
Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down. Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths' main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists; the tablets were written in Latin, cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them. For example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, a bathing complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.
In the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, the baths fell into disrepair and were lost as a result of rising water levels and silting. In March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig; the coins, believed to date from the 3rd century, were found about 150 m from the Roman baths. Bath may have been the site of the Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur is said to have defeated the Anglo-Saxons; the town was captured by the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. A monastery was founded at an early date – reputedly by Saint David although more in 675 by Osric, King of the Hwicce using the walled area as its precinct. Nennius, a 9th-century historian, mentions a "Hot Lake" in the land of the Hwicce along the River Severn, adds "It is surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone, men may go there to bathe at any time, every man can have the kind of bath he likes.
If he wants, it will be a cold bath. Bede described hot baths in the geographical introduction to the Ecclesiastical History in terms similar to those of Nennius. King Offa of Mercia gained control of the monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. According to the Victorian churchman Edward Churton, during the Anglo-Saxon era Bath was known as Acemannesceastre, or'aching men's city', on account of the reputation these springs had for healing the sick. By the 9th century the old Roman street pattern was lost and Bath was a royal possession. King Alfred laid out the town afresh. In the Burghal Hidage, Bath is recorded as a burh and is described as having walls of 1,375 yards and was allocated 1000 men for defence. During the reign of Edward the Elder coins were minted in Bath based on a design from the Winchester mint but with'BAD' on the obverse relating to the Anglo-Saxon name for the town, Baðum, Baðan or Baðon, meaning "at the baths", this was the
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t