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Sebelas Maret University

Sebelas Maret University is an Indonesian public university in the suburban area of Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. It was founded on March 11, 1976. Sebelas Maret University was established on March 11, 1976, it was named Universitas Negeri Surakarta, hence was abbreviated UNS. Sebelas Maret University is the result of the unification of the five universities in Surakarta, which were: Institute of Teacher Training and Education of Surakarta. Sports High School of Surakarta. Academy of Business Administration of Surakarta. Combined University of Surakarta, which comprised several universities in Surakarta, included University of Islam Indonesia of Surakarta. Faculty of Medicine of the Department of Defense and Security's National Higher Education Development of Surakarta. Physical development began in 1980. Under the leadership of Dr. Prakosa, the original campus located in several places were united in the same area; the new area was on the riverside of Bengawan Solo River, with an area of 60 hectares.

In this Kentingan area, the first phase of campus construction ended in 1985. In 1986, Prof. Dr. Koento Wibisono became rector. Prof. Haris Mudjiman, Ph. D. became the next rector. The symbol of UNS is a flower with four petals as the visualization of the nation, the name of the nation and the state; the petals at top and left sides are the embodiment of tri dharma colleges. The one petal under consists of five units; the four petals form a line in sequence to depict the academic unity of UNS. The flower's pistil head shape is described as Wiku that derives from Pali, meaning "the learned people", a circular writing, similar with Javanese script is Sangkala Candra, "Mangesthi Luhur Ambangun Nagara" symbolizes the Java year 1908 or 1976 AD, the founding year of UNS. Overall the symbol of UNS visualize ideals to build a nation, Candra Sangkala it as a shining Praba, Praba in the history of religion and puppet used by the holy man who's wise and virtuous; the central of symbol is Wiku brain is described as a flame, suggests light that illuminates the eternity of science, toward human welfare.

Navy blue's color is a pledge of allegiance and devotion to nation, state and science. The increasing quality of the graduates has been marked by the improvement of the grade point averages, Education Efficiency Figure, cum laude graduates, the reduction of study periods. Nationally, UNS is in 11th position in Ministry of Research and Higher Education's 2017 ranking. UNS has one graduate program. UNS offers 151 courses ranging from diploma, undergraduate and professional programs, specialist doctor education programs, to the doctoral program; each of them is supported with certified laboratories, language laboratories with Self Access Center facilities, computer-managed and information-technology-based libraries such as teleconference and web-based learning. The total number of students has reached 27,500; the number of UNS alumni has so far reached more than 85,000. Apart from increasing the education quality as the implementation of the second and third dharma of Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi, UNS aims to improve research product and service for the society.

The effort has shown good results. It won research funds/dedication of the funding partnership and cooperation with the Department of Education of Central Java Province; the efforts to improve the quality of research and community service have been being performed by the Institute of Research and Community Services. In performing its duties, LPPM is supported by Study Centers; the university boasts of A skin surgeon with a national reputation, The discovery of starbio and salt resistant rice. The university has nine faculties providing courses at the diploma, undergraduate and specialist levels; some graduate and postgraduate courses are managed by the graduate program. Faculty of Law Faculty of Cultural Sciences Faculty of Fine Arts and Design Faculty of Social and Political Sciences Faculty of Economics and Business Faculty of Education Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture Faculty of Engineering Postgraduate and Doctorate Programs Students come from outside of Surakarta.

The Family Medicine master's program received equipment from the Ministry of Health to develop a model of family clinic services, which provide health services, supported the concept of health insurance/Public Health Maintenance Insurance. UNS-MC will be used to support teaching and learning activities for the practicum for students Faculty of Medicine and Family Medicine. Participants are students, employees and communities around the campus. UNS is supported by more than 1,600 lecturers, it is supported by 900 administrative staff. IT facilities are the internet network in each faculty. UNS provides web hosting for faculties and departments which intend to build a website as a sub-domain of www.uns.ac.id. Email is provided free for the academic community. UNS develops Academic Information System, an educational information technology-based system, so that student registration and Plan Studies Consultation can be performed online. In the Central Library, UNS is developi

Muhammad XII of Granada

Abu Abdallah Muhammad XII, known in Europe as Boabdil, was the 22nd and last Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Iberia. Muhammad XII was the son of Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of the Emirate of Granada whom he succeeded in 1482, as a result of both court intrigue and unrest amongst the population at large. Muhammad XII soon sought to gain prestige by invading Castile, he was taken prisoner at Lucena in 1483. Muhammad's father was restored as ruler of Granada, to be replaced in 1485 by his uncle Muhammad XIII known as Abdullah ez Zagal. Muhammad obtained his freedom and Christian support to recover his throne in 1487, by consenting to hold Granada as a tributary kingdom under the Catholic monarchs, he further undertook not to intervene in the Siege of Málaga, in which Málaga was taken by the Christians. Following the fall of Málaga and Baza in 1487, Almuñécar, Salobreña and Almería were taken by the Christians the following year. By the beginning of 1491, Granada was the only Muslim-governed city in Iberia.

In 1491, Muhammad XII was summoned by Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon to surrender the city of Granada, besieged by the Castilians. On 2 January 1492, Granada was surrendered; the royal procession moved from Santa Fe to a place a little more than a mile from Granada, where Ferdinand took up his position by the banks of the Genil. A private letter written by an eyewitness to the Bishop of León only six days after the event recorded the scene: The Moorish sultan, with about eighty or a hundred on horseback and well dressed, went forth to kiss the hand of their Highnesses. According to the final capitulation the key to Granada will pass into Spanish hands without Muhammad XII having to kiss the hands of Los Reyes, as the Spanish royal couple Isabella and Fernando became known; the indomitable mother of Muhammad XII insisted on sparing her son this final humiliation of kissing the hand of Isabella. Christopher Columbus seems to have been present. Legend has it that as Muhammad XII went into exile, he reached a rocky prominence which gave a last view of the city.

Here he reined in his horse and viewed for the last time the Alhambra and the green valley that spread below. The place where this took place is today known as the Suspiro del Moro, "the Moor's sigh". Muhammad mourned his loss, continued his journey to exile accompanied by his mother. Muhammad XII was given an estate in Laujar de Andarax, Las Alpujarras, a mountainous area between the Sierra Nevada and the Mediterranean Sea, but in October 1493 he crossed the Mediterranean to Fes, accompanied by an entourage of 1,130 courtiers and servants. Large numbers of the Muslim population of Granada had fled to North Africa, taking advantage of a clause in the articles of surrender that permitted free passage. Shortly after his surrender, Muhammad Boabdil sent a long letter to the Marinid rulers of Morocco asking for refuge; the letter begins with a long poem praising the Marinids, followed by a prose passage where he laments his defeat and asks forgiveness for past wrongdoings of his forefathers against the Marinids.

The entire text was reported by al-Maqqari:... The lord of Castile has proposed for us a respectable residence and has given us assurances of safety to which he pledged by his own handwriting, enough to convince the souls, but we, as descendants of Banu al-Ahmar, didn't settle for this and our faith in God does not permit us to reside under the protection of disbelief. We received from the east many letters full of goodwill, inviting us to come to their lands and offering the best of advantages, but we cannot choose other than our home and the home of our forefathers, we can only accept the protection of our relatives, not because of opportunism but to confirm the brotherhood relationship between us and to fulfill the testament of our forefathers, that tells us not to seek any help other than that of the Marinids and not to let anything obstruct us from going to you. So we traversed the vast lands and sailed the tumultuous sea and we hope that we would not be returned and that our eyes will be satisfied and our hurt and grievous souls will be healed from this great pain...

- Muhamad Abu Abdallah The 17th-century historian Al-Maqqari wrote that Muhammad XII crossed the Mediterranean to Melilla went to Fes where he built a palace. He stayed there until his death in 1533/1534, he was buried near the Musala located outside of "Bab Sheria" in Fes. Muhammad XII was survived by two sons. Al-Maqqari met with his descendants in 1618 in Fes. An alternative final resting place for Muhammad XII is suggested by the late nineteenth century Arabist M. C. Brosselard, who translated a lengthy prescription in Andalusian script on a three foot long onyx slab held in the town museum of Tlemcen; this epitaph marked the tomb of the exiled king our lord Abu-Abdullah who died in Tlemcen in May 1494, aged thirty-four. The conflict between places and dates of death may arise from confusion between Muhammad XII and his uncle El Zagal, who died in North African exile. Spanish chronicler Luis del Mármol Carvajal wrote "Muhammad XII died near the Oued el Assouad at ford told Waqûba during the war between the Marinids and the Saadians."

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Edith Kate Dawson

Edith Kate Dawson MBE FRCSEd FRCPEd was a pathologist who received a DSc for a thesis on sarcoma in 1970 and an MBE in 1968. Dawson carried out her research at both the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Graduating in 1921, Edith Dawson dedicated her career to studying pathology as a cancer research fellow from 1931 at Edinburgh University, her thesis on “Sarcoma of the Breast” 1970 was noted to be of ‘outstanding significance.’ Dawson lectured at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh while carrying out research at the laboratory. Throughout her career, she focused on the study of breast pathology, with special interest in fibrosis and adenosis. In 1941 she was appointed as temporary part-time Assistant Histologist to the Laboratory at the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. From 1960 she moved to work at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. In addition to performing the diagnostic histology she undertook a research work on the material in the Museum and donated to the College a large quantity of histological material and specimens, including whole sections of breast and other organs, some specially mounted for demonstration purposes.

Several of these are still on display in the museum and a reference library, publicly available. The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh Archive holds the Dawson Archive, which represents all aspects of her career. Collection items include substantial papers concerning the full research process, including correspondence. In addition, Surgeons’ Hall Museums holds Dawson's histology collection of thousands of slides of a variety of systems. Edith Dawson was born in India to a military family, prior to studying medicine she held a teaching appointment in a missionary school in Rangoon before travelling to Edinburgh to study medicine, she was married to pathologist James Walker Dawson, renowned for his work on multiple sclerosis, and, pathologist to the RCP Laboratory. Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh Edith Dawson blog RCSE archives of Edith Dawson https://library.rcsed.ac.uk/media/1267/gd24-papers-of-dr-edith-kate-dawson.pdf https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=piwjAQAAIAAJ&q=edith+kate+dawson&dq=edith+kate+dawson&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiJiLDL5O_fAhWFjKQKHTPtDv0Q6AEIOjAD Supplement to the London Gazette 1968 https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/44484/supplement/16/data.pdf Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh online catalogue https://library.rcsed.ac.uk/archives/search-the-catalogue-adlib