The Second Battle of Zurich was a key victory by the Republican French army in Switzerland led by André Masséna over an Austrian and Russian force commanded by Alexander Korsakov near Zürich. It broke the stalemate that had resulted from the First Battle of Zurich three months earlier and led to the withdrawal of Russia from the Second Coalition. Most of the fighting took place on both banks of the river Limmat up to the gates of Zürich, within the city itself. After the First Battle of Zurich Masséna had consolidated to a defensive line behind the lower reaches of the Aare River. At this time his entire army in Switzerland consisted of around 77,000 combatants, positioned as: 1st Division in the Upper Valais and the Simplon Pass. 2nd Division in the St Gotthard and the valley of the Reuss. 3rd Division Right wing near Glarus, centre on the left bank of the Linth, the left near Adliswil on the Sihl. 4th Division on the Uetliberg. 5th Division on the left bank of the Limmat between Altstetten and Baden.
6th Division from Baden to the confluence of the Aare with the Rhine. 7th Division formed the Reserve in the Frick-thal. 8th Division at Basel. Following the overall strategic plan, the Austrian army under the Archduke Charles was to be augmented by the 25,000 man Russian command of Korsakov, newly arrived at Schaffhausen after a 90-day march. Masséna meanwhile was preparing an offensive on his right flank against the Austrian positions in the Alps. On 15 and 16 August General Claude Lecourbe with 12,000 men drove the forces of Strauch and Simbschen from the St. Gotthard and Oberalp Passes in a series of violent assaults; as a distraction, on 14 August French forces under Soult made demonstrations across the Sihl below Zürich. On the night of 16/17th Archduke Charles supported by Korsakov's troops launched a surprise attack over the river Aare at Gross-Döttingen using boats and pontoon bridges, but his engineers misjudged the strength of the current and depth of the river, the pontoon bridge was unable to be secured and after serious fighting the attack was called off.
Archduke Charles and Korsakov planned no further joint action however, as following the strategic plans of the Austrian Hofkriegsrat under Baron Thugut, Charles had been ordered to move his main command north into southern Germany. Reluctantly following these instructions, he left behind a column of 29,000 men under Friedrich von Hotze, Korsakov's command with the Swiss in the Austrian service; the plan for these two commands was to wait for the arrival of the Russian column of Suvorov penetrating north from Italy over the Alpine passes and trap Masséna in a 3-point encirclement. On 22 August Korsakov and Hotze agreed that the Russians with 22,000 men would line the lower reaches of the River Limmat, Hotze with 20,000 men would occupy the Obersee region below Lake Zürich from the Linth to Glarus. On 28 August the bulk of the troops of Archduke Charles departed Switzerland. Korsakov himself arrived in Zürich the following day displaying a vain over-confidence in the capabilities of his troops and disregard both for the French and his allies the Austrians: The presumption and arrogance of Korsakoff were carried to such a pitch, that in a conference with the Archduke Charles, shortly before the battle, when that great general was pointing out the positions which should in an especial manner be guarded, said, pointing to the map, "Here you should place a battalion."
- "A company, you mean," said Korsakoff - "No," replied the Archduke, "a battalion." - "I understand you," rejoined the other. Korsakov with 33,000 men around Zürich and the Lower Limmat, distributed as: Division Lieutenant-General Gorchakov:Brigades of General-Major Tuchkov and General-Major Essen at Wollishofen. Total with gunners 10,330 men. Division of Lieutenant-General Durasov:Brigade of General-Major Markov in a camp before Weiningen opposite Dietikon Brigade of General-Major Pushchin in a camp at Würenlos and in front of the village of Wettingen: 2,500 infantry, 1,000 cossacks. Along the right banks of the Limmat from Baden to the Rhine. Total with gunners 7,052 men; the cavalry and cossacks under Major-General Gudovich were distributed on the Rhine along the line of the road from Zürich to Baden. Reserve Division Lieutenant-General Sacken, 5,700 men in a camp at Regensdorf along the north bank of Lake Zürich connecting to Hotze. Nauendorf, with 5,400 Austrians, on the right bank of the Rhine between Waldshut and Basel.
Hotze with 25,000 Austrians, including 3,000 Swiss, from Uznach to Chur and Disentis. Suvorov with 28,000 Russians on the march from Italy through the Alps. Shortly before the battle Korsakov detached Sacken's 5,000 man Reserve Division to Rapperswil to reinforce Hotze in anticipation of Suvorov's approach weakening his defensive line along the Limmat before Zürich and exposing his line of communications; the departure of Archduke Charles gave the French a momentary superiority in numbers, Masséna was determined to exploit this and the redistribution of Austrians and Russians. His aim was to beat Hotze before any intervention by Suvorov. On 30 August he attempted to push back the enemy before Zürich; this river crossing was unsuccessful, Masséna now planned a crossing near Dietikon with a subsequent attack on Korsakov in Zürich. On 19 September, Masséna revealed his plan to his division commanders. Lorge's Division and part of Ménard'
Blue Skies is a 1996 studio album by Contemporary Christian music artist Bryan Duncan. "Blue Skies" – 4:18 "Turnin'" – 3:19 "After This Day Is Gone" – 5:17 "One Touch Away" – 3:45 "Dying to Meet You" – 5:32 "A Whisper Heard Around the World" – 4:25 "No Greater Love" – 5:07 "Tell Me Where You Are" – 3:50 "Joy Is a Singable Thing" – 3:19 "Take Another Look at Me" – 4:54 "Dying to Meet You" / "Take Heart" – 6:32 Bryan Duncan – lead vocals Alan Pasqua – keyboards, track arrangements Tim Pierce – guitars, track arrangements Jimmie Lee Sloas – bass guitar James Raymond – Minimoog bass Scott Williamson – drums Bob Wilson – drums, brass arrangements Eric Boseman – percussion Steve Latanation – percussion Kim Hutchcroft – saxophone David Beatty – trombone, euphonium Larry Hall – trumpet Thaddis "Kuk" Harrell – backing vocals Lisa Lashawn – backing vocals Dave Pettway – backing vocalsProduction Dan Posthuma – producer Dan Garcia – associate producer, engineer Teresa Cactin – assistant engineer Brian Carney – assistant engineer Scott Lovelis – assistant engineer Greg Parker – assistant engineer Seventeen Grand Studio, Tennessee – recording location A to Z Studios, San Dimas, California – recording location Terra Nova Studios, California – recording location Granite Studio, California – recording location LA F/X, California – recording location Steve MacMillan – mixing at Westlake Studios, Los Angeles and A&M Studios, Hollywood Tim Gerron – mix assistant Krishan Sharma – mix assistant Hank Williams – mastering at MasterMix, Tennessee Christy Coxe – art direction Kerosene Halo – design Robert Sebree – photography Michelle Thompson – styling Kara Yoshimoto – hair, make-up
The 1990 Intercontinental Cup was a football match played on 9 December 1990 between Milan of Italy, winners of the 1989–90 European Cup, Olimpia of Paraguay, winners of the 1990 Copa Libertadores. The match was played at the neutral venue of the National Stadium in Tokyo in front of 60,228 fans. Frank Rijkaard was named as man of the match. In 2017 FIFA Council recognised all the trophy winners as club world champions with the same title to the FIFA Club World Cup winners as official "world champions" FIFA. Assistant Referees: Chen Shengcai Shizuo Takada 1989–90 European Cup 1990 Copa Libertadores A. C. Milan in international football competitions FIFA Article