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Second Council of Nicaea

The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the last of the first seven ecumenical councils by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church. In addition, it is recognized as such by the Old Catholics and others. Protestant opinions on it are varied, it met in AD 787 in Nicaea to restore the use and veneration of icons, suppressed by imperial edict inside the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Leo III. His son, Constantine V, had held the Council of Hieria to make the suppression official; the veneration of icons had been banned by Byzantine Emperor Constantine V and supported by his Council of Hieria, which had described itself as the seventh ecumenical council. The Council of Hieria was overturned by the Second Council of Nicaea only 33 years and has been rejected by Catholic and Orthodox churches, since none of the five major patriarchs were represented; the emperor's vigorous enforcement of the ban included persecution of those who venerated icons and of monks in general. There were political overtones to the persecution—images of emperors were still allowed by Constantine, which some opponents saw as an attempt to give wider authority to imperial power than to the saints and bishops.

Constantine's iconoclastic tendencies were shared by Constantine's son, Leo IV. After the latter's early death, his widow, Irene of Athens, as regent for her son, began its restoration for personal inclination and political considerations. In 784 the imperial secretary Patriarch Tarasius was appointed successor to the Patriarch Paul IV—he accepted on the condition that intercommunion with the other churches should be reestablished. However, a council, claiming to be ecumenical, had abolished the veneration of icons, so another ecumenical council was necessary for its restoration. Pope Adrian I was invited to participate, gladly accepted, sending an archbishop and an abbot as his legates. In 786, the council met in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. However, soldiers in collusion with the opposition entered the church, broke up the assembly; as a result, the government resorted to a stratagem. Under the pretext of a campaign, the iconoclastic bodyguard was sent away from the capital – disarmed and disbanded.

The council was again summoned to meet, this time in Nicaea, since Constantinople was still distrusted. The council assembled on September 787 at the church of Hagia Sophia, it numbered about 350 members. Tarasius presided, seven sessions were held in Nicaea; the clear distinction between the adoration offered to God and that accorded to the images may well be looked upon as a result of the iconoclastic reform. The twenty-two canons drawn up in Constantinople served ecclesiastical reform. Careful maintenance of the ordinances of the earlier councils, knowledge of the scriptures on the part of the clergy, care for Christian conduct are required, the desire for a renewal of ecclesiastical life is awakened; the council decreed that every altar should contain a relic, which remains the case in modern Catholic and Orthodox regulations, made a number of decrees on clerical discipline for monks when mixing with women. The papal legates voiced their approval of the restoration of the veneration of icons in no uncertain terms, the patriarch sent a full account of the proceedings of the council to Pope Hadrian I, who had it translated.

In the West, the Frankish clergy rejected the Council at a synod in 794, Charlemagne King of the Franks, supported the composition of the Libri Carolini in response, which repudiated the teachings of both the Council and the iconoclasts. A copy of the Libri was sent to Pope Hadrian, who responded with a refutation of the Frankish arguments; the Libri would thereafter remain unpublished until the Reformation, the Council is accepted as the Seventh Ecumenical Council by the Catholic Church. The council is celebrated in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine Rite as "The Sunday of the Triumph of Orthodoxy" each year on the first Sunday of Great Lent, the fast that leads up to Pascha, again on the Sunday closest to October 11; the former celebration commemorates the council as the culmination of the Church's battles against heresy, while the latter commemorates the council itself. Many Protestants follow the French reformer John Calvin in rejecting the canons of the council, which they believe promoted of idolatry.

He rejected the distinction between veneration and adoration as unbiblical "sophistry" and condemned the decorative use of images. In subsequent editions of the Institutes, he cited an influential Carolingian source, now ascribed to Theodulf of Orleans, which reacts negatively to a poor Latin translation of the council's acts. Calvin did not engage the apologetic arguments of John of Damascus or Theodore the Studite because he was unaware of them. There are only a few translations of the above Acts in the modern languages: English translation made in 1850 by an Anglican priest, John Mendham; the Canons and excerpts of the Acts in The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church, translated by Henry R. Percival and edited by Philip Schaff. Translation made by Kazan Theological Academy – a corrupted translation of the Acts of the Councils in

Don't Bet on Love

Don't Bet on Love is a 1933 American comedy film directed by Murray Roth and written by Howard Emmett Rogers, Murray Roth and Ben Ryan. The film stars Lew Ayres, Ginger Rogers, Charley Grapewin, Shirley Grey, Tom Dugan and Merna Kennedy; the film was released on July 1933, by Universal Pictures. Molly Gilbert won't accept a marriage proposal from Bill McCaffery unless he promises to quit betting money on horse races, he gives her his word, but Molly is miffed when she realizes he wants to honeymoon in Saratoga, New York due to its proximity to the racetrack. Behind her back, Bill unethically uses money from his dad Pop McCaffery's plumbing business to continue gambling, he gets on a hot streak, winning $50,000 buys a horse of his own, cheats by disguising a faster horse as his loses all his money. Bill agrees pleasing Molly. Lew Ayres as Bill McCaffery Ginger Rogers as Molly Gilbert Charley Grapewin as Pop McCaffery Shirley Grey as Goldie Williams Tom Dugan as Scotty Merna Kennedy as Ruby'Babe' Norton Lucile Gleason as Mrs. Gilbert Robert Emmett O'Connor as Edward Shelton Don't Bet on Love on IMDb

Anila Dalal

Anila Amrutlal Dalal is Gujarati critic and translator. Dalal was born on 21 October 1933 in Ahmedabad to Amritlal Dalal, she completed SSC in 1949, BA in English in 1954, MA in English in 1956 and Ph. D from Gujarat University, she received MS from University of Illinois in 1959. She is a retired professor and Head of the Department of English at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Arts College, Ahmedabad where she taught from June 1960 to 1990s, she received PhD in 1990 from Gujarat University for her thesis on novels of Iris Murdoch. Ravindranath ane Sharatchandrana Katha Sahityama Nari is two parts work on criticism on females in works of Rabindranath Tagore and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay; the first part has seven articles on works of Tagore while second part has five articles on works of Chattopadhyay. Deshantar is a work on literature of several languages. Darpannu Nagar, Manushi - Shityama Nari, Navalkathama Chetanapravah and Nivedan are her other works of criticism, she translated three Bengali novels of Sunil Gangopadhyay.

She translated Bimal Kar's Balika Prachhanna from Bengali. She translated Devesh Ray's Tistakanthanu Vrutant, she translated Mahabharata: Ek Aadhunik Drishtikon by Buddhadeb Bosu, Maharshi Devendranath Thakur by Narayan Chaudhary, Laxminath Bejbarua by Hem Barua. She translated several essays of Tagore in Ravindra Nibandhmala Part 2 and more than seventy songs of Tagore in Geet Panchshati, she translated letters of Tagore as Chinna Patra Marmar. She translated The Later Novels of Iris Murdoch from English, she translated Tarashankar Bandopadyay by Mahasweta Devi, Ravindra Sanchay, Vrindavan Morli Vage Chhe. She received Gujarati Sahitya Parishad award in 1994, Gujarat Sahitya Academy award in 1994 and Sahitya Akademi's Translation Prize in 1993 for Prachhanna. List of Gujarati-language writers

Cortinarius porphyroideus

Cortinarius porphyroideus known as purple pouch fungus, is a secotioid species of fungus found in Australia and in beech forests of New Zealand. It was one of six species that appeared as part of a series depicting native New Zealand fungi on stamps, released in 2002; the species was described in 1924 by Gordon Herriot Cunningham as Secotium porphyreum, from collections made in Wellington. In 1954 Rolf Singer transferred it to Thaxterogaster when he erected that genus to contain species with Cortinarius-like spores that had a reduced stipe and gills that were only exposed, or the hymenium was loculate, it acquired its current name in 2002 when molecular studies demonstrated that Thaxterogaster was polyphyletic and nested within Cortinarius. In an article recommending English language common names for several endemic New Zealand fungi, Geoff Ridley proposes the name "king's pouch"; the violet fruit bodies can grow to a width of 7 cm. The smooth, polished surface of the peridium is sticky; when dry, the peridium becomes develops wrinkles.

The stout stipe is a pale violet colour with yellow tints at the base. It tapers towards the top; the texture of the stipe surface is fibrillose, minute grooves can be seen running up and down its length. The interior of the peridium, the gleba, is pale reddish brown in labyrinthiform in form. Individual cells or compartments in the gleba are 1–2 mm long with thick partitions. Young fruit bodies that are still beneath the earth are white. In deposit, the spores are chestnut brown. Microscopic examination reveals that they are egg-shaped with one end rounded and the other end pointed, measuring 12–17 by 8–11 μm; the spore surface is covered with minute wart-like outgrowths. List of Cortinarius species Cortinarius porphyroideus in Index Fungorum Hiddenforest.co.nz Several photos

2012–13 National League 2 North

The 2012–13 National League 2 North was the third season of the fourth tier of the English domestic rugby union competitions since the professionalised format of the second division was introduced. The league system was 4 points for a win, 2 points for a draw and additional bonus points being awarded for scoring 4 or more tries and/or losing within 7 points of the victorious team. In terms of promotion the league champions would go straight up into National League 1 while the runners up would have a one-game playoff against the runners up from National League 2 South for the final promotion place; the league title battle was tight this year with Hull Ionians taking the championship and promotion to the 2013–14 National League 1 ahead of Stourbridge with both sides dead level on points but Ionians having more wins despite Stourbridge having a much better for/against record and more bonus points. As runners up Stourbridge faced the 2012–13 National League 2 South runners up Worthing Raiders in what would be a close game - losing 26 - 28 to the south coast side - meaning that the Stourton Park-based side would not have an instant return to National League 1.

At the other end of the table Huddersfield were the weakest team in the division and were the first to be relegated, with the more competitive Stockport and Westoe being the other two sides to follow them by the end of the season. All three sides would drop down to National League 3 North for the following season. Twelve of the teams listed below participated in the 2011–12 National League 2 North season. Rugby Lions had won the National League 3 Midlands title and were expected to join the 2012–13 National League 2 South instead of National League 2 North but went into liquidation over the summer and dropped out of the leagues leaving the southern division with just 15 teams; the season saw newly demoted Birmingham & Solihull move from ground-sharing with a local football team at Damson Park to their former training base Portway. Another team would switch grounds during the season, with Darlington Mowden Park playing their first game at the 25,000 capacity The Northern Echo Arena on 2 February 2013 against Bromsgrove.

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Wetzel's problem

In mathematics, Wetzel's problem concerns bounds on the cardinality of a set of analytic functions that, for each of their arguments, take on few distinct values. It is named after a mathematician at the University of Illinois at Urbana -- Champaign. Let F be a family of distinct analytic functions on a given domain with the property that, for each x in the domain, the functions in F map x to a countable set of values. In his doctoral dissertation, Wetzel asked whether this assumption implies that F is itself countable. Paul Erdős in turn learned about the problem at the University of Michigan via Lee Albert Rubel. In his paper on the problem, Erdős credited an anonymous mathematician with the observation that, when each x is mapped to a finite set of values, F is finite. However, as Erdős showed, the situation for countable sets is more complicated: the answer to Wetzel's question is yes if and only if the continuum hypothesis is false; that is, the existence of an uncountable set of functions that maps any argument x to a countable set of values is equivalent to the nonexistence of an uncountable set of real numbers whose cardinality is less than the cardinality of the set of all real numbers.

One direction of this equivalence was proven independently, but not published, by another UIUC mathematician, Robert Dan Dixon. It follows from the independence of the continuum hypothesis, proved in 1963 by Paul Cohen, that the answer to Wetzel's problem is independent of ZFC set theory. Erdős' proof is so short and elegant that it is considered to be one of the Proofs from THE BOOK