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Second Great Awakening

The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations; the Methodist Church used circuit riders to reach people in frontier locations. The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform and an emphasis on salvation by institutions; the outpouring of religious fervour and revival began in Kentucky and Tennessee in the 1790s and early 1800s among the Presbyterians and Baptists. During the period, their American population was growing that the great leap westward characterised its territorial expansion; the awakening brought comfort in the face of uncertainty as a result of the socio-political changes in America. This movement is regarded as less charged than the First Great Awakening.

It led to the founding of several colleges and mission societies. The Great Awakening notably altered the religious climate in the American colonies. Ordinary people were encouraged to make a personal connection with God, instead of relying on a minister. Newer denominations, such as Methodists and Baptists, grew quickly. While the movement unified the colonies and boosted church growth, experts say it caused division among those who supported it and those who rejected it. Historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1750s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s; the Second and Third Awakenings were part of a much larger Romantic religious movement, sweeping across England and Germany. New religious movements emerged during the Second Great Awakening, such as Adventism, Dispensationalism, the Latter Day Saint movement. Like the First Great Awakening a half century earlier, the Second Great Awakening in North America reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, an appeal to the supernatural.

It rejected the skepticism, deism and rationalism left over from the American Enlightenment, about the same time that similar movements flourished in Europe. Pietism was sweeping Germanic countries and evangelicalism was waxing strong in England; the Second Great Awakening occurred over different denominations. As the most effective form of evangelizing during this period, revival meetings cut across geographical boundaries; the movement spread throughout Kentucky, Indiana and southern Ohio, as well as other regions of the United States and Canada. Each denomination had assets; the Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on itinerant ministers, known as "circuit riders", who sought out people in remote frontier locations. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. Postmillennialist theology dominated American Protestantism in the first half of the 19th century. Postmillennialists believed that Christ will return to earth after the "Millennium", which could entail either a literal 1,000 years or a figurative "long period" of peace and happiness.

Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return. This duty extended beyond American borders to include Christian Restorationism. George Fredrickson argues that Postmillennial theology "was an impetus to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have pointed out." During the Second Great Awakening of the 1830s, some diviners expected the millennium to arrive in a few years. By the late 1840s, the great day had receded to the distant future, postmillennialism became a more passive religious dimension of the wider middle-class pursuit of reform and progress. In the early days of the nineteenth century, western New York State was called the "burned-over district" because of the publicized revivals that crisscrossed the region. Charles Finney, a leading revivalist active in the area, coined the term. Linda K. Pritchard uses statistical data to show that compared to the rest of New York State, the Ohio River Valley in the lower Midwest, the country as a whole, the religiosity of the Burned-over District was typical rather than exceptional.

On the American frontier, evangelical denominations Methodists and Baptists, sent missionary preachers and exhorters to meet the people in the backcountry in an effort to support the growth of church membership and the formation of new congregations. Another key component of the revivalists' techniques was the camp meeting; these outdoor religious gatherings originated from field meetings and the Scottish Presbyterians' "Holy Fairs", which were brought to America in the mid-eighteenth century from Ireland and Britain's border counties. Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains in present-day Maryland and Virginia, where Presbyterian emigrants and Baptists held large outdoor gatherings in the years prior to the war; the Presbyterians and Methodists sponsored similar gatherings on a regular basis after the Revolution. The denominations that encouraged the revivals were based on an interpretation of man's spiritual equality before God, which led them to recruit members and preachers from a wide range of classes and all races.

Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folk, slaves were converted. In th

The Boat Race 1841

The 5th Boat Race took place on the River Thames on 14 April 1841. It was the fourth of the University Boat Races, a side-by-side rowing competition between the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, to be contested in London; the race was held between Westminster Bridge and Putney Bridge and was won by Cambridge, whose crew featured two pairs of brothers rowing, who defeated Oxford by a distance of 22 lengths in a time of 32 minutes and 30 seconds. The victory took the overall record in the event to 4–1 in Cambridge's favour; the Boat Race is a side-by-side rowing competition between the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. The race was first held in 1829, takes place on the River Thames in southwest London. Cambridge went into the race as reigning champions, having won the previous year's race by three-quarters of a length. There was some disagreement over the day selected for the race in an attempt to coincide with a suitable tide; the Cambridge cox for the 1839 race, Thomas Selby Egan, along with Oxford's R. G. Walls were umpires for the race along with referee Edmund Antrobus from St John's College, Cambridge.

Both universities rowed in boats constructed by Searle of Stangate. The race took place on a five-and-three-quarter-mile stretch of the Thames between Westminster Bridge and Putney Bridge. No arrangements had been made for the police to keep the course clear: according to Cambridge's number seven George Denman "it was ticklish work for the coxswains to decide whether to go ahead or astern of a train of barges catering across the river". According to a report in The Morning Chronicle, "both crews... have agreed that the match will be off if any of the steamers attempt to lead". Oxford arrived at the Thames fifteen days prior the race, rowed the full course. George Denman suffered an injury during practice, struck "by a tremendous blow on the shoulder", all but cured by the application of "just one leech". Oxford's crew was not settled until three days before the race, when they competed against a crew from Leander Club; the Cambridge crew weighed an average of 11 st 4.625 lb, 0.5 pounds per rower more than their Dark Blue opposition.

Cambridge's crew contained three Blues: John Matthew Ridley, Francis Penrose and Charles Marsh Vialls, all of whom had rowed in the previous year's race. Oxford saw the return of four members with Boat Race experience: Jacob G. Mountain, E. Royds, G. Meynell and J. J. T. Somers-Cocks. For the first time in the history of the race, two pairs of brothers rowed for Cambridge, the Crokers and the Denmans. Cambridge were considered favourites for the race as they had won the previous three races on the Thames; the Light Blues won the toss and elected to start at the first arch from the centre of Westminster Bridge on the Surrey side, Oxford from the next arch along. The race commenced at 6:10 p.m. with the Light Blues making the better start, taking an early lead, getting clear by Lambeth. A lead of at least two lengths by Vauxhall Bridge was extended to around six lengths by Battersea Bridge. Cambridge won by 22 lengths in a time of 32 minutes 30 seconds, it took the overall record to 4 -- 1 in their favour.

Despite earlier fears, "the steamers were well managed, offered no obstruction to the boats". Notes Bibliography Burnell, Richard. One Hundred and Fifty Years of the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. Precision Press. ISBN 978-0-9500638-7-4. Dodd, Christopher; the Oxford & Cambridge Boat Race. Stanley Paul. ISBN 978-0-09-151340-5. Drinkwater, G. C.. B.. The University Boat Race – Official Centenary History. Cassell & Company, Ltd. MacMichael, William Fisher; the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Races: From A. D. 1829 to 1869. Deighton. P. 37. Boat race oxford cambridge. Official website

Mar'ashi Najafi Library

The Ayatollah Marashi Najafi Library, in Qom, is the third largest library in Iran, after the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi, the Library of Parliament, as well as being the world's third largest Islamic library, with more than 250,000 books, 25,000 of them online. The library began as the personal library of the founder, Ayatollah Marashi Najafi, a prominent Islamic scholar known for his dedication to religious scholarship and education throughout his life, who began collecting rare texts as a student to keep them from being possessed by the British colonial authorities. Marashi Najafi died shortly after laying the foundation stone of a new library building in 1989, his will states: Bury me at the entrance of the library so that the feet of the researchers of Islamic sciences step beside my grave. Since Najafi's death and management of the library has since passed to his son, Mahmoud Marashi, instructed by his father's will; the library was founded in 1963, with further expansion in 1974 and 1988.

It is situated one hundred yards from the Fatima Masumeh Shrine in Qom, where Marashi Najafi was a cleric, as well as being near his own tomb. The cost of the library was at first financed by its founder and his descendants. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini once remarked that, "the library of Ayatollah Marashi Najafi is an unparalleled library and unrivaled in Iran"; the library contains books in at least 30 different languages, including Turkish and Arabic. The possession and showcasing of Hebrew books once surprised some American and British rabbis, who were guests of the Iranian government, who had allotted 3 hours of time to visit Qom. One rabbi said that he imagined that, Qom being the center of the revolution, Hebrew books would be burned and the ashes scattered to the wind. So charmed were the rabbis that they devoted the entire time of their stay in Qom to visiting the library; as of 2003, rare books, lithographs amounted to 60,000 in number, including 31,000 volumes on manuscript basics and ideas.

Among these volumes are unique texts of many famous Islamic authors. The most ancient of these treasures show the history of the Qur'an from the late 2nd and 3rd centuries A. H.. There are more than 4,000 volumes of photographs of manuscripts, as well as 12,200 microfilms and lists of books of the 10th and 11th centuries—printed in Arabic, Turkish and Armenian—as well as more than 30,000 rare lithographs. There are over 1,500,000 printed books in Persian, Turkish and other non-Latin languages; this collection is housed on three floors of the new buildings. There is an archival library of books of Communist and anti-Islamic groups; the periodical section has more than 2,500 journals and newspapers in Persian, Arabic and Urdu, as well as a number of old magazines and newspapers, in lithograph, from the time of the Qajar dynasty. Handwritten documents over the previous five centuries number 500,000 so far; these include edicts—of kings, rulers—regarding marriage, etc. Non-literary objects in the library include coins, old photo albums, other old color and black-and-white photos, astrolabes and video tapes, computer disks.

There are old and new geographic maps and atlases of the world, geographic references in different languages. The works of the library founder, Marashi Najafi, to be put on display. Public Service: Great Hall of Avicenna, Seminary Hall, Hall of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Hall of Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, the book store. Special Resources and Services Center: the cataloging and correction of Islamic manuscripts, etc. Protection Center Resource Library: this center will be for the care, re-binding of books, handwritten documents, etc. Technical Service Center: the center for the selection, registering and cataloging of books, as well as a documentation center, computer center. Computer Center: established in 1996 to develop a centralized information system, provide technical support, standardise cataloging, manage collection and computer network development. In this section are catalogers and bibliographers maintaining a written list of manuscripts in the library, having published thirty volumes of the catalog so far, anticipating 60 volumes in total.

Center for Qom History: this is the center of the collection of books and articles about Qom, which are in different languages, including genealogies. Center for World Libraries: this center was established in 1990, in order to maintain a guide to libraries that have Islamic manuscript collections. Official site Ayatollah Marashi Najafi Library