Plombières-les-Bains is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in eastern France. It was the seat of the former canton of Plombières-les-Bains. Les bains refers to the hot springs in the area, whose properties were first discovered by the Romans. In succeeding centuries, its baths were visited by Montaigne, the Dukes of Guise, the Dukes of Lorraine, Napoleon Bonaparte, Joséphine de Beauharnais, Napoléon III, Berlioz and Alfred de Musset; the "Pavilion of the Princes" at Plombières, was renamed following the meeting on 21 July 1858 between Napoleon III and Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, who secretly negotiated the “Plombières Agreement” as they sat alone together in a small horse-drawn carriage progressing round and round the town. This accord granted French aid to the cause of Piedmont-Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in return for the territories of Savoy and Nice, which thereafter became French. In Russia, the highest of the state standard quality categories of ice cream, containing at least 12% butterfat, is known as "plombir", a slight distortion of the pronunciation of "Plombières" in Russian.
According to Dmitry Ushakov's Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language and Max Vasmer's authoritative "Etymological dictionary of the Russian language", plombir is named after Plombières, whose name has been associated with extravagant frozen desserts since the late eighteenth century. Communes of the Vosges department Office du tourisme des Vosges méridionales Official site Association "Le Marché de Noël" Compagnie Thermale de Plombières-les-Bains Plombières-les-Bains sur le site de l'Institut géographique national Plombières-les-Bains sur le site du Quid Localisation de Plombières-les-Bains sur une carte de France et communes limitrophes
First Italian War of Independence
The First Italian War of Independence was part of the Italian unification or Risorgimento. It was fought by the Kingdom of Sardinia and Italian volunteers against the Austrian Empire and other conservative states from 23 March 1848 to 22 August 1849 in the Italian peninsula; the conflict was preceded by the outbreak of the Sicilian revolution of 1848 against the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. It was precipitated by riots in the cities of Milan and Venice, which rebelled from Austria and established their own governments; the part of the conflict, fought by King Charles Albert against Austria in northern Italy was a Royal war and consisted of two campaigns. In both campaigns, the Kingdom of Sardinia attacked the Austrian Empire and after initial victories was decisively defeated, losing the war as a result; the decisive events of the first and second campaigns were the battles at Custoza and Novara, respectively. At the beginning of the royal war, the Kingdom of Sardinia was supported by the Papal States and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, which withdrew, having participated in the fighting at all.
However, volunteers from the Papal and Neapolitan armies joined the other Italian volunteers and fought against Austria. Alongside the royal war, revolutionary movements took place in various Italian states, part of the Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states, which could not be reconciled with the Liberal ideals of Piedmont. Historiography treats these revolutions, as well as the Sicilian revolution of 23 March 1848, as a popular war, which failed, ending in the restoration of traditional institutions and many rebels forced into exile. In the popular war with the internal revolutionaries, the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and the Papal States found themselves on the opposite side to the one they were on in the royal war, in which they supported Piedmont; the popular war first gave prominence to the military commander, Giuseppe Garibaldi, but he was defeated, as was King Charles Albert, who abdicated at the end of the war in favour of his eldest son, Victor Emmanuel. In 1848 revolutionary riots broke out in many parts of Europe, including numerous places in the Apennines and other parts of Italy.
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies was forced to grant a constitution on 23 January and his example was followed by Leopold II of Tuscany on 17 February, Charles Albert of Piedmont on 17 February, Pius IX on 14 March. Charles II, Duke of Parma was ousted. Sicily, excepting Messina, revolted against the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. On 23 February, the French Revolution of 1848 broke out against Louis Philippe. In March, the revolts spread into the Austrian Empire, where Milan and Venice rebelled from the House of Habsburg; the battles were heated in Milan, where the commander of the army of Lombardy-Venetia, Marshal Josef Radetzky, was forced to abandon the city. As a result of this, other revolts broke out such as that at Como. With Vienna itself in revolt, the Austrian Empire was tottering. On 23 March, one day after the end of the Five Days of Milan, King Charles Albert of Sardinia declared war on Austria, he was spurred to this by the desire to avoid a revolution in his own country, itself a liberal monarchy, by the hope that he could use the rebellions in Lombardy-Venetia as an opportunity to expand his own kingdom.
Thus began the first Italian war of independence. As a result of the revolts of Milan and Venice, from 23 March 1848, the Austrians had to retreat into the Quadrilateral fortresses which formed the defensive nucleus of the Habsburg army in Lombardy-Venetia. To the east and south of the Quadrilateral, forces of volunteers from the Italian states began to gather in order to fight against the Austrians; the Austrian forces only able to maintain links to the motherland via a corridor to the north, running along the east coast of Lake Garda. The army of the Kingdom of Sardinia was mobilised on 1 March 1848, at the beginning of the revolt in Milan, was at 4/5 strength, with about 65,000 men; the Piedmontese army was headed by Charles Albert, Minister for War General Antonio Franzini, General Eusebio Bava. The latter directly commanded the 1st armed corps, consisting of two divisions under Generals Federico Millet d'Arvillars and Vittorio Garretti di Ferrere; the 2nd armed corps was directed by Ettore De Sonnaz, with Giovanni Battista Federici and Mario Broglia commanding its two divisions.
The 5th division, containing the reserves, was under the command of Charles Albert's heir Victor Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy. Command of the artillery fell to Ferdinand of Savoy, Duke of Genoa. Before crossing the Ticino river, which marked the border between the Kingdom of Sardinia and Lombardy-Venetia, Charles Albert decided that the war flag would be the Italian tricolor with the Savoyard arms at the centre. All the other monarchies of the peninsula, forced to join the war against Austria due to public sentiment in their respective countries brought military contingents to Lombardy-Venetia, but without conviction; the first to arrive was the Papal Army, with a contingent of 17–18,000 men. It consisted of a regular division under the command of the Piedmontese Giovanni Durando and a second division made up of the Mobile Civic Guard and of volunteers under the republican Andrea Ferrari; the armed corps entered Lombardy-Venetia from the Apostolic legation of Ferrara. A group of around 130 volunteers, called the Bersag
Battle of Solferino
The Battle of Solferino on 24 June 1859 resulted in the victory of the allied French Army under Napoleon III and Sardinian Army under Victor Emmanuel II against the Austrian Army under Emperor Franz Joseph I. It was the last major battle in world history where all the armies were under the personal command of their monarchs. 300,000 soldiers fought in the important battle, the largest since the Battle of Leipzig in 1813. There were about 130,000 Austrian troops and a combined total of 140,000 French and allied Piedmontese troops. After the battle, the Austrian Emperor refrained from further direct command of the army; the battle led the Swiss Jean-Henri Dunant to write A Memory of Solferino. Although he did not witness the battle, he toured the field following the battle and was moved by what he saw. Horrified by the suffering of wounded soldiers left on the battlefield, Dunant set about a process that led to the Geneva Conventions and the establishment of the International Red Cross; the Battle of Solferino was a decisive engagement in the Second Italian War of Independence, a crucial step in the Italian Risorgimento.
The war's geopolitical context was the nationalist struggle to unify Italy, which had long been divided among France, Austria and numerous independent Italian states. The battle took place near the villages of Solferino and San Martino, south of Lake Garda between Milan and Verona; the confrontation was between the Austrians, on one side, the French and Piedmontese forces, who opposed their advance. In the morning of 23 June, after the arrival of emperor Franz Joseph, the Austrian army changed direction to counterattack along the river Chiese. At the same time, Napoleon III ordered his troops to advance, causing the battle to occur in an unpredicted location. While the Piedmontese fought the Austrian right wing near San Martino, the French battled to the south of them near Solferino against the main Austrian corps; the Austrian forces were led by their militarily inexperienced 29-year-old emperor, Franz Joseph, were divided into two field armies: 1st Army, containing three corps, under Franz von Wimpffen and 2nd Army, containing four corps under Franz von Schlick.
The French army at Solferino led by Napoleon III, was divided in four Corps plus the Imperial Guard. Many of its men and generals were veterans of the French conquest of Algeria and the Crimean War, but its commander-in-chief had no military experience of note; the Sardinian army had four divisions on the field. Although all three combatants were commanded by their monarchs, each was seconded by professional soldiers. Marshal Jean-Baptiste Philibert Vaillant served as Chief of Staff to Napoleon III, while Victor Emmanuel was accompanied by his Minister of War, Lieutenant General Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora; the Austrian high command was hindered by the rivalry between the Chief of Staff, Heinrich von Heß, the Emperor's Adjutant General Karl Ludwig von Grünne. According to the allied battle plan formulated on 24 June, the Franco-Sardinian army moved east to deploy along the right river banks of the Mincio; the French were to occupy the villages of Solferino, Cavriana and Medole with the 1st Corps, 2nd Corps, 3rd Corps, 4th Corps.
The four Sardinian divisions were to take Pozzolengo. After marching a few kilometers, the allies came into contact with the Austrian troops, who had entrenched themselves in those villages. In the absence of a fixed battle plan, the fighting which took place was uncoordinated, why so many casualties occurred, it fell into three separate engagements, at Medole and San Martino; the battle started at Medole around 4 am. Marching towards Guidizzolo, the 4th Corps encountered an Austrian infantry regiment of the Austrian 1st Army. General Niel decided to engage the enemy and deployed his forces east of Medole; this move prevented the three corps of the Austrian 1st Army from aiding their comrades of the 2nd Army near Solferino, where the main French attacks took place. The French forces were numerically inferior to the Austrians'; the 4th Corps contained three infantry divisions under de Luzy and Failly and a cavalry brigade. Niel, holding a thin line of 5 kilometres in length, was able to stop the Austrian assaults on his position by ably warding off attacks and counterattacking at opportune moments.
After 15 hours of combat the Austrians retreated. Around 4:30 am the advance guard of the 1st Corps came into contact with the Austrian V Corps under Stadion near Castiglione delle Stiviere. Around 5 am 2nd Corps under Mac-Mahon encountered; the Austrian forces were three corps strong and positioned on the towns of Solferino and Volta Mantovana. The Austrians were able to hold these positions all day against repeated French attacks. Near 3 pm the French reserves, formed by Canrobert's 3rd Corps and the Imperial Guard under Regnaud, attacked Cavriana, defended by the Austrian I Corps under Clam-Gallas occupying it at 6 pm and thereby breaking through the Austrian center; this breakthrough forced a general retreat of both Austrian armies. On the no
Kingdom of Sardinia
The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. When it was acquired by the Duke of Savoy in 1720, it was a former Iberian state as well as a member of the Council of Aragon. However, the Savoyards united it with their possessions on the Italian mainland and, by the time of the Crimean War in 1853, had built the resulting kingdom into a strong power; the composite state under the rule of Savoy in this period may be called Savoy-Sardinia or Piedmont-Sardinia, or the Kingdom of Piedmont to emphasise that the island of Sardinia had always been of secondary importance to the monarchy. The formal name of the entire Savoyard state was the "States of His Majesty the King of Sardinia", its final capital was the capital of Savoy since the mid 16th century. The kingdom consisted of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, sovereignty over both of, claimed by the Papacy, which granted them as a fief, the regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae, to King James II of Aragon in 1297.
Beginning in 1324, James and his successors conquered the island of Sardinia and established de facto their de jure authority. In 1420, after the Sardinian-Catalan War, the last competing claim to the island was bought out. After the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, Sardinia became a part of the burgeoning Spanish Empire. In 1720, the island was ceded by the Habsburg and Bourbon claimants to the Spanish throne to Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy. While in theory the traditional capital of the island of Sardinia and seat of its viceroys was Cagliari, the Piedmontese city of Turin was the de facto capital of Savoy; when the mainland domains of the House of Savoy were occupied and annexed by Napoleonic France, the king of Sardinia made his permanent residence on the island for the first time in its history. The Congress of Vienna, which restructured Europe after Napoleon's defeat, returned to Savoy its mainland possessions and augmented them with Liguria, taken from the Republic of Genoa.
In 1847–48, through the "Perfect Fusion", the various Savoyard states were unified under one legal system with their capital in Turin, granted a constitution, the Statuto Albertino. There followed the annexation of Lombardy, the central Italian states and the Two Sicilies and the Papal States. On 17 March 1861, to more reflect its new geographic extent, the Kingdom of Sardinia changed its name to the Kingdom of Italy, its capital was moved first to Florence and to Rome; the Savoy-led Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was thus the legal predecessor of the Kingdom of Italy, which in turn is the predecessor of the present-day Italian Republic. In 238 BC Sardinia became, along with a province of the Roman Empire; the Romans ruled the island until the middle of the 5th century, when it was occupied by the Vandals, who had settled in north Africa. In 534 AD it was reconquered by the Romans, but now from Byzantium, it remained a Byzantine province until the Arab conquest of Sicily in the 9th century. After that, communications with Constantinople became difficult, powerful families of the island assumed control of the land.
Facing Arab attempts to sack and conquer, while having no outside help, Sardinia utilized the principle of translatio imperii and continued to organize itself along the ancient Roman and Byzantine model. The island was not the personal property of the ruler and of his family, as was the dominant practice in western Europe, but rather a separate entity and during the Byzantine Empire, a monarchical republic, as it had been since Roman times. Starting from 705–706, Saracens from north Africa harassed the population of the coastal cities. Information about the Sardinian political situation in the following centuries is scarce. Due to Saracen attacks, in the 9th century Tharros was abandoned in favor of Oristano, after more than 1800 years of occupation. There is a record of another massive Saracen sea attack in 1015–16 from the Balearics, commanded by Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī; the Saracen attempt to invade the island was stopped by the Judicates with the support of the fleets of the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa, free cities of the Holy Roman Empire.
Pope Benedict VIII requested aid from the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa in the struggle against the Arabs. After the Great Schism, Rome made many efforts to restore Latinity to the Sardinian church and society, to reunify the island under one Catholic ruler, as it had been for all of southern Italy, when the Byzantines had been driven away by Catholic Normans; the title of "Judge" was a Byzantine reminder of the Greek church and state, in times of harsh relations between eastern and western churches. Before the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica, the Archons or, in Latin, who reigned in the island from the 9th or 10th century until the beginning of the 11th century, can be considered real kings of all Sardinia though nominal vassals of the Byzantine emperors. Of these sovereigns only two names are known: Turcoturiu and
Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first elected President of France from 1848 to 1852. When he could not constitutionally be re-elected, he seized power in 1851 and became the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870, he founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor until the defeat of the French army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the overseas empire, engaged in the Crimean War and the war for Italian unification. After his defeat and downfall he went into exile and died in England in 1873. Napoleon III commissioned the grand reconstruction of Paris, carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann, he launched similar public works projects in Marseille and other French cities. Napoleon III modernized the French banking system expanded and consolidated the French railway system and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world.
He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, which ended famines in France and made France an agricultural exporter. Napoleon III negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with France's other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving French workers the right to organize; the first women students were admitted at the Sorbonne, women's education expanded as did the list of required subjects in public schools. In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence around the world, he was a supporter of popular sovereignty and of nationalism. In Europe, he defeated Russia in the Crimean War, his regime assisted Italian unification and in doing so annexed Savoy and the County of Nice to France—at the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy. Napoleon III doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific and Africa, however his army's intervention in Mexico, which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection, ended in total failure.
From 1866, Napoleon had to face the mounting power of Prussia as its Chancellor Otto von Bismarck sought German unification under Prussian leadership. In July 1870, Napoleon entered the Franco-Prussian War without allies and with inferior military forces; the French army was defeated and Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan. The Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris and Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873. Charles-Louis Napoleon Bonaparte known as Louis Napoleon and Napoleon III, was born in Paris on the night of 20–21 April 1808, his presumed father was Louis Bonaparte, the younger brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made Louis the King of Holland from 1806 until 1810. His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the only daughter of Napoleon's wife Joséphine de Beauharnais by her first marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais; as empress, Joséphine proposed the marriage as a way to produce an heir for the Emperor, who agreed, as Joséphine was by infertile. Louis married Hortense when he was twenty-four and she was nineteen.
They had a difficult relationship, only lived together for brief periods. Their first son died in 1807 and—though separated—they decided to have a third, they resumed their marriage for a brief time in Toulouse in July 1807, Louis was born prematurely, two weeks short of nine months. Louis-Napoleon's enemies, including Victor Hugo, spread the gossip that he was the child of a different man, but most historians agree today that he was the legitimate son of Louis Bonaparte. Charles-Louis was baptized at the Palace of Fontainebleau on 5 November 1810, with Emperor Napoleon serving as his godfather and Empress Marie-Louise as his godmother, his father stayed away. At the age of seven, Louis-Napoleon visited his uncle at the Tuileries Palace in Paris. Napoleon held him up to the window to see the soldiers parading in the courtyard of the Carousel below, he last saw his uncle with the family at the Château de Malmaison, shortly before Napoleon departed for Waterloo. All members of the Bonaparte dynasty were forced into exile after the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo and the Bourbon Restoration of monarchy in France.
Hortense and Louis-Napoleon moved from Aix to Berne to Baden, to a lakeside house at Arenenberg in the Swiss canton of Thurgau. He received some of his education in Germany at the gymnasium school at Bavaria; as a result, for the rest of his life his French had a noticeable German accent. His tutor at home was Philippe Le Bas, an ardent republican and the son of a revolutionary and close friend of Robespierre. Le Bas taught him radical politics; when Louis-Napoleon was fifteen, Hortense moved to Rome. He passed his time learning Italian, exploring the ancient ruins, learning the arts of seduction and romantic affairs, which he used in his life, he became friends with the French Ambassador, François-René Chateaubriand, the father of romanticism in French literature, with whom he remained in contact for many years. He was reunited with his older brother Napoléon Louis, together they became involved with the Carbonari, secret revolutionary societies fighting Austria's domination of northern Italy.
In the spring of 1831, when he was twenty-three, the Austrian and papal governments launched an offensive against the Carbonari, the two brothers, wanted by the police, were forced to flee. During their flight Napoleon-Louis contracted measles and, on 17 March 1831, died i
Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour
Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour and Leri known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. He was one of the leaders of the Historical Right, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, a position he maintained throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy. After the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as the first Prime Minister of Italy. Cavour put forth several economic reforms in his native region of Piedmont in his earlier years, founded the political newspaper Il Risorgimento. After being elected to the Chamber of Deputies, he rose in rank through the Piedmontese government, coming to dominate the Chamber of Deputies through a union of left-center and right-center politicians. After a large rail system expansion program, Cavour became prime minister in 1852; as prime minister, Cavour negotiated Piedmont's way through the Crimean War, the Second Italian War of Independence, Garibaldi's expeditions, managing to maneuver Piedmont diplomatically to become a new great power in Europe, controlling a nearly united Italy, five times as large as Piedmont had been before he came to power.
English historian Denis Mack Smith says Cavour was the most successful parliamentarian in Italian history but he was not democratic. Cavour was dictatorial, ignored his ministerial colleagues and parliament, interfered in parliamentary elections, he practiced trasformismo and other policies which were carried over into post-Risorgimento Italy. Camillo Benso was born in Turin during Napoleonic rule, into a family that had gained a fair amount of land during the French occupation, he was the second of two sons of Michele Giuseppe Francesco Antonio Benso, 4th Marquess of Cavour and Count of Isolabella and Leri, Lord of Corveglia, Mondonio and Ponticelli, Co-Lord of Castagnole and Menabi, Chieri, San Salvatore Monferrato and Valfenera, 1st Baron of the French Empire and his wife Adélaïde Suzanne, Marchioness of Sellon, herself of French origin. His godparents were Napoleon's sister Pauline, her husband, Prince Camillo Borghese, after whom Camillo was named. Camillo and his older brother Gustavo were educated at home.
He was sent to the Turin Military Academy. In July 1824 he was named a page to the king of Piedmont. Cavour ran afoul of the authorities in the academy, as he was too headstrong to deal with the rigid military discipline, he was once forced to live three days on bread and water because he had been caught with books that the academy had banned. He was found to be apt at the mathematical disciplines, was therefore enlisted in the Engineer Corps in the Piedmontese-Sardinian army in 1827. While in the army, he studied the English language as well as the works of Jeremy Bentham and Benjamin Constant, developing liberal tendencies which made him suspect to police forces at the time, he resigned his commission in the army in November 1831, both because of boredom with military life and because of his dislike of the reactionary policies of King Charles Albert. He administered the family estate at Grinzane, some forty kilometers outside the capital, serving as mayor there from 1832 to the revolutionary upheaval of 1848.
Cavour lived for a time in Switzerland, with his Protestant relatives in Geneva. He grew acquainted with Calvinist teachings, for a short while he converted from a form of unorthodox Catholicism, only to go back later. A Reformed pastor, Alexandre Vinet, impressed upon Cavour the need for the separation of church and state, a doctrine Cavour followed for the remainder of his life, he traveled to Paris where he was impressed by parliamentary debates those of François Guizot and Adolphe Thiers, confirming his devotion to a political career. He next went to London, where he was much more disappointed by British politics, toured the country, visiting Oxford, Birmingham, Chester and Manchester. A quick tour through the Netherlands and Switzerland landed him back in Turin. Cavour believed that economic progress had to precede political change, stressed the advantages of railroad construction in the peninsula, he was a strong supporter of transportation by steam engine, sponsoring the building of many railroads and canals.
Between 1838 and 1842 Cavour began several initiatives in attempts to solve economic problems in his area. He experimented with different agricultural techniques on his estate, such as growing sugar beets, was one of the first Italian landowners to use chemical fertilizers, he founded the Piedmontese Agricultural Society. In his spare time, he again traveled extensively in France and the United Kingdom; the first "liberal" moves of Pope Pius IX and the political upheavals of 1848 spawned a new movement of Italian liberalism, allowing Cavour to enter the political arena, no longer in fear of the police. He gave a speech in front of numerous journalists in favor of a constitution for Piedmont, granted. Cavour, unlike several other political thinkers, was not at first offered a position in the new Chamber of Deputies, as he was still a somewhat suspicious character to the nation. Cavour never planned for the establishment of a united country, later during his Premiership his