Socialist Party (France)
The Socialist Party is a social-democratic political party in France and was, for decades, the largest party of the French centre-left. The PS used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic, along with the Republicans; the Socialist Party replaced the earlier French Section of the Workers' International in 1969, is led by First Secretary Olivier Faure. The PS is a member of the Party of European Socialists, the Socialist International and the Progressive Alliance; the PS first won power in 1981, when its candidate François Mitterrand was elected President of France in the 1981 presidential election. Under Mitterrand, the party achieved a governing majority in the National Assembly from 1981 to 1986 and again from 1988 to 1993. PS leader Lionel Jospin lost his bid to succeed Mitterrand as president in the 1995 presidential election against Rally for the Republic leader Jacques Chirac, but became prime minister in a cohabitation government after the 1997 parliamentary elections, a position Jospin held until 2002, when he was again defeated in the presidential election.
In 2007, the party's candidate for the presidential election, Ségolène Royal, was defeated by conservative UMP candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. The Socialist party won most of regional and local elections and it won control of the Senate in 2011 for the first time in more than fifty years. On 6 May 2012, François Hollande, the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, was elected President of France, the next month, the party won the majority in the National Assembly; the PS formed several figures who acted at the international level: Jacques Delors, the eighth President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1994 and the first person to serve three terms in that office, was from the Socialist Party, as well as Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 2007 to 2011, Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 2005 to 2013. The party had 42,300 members in 2016, down from 60,000 in 2014 and 173,486 members in 2012.
The defeat of the Paris commune reduced the power and influence of the socialist movements in France. Its leaders were exiled. France's first socialist party, the Federation of the Socialist Workers of France, was founded in 1879, it was characterised as "possibilist". Two parties split off from it: in 1882, the French Workers' Party of Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue in 1890 the Revolutionary Socialist Workers' Party of Jean Allemane. At the same time, the heirs of Louis Auguste Blanqui, a symbol of the French revolutionary tradition, created the Central Revolutionary Committee led by Édouard Vaillant. There were some declared socialist deputies such as Alexandre Millerand and Jean Jaurès who did not belong to any party. In 1899, the participation of Millerand in Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet caused a debate about socialist participation in a "bourgeois government". Three years Jaurès, Allemane and the possibilists founded the possibilist French Socialist Party, which supported participation in government, while Guesde and Vaillant formed the Socialist Party of France, which opposed such co-operation.
In 1905, during the Globe Congress, the two groups merged in the French Section of the Workers International. Leader of the parliamentary group and director of the party paper L'Humanité, Jaurès was its most influential figure; the party was hemmed in between the middle-class liberals of the Radical Party and the revolutionary syndicalists who dominated the trade unions. Furthermore, the goal to rally all the Socialists in one single party was reached: some elects refused to join the SFIO and created the Republican-Socialist Party, which supported socialist participation in liberal governments. Together with the Radicals, who wished to install laicism, the SFIO was a component of the Left Block without to sit in the government. In 1906, the General Confederation of Labour trade union claimed its independence from all political parties; the French socialists were anti-war, but following the assassination of Jaurès in 1914 they were unable to resist the wave of militarism which followed the outbreak of World War I.
They suffered a severe split over participation in the wartime government of national unity. In 1919 the anti-war socialists were defeated in elections. In 1920, during the Tours Congress, the majority and left wing of the party broke away and formed the French Section of the Communist International to join the Third International founded by Vladimir Lenin; the right wing, led by Léon Blum, kept the "old house" and remained in the SFIO. In 1924 and in 1932, the Socialists joined with the Radicals in the Coalition of the Left, but refused to join the non-Socialist governments led by the Radicals Édouard Herriot and Édouard Daladier; these governments failed because the Socialists and the Radicals could not agree on economic policy, because the Communists, following the policy laid down by the Soviet Union, refused to support governments presiding over capitalist economies. The question of the possibility of a government participation with Radicals caused the split of "neosocialists" at the beginning of the 1930s.
They merged with the Republican-Socialist Party in the Socialist Republican Union. In 1934, the Communists changed their line, the four left-wing parties came together in the Popular Front, which won the 1936 elections and brought Blum to power as France's first SFIO Prime Minister. Indeed, for the first time in its history, the SFIO obtained more votes and seats than the Ra
National Assembly (France)
The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate. The National Assembly's members are known as députés. There are 577 députés, each elected by a single-member constituency through a two-round voting system. Thus, 289 seats are required for a majority; the assembly is presided over by a president from the largest party represented, assisted by vice-presidents from across the represented political spectrum. The term of the National Assembly is five years; this measure is becoming rarer since the 2000 referendum reduced the presidential term from seven to five years: a President has a majority elected in the Assembly two months after the presidential election, it would be useless for him/her to dissolve it for those reasons. Following a tradition started by the first National Assembly during the French Revolution, the "left-wing" parties sit to the left as seen from the president's seat, the "right-wing" parties sit to the right, the seating arrangement thus directly indicates the political spectrum as represented in the Assembly.
The official seat of the National Assembly is the Palais Bourbon on the banks of the river Seine. It is guarded by Republican Guards; the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic increased the power of the executive at the expense of Parliament, compared to previous constitutions. The President of the Republic can decide to dissolve the National Assembly and call for new legislative elections; this is meant as a way to resolve stalemates where the Assembly cannot decide on a clear political direction. This possibility is exercised; the last dissolution was by Jacques Chirac in 1997, following from the lack of popularity of prime minister Alain Juppé. The National Assembly can overthrow the executive government by a motion of no confidence. For this reason, the prime minister and his cabinet are from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly. In the case of a president and assembly from opposing parties, this leads to the situation known as cohabitation. While motions de censure are periodically proposed by the opposition following government actions that it deems inappropriate, they are purely rhetorical.
Since the beginning of the Fifth Republic, there has only been one single successful motion de censure, in 1962 in hostility to the referendum on the method of election of the President, President Charles de Gaulle dissolved the Assembly within a few days. The government used to set the priorities of the agenda for the assembly's sessions, except for a single day each month. In practice, given the number of priority items, it meant that the schedule of the assembly was entirely set by the executive. This, was amended on 23 July 2008. Under the amended constitution, the government sets the priorities for two weeks in a month. Another week is designated for the assembly's "control" prerogatives, and the fourth one is set by the assembly. One day per month is set by a "minority" or "opposition" group. Members of the assembly can ask oral questions to ministers; the Wednesday afternoon 3 p.m. session of "questions to the Government" is broadcast live on television. Like Prime Minister's Questions in Britain, it is a show for the viewers, with members of the majority asking flattering questions, while the opposition tries to embarrass the government.
The history of national representation for two centuries is linked to history of the democratic principle and the uneven road that it had to go before finding in the French institutions the consecration, its own today. Although the French have periodically elected representatives since 1789, the mode of appointment and the powers of these representatives have varied according to the times, the periods of erasure of the parliamentary institution coinciding with a decline in public liberties. In this respect, the names are not innocent; the name of National Assembly, chosen in the fervor of 1789, just reappears - if we except the short parenthesis of 1848 - in 1946. In the meantime, more or less reductive appellations "Instituted by the Constitution of the year III in August 1795," Chamber of deputies of the departments "," House of Representatives "," Legislative body "," Chambers of deputies ", etc.) which show, to varying degrees, the reluctance or the declared hostility of some governments or governments to the principle
Minister of Labour (France)
The Minister of Social Affairs and Employment is a cabinet member in the Government of France. The position was known as Minister of Labour, created in 1906, Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions. After its 1906 creation, the Inspection du travail service was integrated to it. After the Second World War, the position was renamed Minister of Social Affairs. In its current state, the position was brought back in 1981 under the presidency of François Mitterrand—as a result of the economic situation of France in the 1980s—to oversee issues of social exclusion, racism and social justice; the seat of the ministry is the hôtel du Châtelet, an 18th-century neoclassical palace located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. René Viviani Louis Lafferre Joseph Paul-Boncour René Renoult Léon Bourgeois René Besnard Henry Chéron Albert Métin Jean-Baptiste Abel Maurice Couyba Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin Albert Métin Étienne Clémentel Léon Bourgeois André Renard Pierre Colliard Paul Jourdain Daniel Vincent Albert Peyronnet Daniel Vincent Paul Jourdain Justin Godart Antoine Durafour Louis Pasquet André Fallières Louis Loucheur Pierre Laval Édouard Grinda Adolphe Landry Pierre Laval Albert Dalimier François Albert Eugène Frot Lucien Lamoureux Eugène Frot Jean Valadier Adrien Marquet Paul Jacquier Ludovic-Oscar Frossard Jean-Baptiste Lebas André Février Paul Ramadier Albert Sérol Paul Ramadier Charles Pomaret André Février Charles Pomaret René Belin Hubert Lagardelle Jean Bichelonne Marcel Déat Adrien Tixier René Sanson Alexandre Parodi Ambroise Croizat Daniel Mayer Ambroise Croizat Robert Lacoste Daniel Mayer Pierre Ségelle Paul Bacon Pierre Garet Paul Bacon Eugène Claudius-Petit Louis-Paul Aujoulat Paul Bacon Albert Gazier Paul Bacon Jean-Marcel Jeanneney Maurice Schumann Edgar Faure Nicole Questiaux Pierre Bérégovoy Georgina Dufoix Philippe Séguin Michel Delebarre Claude Évin Jean-Louis Bianco René Teulade Simone Veil Colette Codaccioni Eric Raoult Jacques Barrot Jean-Claude Gaudin Martine Aubry Élisabeth Guigou François Fillon Jean-Louis Borloo Xavier Bertrand Brice Hortefeux Xavier Darcos Éric Woerth Xavier Bertrand Michel Sapin/Marisol Touraine Muriel Pénicaud
Yellow vests movement
The yellow vests movement or yellow jackets movement is a populist, grassroots political movement for economic justice that began in France in November 2018. After an online petition posted in May had attracted nearly a million signatures, mass demonstrations began on 17 November; the movement is motivated by rising fuel prices, high cost of living, claims that a disproportionate burden of the government's tax reforms were falling on the working and middle classes in rural and peri-urban areas. The protesters have called for lower fuel taxes, reintroduction of the solidarity tax on wealth, a minimum wage increase, the implementation of Citizens' initiative referendums and Emmanuel Macron's resignation as President of France and his government; the movement spans the political spectrum. According to one poll, few of those protesting had voted for Macron in the 2017 French presidential election, many had either not voted, or had voted for far-right or far-left candidates. Rising fuel prices sparked the demonstrations, yellow high-visibility vests, which French law required all drivers to have in their vehicles and to wear during emergencies, were chosen as "a unifying thread and call to arms" because of their convenience, visibility and association with working-class industries.
The protests have involved the blocking of roads and fuel depots. Some of the protests developed into major riots, described as the most violent since those of May 1968, the police response, resulting in multiple incidences of loss of limb, has been criticised by international media. Since the French yellow vests or Gilets jaunes movement has gained international attention, protesters—some with similar grievances and others unrelated—have used the yellow vest symbol in many places around the world; the issue on which the French movement centred at first was the projected 2019 increase in fuel taxes on diesel fuel. The yellow vest became the symbol of the protests, as the French are required to have a yellow vest in their vehicles. Low in early 2018, French President Emmanuel Macron's approval rating had dipped below 25% at the beginning of the movement; the government's method of curbing the budget deficit had proven unpopular, with Macron being dubbed the "président des très riches" by his former boss, François Hollande.
Late in June 2017, Macron's Minister of Justice, François Bayrou, had come under pressure to resign, due to the ongoing investigation into the financial arrangements of the political party he presides. During a radio interview in August 2018, Nicolas Hulot had resigned from the Ministry of the Environment, without telling either the President or the Prime Minister of his plans to do so. Criticized for his role in the Benalla affair, Gérard Collomb tried to resign in October 2018 as Minister of the Interior—leaving himself with only two jobs, i.e. senator and mayor of Lyon—but saw his resignation refused finally accepted. In the 1950s, diesel engines were used only in heavy equipment so, to help the post-war productive effort, the French government granted lower taxes; the 1979 oil crisis prompted efforts to curb petrol use, while taking advantage of diesel fuel availability and diesel engine efficiency. The French manufacturer Peugeot has been at the forefront of diesel technology, from the 1980s, the French government favoured this technology.
A reduction in VAT taxes for corporate fleets increased the prevalence of diesel cars in France. The price of petrol decreased during 2018, from €1.47 per litre in January to €1.43 per litre in the last week of November. Prices of petrol and diesel fuel increased by 15 percent and 23 percent between October 2017 and October 2018; the world market purchase price of petrol for distributors increased by 28 percent over the previous year. Costs of distribution increased by 40 percent. VAT included, diesel taxes increased by 14 percent over one petrol taxes by 7.5 percent. The tax increase had been 7.6 cents per litre on diesel and 3.9 cents on petrol in 2018, with a further increase of 6.5 cents on diesel and 2.9 cents on petrol planned for 1 January 2019. The taxes collected on the sale of fuel are: The domestic consumption tax on energy products, not calculated based on the price of oil, but rather at a fixed rate by volume. Part of this tax, paid at the pump, goes to regional governments, while another portion goes to the national government.
Since 2014, this tax has included a carbon component—increased each year—in an effort to reduce fossil fuel consumption. The TICPE for diesel fuel was raised in 2017 and 2018 to bring it to the same level as the tax on petrol. Value added tax, calculated on the sum of the price excluding tax and the TICPE, its rate has been stable at 20 percent since 2014, after having been at 19.6 percent between 2000 and 2014. The protest movement against fuel prices concerns individuals, as a number of professions and activities benefit from partial or total exemptions from TICPE; the protesters criticized Édouard Philippe's second government for making individuals liable for the bulk of the cost of the carbon tax. As the carbon tax has progressively been ramping up to meet ecological objectives, many who have chosen fossil fuel-based heating for their homes, outside of city centres—where a car is required—are displeased. President Macron attempted to dispel these concerns in early November by offering special subsidies and incentives.
Diesel prices in France increased by 16 percent in 2018, with taxes on both petrol and diesel increasing at
First Philippe government
The first Philippe government was the fortieth government in the Fifth Republic of France. It was the first government formed by Édouard Philippe under President Emmanuel Macron, prior to the 2017 legislative elections. On 15 May 2017, Édouard Philippe was appointed as Prime Minister by president Emmanuel Macron. Deputy MinistersSecretaries of State Official announcement
Prime Minister of France
The French Prime Minister in the Fifth Republic is the head of government. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government position was called President of the Council of Ministers shortened to President of the Council; the Prime Minister proposes a list of ministers to the President of the Republic. Decrees and decisions of the Prime Minister, like all executive decisions, are subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. Few decrees are taken after advice from the Council of State. All prime ministers defend the programs of their ministry, make budgetary choices; the extent to which those decisions lie with the Prime Minister or President depends upon whether they are of the same party. Manuel Valls was appointed to lead the government in a cabinet reshuffle in March 2014, after the ruling Socialists suffered a bruising defeat in local elections. However, he resigned on 6 December 2016, to stand in the French Socialist Party presidential primary, 2017 and Bernard Cazeneuve was appointed as Prime Minister that day by President François Hollande.
Cazeneuve resigned on 10 May 2017. Édouard Philippe was named his successor on 15 May 2017. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic, who can select whomever he or she wants. While prime ministers are chosen from amongst the ranks of the National Assembly, on rare occasions the President has selected a non-officeholder because of their experience in bureaucracy or foreign service, or their success in business management—Dominique de Villepin, for example, served as Prime Minister from 2005 to 2007 without having held an elected office. On the other hand, while the Prime Minister does not have to ask for vote of confidence after cabinet's formation and they can depend their legitimacy on the President's assignment as Prime Minister and approval of the cabinet, because the National Assembly does have the power to force the resignation of the cabinet by motion of no confidence, the choice of Prime Minister must reflect the will of the majority in the Assembly. For example, right after the legislative election of 1986, President François Mitterrand had to appoint Jacques Chirac Prime Minister although Chirac was a member of the RPR and therefore a political opponent of Mitterrand.
Despite the fact that Mitterrand's own Socialist Party was the largest party in the Assembly, it did not have an absolute majority. The RPR had an alliance with the UDF; such a situation, where the President is forced to work with a Prime Minister, an opponent, is called a cohabitation. Édith Cresson is the only woman to have held the position of Prime Minister. Aristide Briand holds the record for number of cabinet formations as Prime Minister with 11 times, he served between 1929 with some terms as short as 26 days. According to article 21 of the Constitution, the Prime Minister "shall direct the actions of the Government". Additionally, Article 20 stipulates that the Government "shall determine and conduct the policy of the Nation", it includes domestic issues, while the President concentrates on formulating directions on national defense and foreign policy while arbitrating the efficient service of all governmental authorities in France. Other members of Government are appointed by the President "on the recommendation of the Prime Minister".
In practice the Prime Minister acts on the impulse of the President to whom he is a subordinate, except when there is a cohabitation in which case his responsibilities are akin to those of a Prime Minister in a parliamentary system. The Prime Minister can "engage the responsibility" of his or her Government before the National Assembly; this process consists of placing a bill before the Assembly, either the Assembly overthrows the Government, or the bill is passed automatically. In addition to ensuring that the Government still has support in the House, some bills that might prove too controversial to pass through the normal Assembly rules are able to be passed this way; the Prime Minister may submit a bill that has not been yet signed into law to the Constitutional Council. Before he is allowed to dissolve the Assembly, the President has to consult the Prime Minister and the presidents of both Houses of Parliament; the office of the prime minister, in its current form, was created in 1958 under the French Fifth Republic.
Under the Third Republic, the French Constitutional Laws of 1875 imbued the position of President of the Council with similar formal powers to those which at that time the British Prime Minister possessed. In practice, this proved insufficient to command the confidence of France's multi-party parliament, the president of the Council was a weak figure, his strength more dependent on charisma than formal powers, serving as little more than the cabinet's "primus inter pares". Most notably, the legislature had the power to force the entire cabinet out of office by a vote of censure; as a result, cabinets were toppled twice a year, there were long stretches where France was left with only a caretaker government. After several unsuccessful attempts to strengthen the role in the first half of the twentieth century, a presidential system was introduced under the Fifth Republic; the 1958 Constitution includes several provisions intended to strengthen the prime minister's position, for instance by restricting the legislature's power to vote censure.
The current prime minister is Édouard Philippe, appointed on 15 May 2017. The only person to serve as Prime Minister more than once under the Fifth Republic was Jacques Chirac (1974–1
François Bayrou is a French centrist politician and the president of the Democratic Movement, a candidate in the 2002, 2007 and 2012 French presidential elections. From 1993 to 1997, he was Minister of National Education for three governments, he was a member of the National Assembly for a seat in Pyrénées-Atlantiques from 1986 to 2012, MEP from 1999 to 2002 and is the mayor of Pau since 2014. It was speculated that Bayrou would be a candidate in the 2017 presidential election, but he decided not to run and instead supported Emmanuel Macron, who – after winning the election – named him Minister of State and Minister of Justice in the Philippe Government. On 21 June 2017, he resigned from the government amid an investigation into MoDem's fraudulent employment of parliamentary assistants, initiated earlier that month. François René Jean Lucien Bayrou was born on 25 May, 1951 in Bordères, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, a village located between Pau and Lourdes; the son of farmer Calixte Bayrou and Emma Sarthou.
Bayrou descends from an ancestry of Occitans except from his maternal grandmother's side, Irish. When Bayrou was in his youth, he suffered from a stutter which led to him attending speech therapy for seven years, he first went to secondary school before transferring to Bordeaux. He studied literature at university, at the age of 23, sat the "agrégation", the highest qualifying level for teachers in senior high schools and universities in France. Around the same time, his father was killed in a tractor accident. Bayrou was married in 1971 to Élisabeth Perlant known as "Babette", he and Perlant have five children, Hélène, Dominique and Agnes. The children were raised on the farm where Bayrou was born and Bayrou lives there with Perlant. Prior to embarking on his political career, Bayrou taught history in Béarn in the French Pyrenees, he is the author including one on King Henry IV of France. Bayrou's hobby is raising horses. Although a practising Roman Catholic, he supports France's system of laïcité.
In Bayrou's youth, he was active in nonviolent movements and followed Gandhi disciple, Lanza del Vasto. Bayrou, a member of the Centre of Social Democrats, the Christian-democratic wing of the Union for French Democracy confederation, was elected to the General Council of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in 1982 in the canton of Pau-Sud the French National Assembly four years later. After the victory of the RPR/UDF coalition in the 1993 legislative election, he became Education Minister in the cabinet led by Edouard Balladur. In this post, he proposed a reform allowing local authorities to subsidise private schools, which caused massive protests and was quashed by the Constitutional Council. In 1989, after poor results in both the municipal elections and the European Parliament elections and twelve other centre-right parliamentarians including Philippe Séguin, Michel Noir, Alain Carignon, Étienne Pinte, Michel Barnier, François Fillon, Charles Millon, Dominique Baudis, François d'Aubert, Philippe de Villiers and Bernard Bosson demanded reform of the system at the RPR and the UDF, criticising the most prominent politicians of these parties including former president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and Prime Minister Jacques Chirac.
They called for the formation of a new right-wing party to unite the UDF and the RPR into a single entity. Ideological differences between members of this group led to members leaving, though d'Estaing endorsed Bayrou to become UDF general secretary in 1991. Despite supporting Édouard Balladur's candidacy in the 1995 presidential election, Bayrou remained Education Minister following Jacques Chirac's election and the formation of a new government headed by Alain Juppé. Following the majority for the Plural Left in the 1997 legislative election, Bayrou returned to opposition and became president of the UDF in 1998, transforming it into a unified party rather than a union of smaller parties. In 2002 François Bayrou rejected proposals to merge the UDF with the Rally for the Republic, into a new entity that became the Union for a Popular Movement; as a result, many UDF members left to join the UMP. Bayrou was critical of the direction taken by the UMP-led government, which he described as out of touch with the average Frenchman.
He denounced the de facto two-party system, in which the RPR alternate. Instead, Bayrou called for a pluralist system in which other parties would contribute. On 16 May 2006, Bayrou supported a motion of no confidence sponsored by Socialist deputies calling for the resignation of Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin's government following the Clearstream affair; as de Villepin's UMP had an absolute majority in the National Assembly, the motion failed. Following Bayrou's support for this measure, France's television authority classified him as a member of the parliamentary opposition for timing purposes. However, after Bayrou protested, he was classified as a member of neither the majority nor the opposition. Bayrou contested the presidency again in 2007. Most commentators had expected the election to be fought between Sarkozy and Ségolène Royal of the Parti Socialiste. However, Bayrou's increasing support in polls in February complicated the "Sarko-Ségo" scenario, led to speculation that the Parti Socialiste candidate would fail to progress to the second round for a second consecutive election, following the defeat of former Prime Minister Lionel Jospin in 2002 by National Front leader Jean Marie Le Pen.
Bayrou finished in third place in the election with 18.57% of the vote, behind Sark