Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense.
The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, tactics, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders.
In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress
Susuga Malietoa Laupepa was the ruler of Samoa in the late 19th century. Laupepa was born in 1841 in Sapapalii, Savaii and his father was Malietoa Mōli and mother was Fa’alaitaua Fuatino Su’apa’ia. He was raised in Malie, received an education at Malua Seminary and was well known as a devout Christian. He was the leader of the Sā Mōlī which was based primarily in northern Tuamasaga. Laupepa cemented ties with Palauli through his marriage to Sisavai‘i Malupo, the children of this marriage were two sons named Tanumafili and Siliva‘ai, and daughter Fa‘amuleuatoivao. When about 20, Tanumafili became Malietoa Tanumafili I, one he had a daughter by the name of Saitaua who married Leota Laiafi of Solosolo. And the other marriage to Fuaolemalo Faumuina Fiame Leitutua Johnson of Lepea, in June 1894, both Laupepa and his son Mōlī II visited with the Latter-day Saint missionaries at Lalovi, Mulifanua with an army regiment of about 1,000 men. The missionaries described Laupepa to be “a very pleasant old gentleman, Laupepa underwent the rituals to receive the pea traditional tattoo when he was in his forties.
Laupepa maintained his devout profession of Christianity throughout his life, although he became aggressive as he was thrust into the power struggle against his warlike uncle Talavou. Churchward recorded that the group, ” now known as the Tuvalu islands, were “formally annexed to Samoa in the name of Malietoa” by one of Laupepa’s colleagues from Malua Theological College. Laupepa owned a “prized Samoan war club” – probably a Malietoa family anava heirloom – which he gave to the American consul William Churchill and this club was sought by the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in 1897 but was not relinquished by Churchill. Laupepa was crowned King of Samoa by the German Empire, War between Tamasese and Laupepa was declared but the Lackawanna Agreement, signed on July 12,1881, maintained an uneasy peace. This treaty, mediated by US Navy Captain J. H. Gillis, upheld Laupepa’s claim to the throne and named Titimaea as vice-king, when German consul Weber learned of the petitions he banished Laupepa and his chiefs from Apia.
The German consul Stuebel asserted his dominance over Laupepa’s kingship in December 1885 when he ordered the removal of the flag from Laupepa’s base in Apia. The German consul placed Tuiātua Tupua Tamasese Titimaea in Laupepa’s office and families were very often divided or remained neutral since so many leading chiefs were related to both clans. Laupepa received a delegation from King Kalākaua of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 7,1887 and it was headed by John Edward Bush, and awarded the honorary decoration Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Star of Oceania the same day. The order had just been created for the heads of state for the proposed Polynesian empire, on February 17,1887, Laupepa signed the Deed of Federation allying his government to that of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Laupepa did not appreciate the rowdiness of the Hawaiian delegation, support from the Hawaiian Kingdom never materialized and Laupepa was ultimately driven into hiding by the German-backed Sā Tupua army in August
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
Apia is the capital and the largest city of Samoa. From 1900 to 1919, it was the capital of German Samoa, the city is located on the central north coast of Upolu, Samoas second largest island. Apia is the city in Samoa and falls within the political district of Tuamasaga. The Apia Urban Area has a population of 36,735 and is referred to as the City of Apia. The geographic boundaries of Apia Urban Area is mainly from Letogo village to the new industrialized region of Apia known as Vaitele, Apia was originally a small village, from which the countrys capital took its name. Apia village still exists within the modern capital of Apia which has grown into a sprawling urban area with many villages. Like every other settlement in the country, Apia village has its own matai chiefly leaders, the modern capital Apia was founded in the 1850s and has been the official capital of Samoa since 1959. All the ships were sunk, except the British cruiser Calliope, nearly 200 American and German lives were lost, as well as six ships sunk or damaged beyond repair.
Western Samoa was ruled by Germany as German Samoa from 1900 to 1914 with Apia as capital, in August 1914, the Occupation of German Samoa by an expeditionary force from New Zealand started. In what became known as Black Saturday, a peaceful Mau gathering in the town resulted in the killing of paramount chief Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III by New Zealand constabulary on 28 December 1929, Apia is situated on a natural harbour at the mouth of the Vaisigano River. It is on a coastal plain with Mount Vaea, the burial place of writer Robert Louis Stevenson. Two main ridges run south on either side of the Vaisigano River, the more western of these is Cross Island Road, one of the few roads cutting north to south across the middle of the island to the south coast of Upolu. Apia features a tropical rainforest climate with consistent temperatures throughout the year, Apias driest months are July and August when on average about 80 millimetres of rain falls. Its wettest months are December through March when average monthly precipitation easily exceeds 300 millimetres, Apias average temperature for the year is 26 °C.
Apia is part of the Tuamasaga political district and of election district Vaimauga West, there is no city administration for Apia. Apia consists of some 45 individual, independent villages, Apia proper is just a small village between the mouths of the Vaisigano and Mulivai rivers, and is framed by Vaisigano and Mulivai villages, together constituting Downtown Apia. The citys historical haphazard growth from village to colonial trading post to the major financial, problems of flooding are commonplace in the wet season, given the low flood-prone valley that the city is built on. In the inner-city village of Sogi, there are major shoreline pollution, the disparate village administrations of Apia has resulted in a lack of a unified and codified legislative approach to sewerage disposal
German Samoa was a German protectorate from 1900 to 1914, consisting of the islands of Upolu, Savaii and Manono, now wholly within the independent state Samoa, formerly Western Samoa. It was the only German colony in the Pacific, aside from the Kiautschou concession in China, in 1855 J. C. Godeffroy & Sohn expanded its trading business into the Pacific following negotiations by August Unshelm, Godeffroy’s agent in Valparaiso. He sailed out to the Samoan Islands, which were known as the Navigator Islands. The trading operations of J. C. Godeffroy & Sohn extending to islands in the Central Pacific, in 1865 a trading captain acting on behalf of J. C. Godeffroy & Sohn obtained a 25-year lease to the eastern islet of Niuoku of Nukulaelae Atoll. Godeffroy und Sohn was in 1879 taken over by Handels-und Plantagen-Gesellschaft der Südsee-Inseln zu Hamburg. Competition in the operations in the Central Pacific came from Ruge, Hedemann & Co, established in 1875. Tensions caused in part by the interests of the German traders and plantation owners and British business enterprises.
The war was fought roughly between 1886 and 1894, primarily between Samoans though the German military intervened on several occasions, the United States and the United Kingdom opposed the German activity which led to a confrontation in Apia Harbor in 1887. In 1899 after the Second Samoan Civil War the Samoan Islands were divided by the three involved powers, during the colonial years new companies were formed to greatly expand agricultural activities which in turn increased tax revenues for public works that further stimulated economic growth, “. Over all, the period of German rule was the most progressive, that the country has experienced. ”Godeffroy, as the trading and plantation company on Samoa, maintained communications among its various subdivisions and branches. Major plantation enterprises on Samoa, J. C. Wilhelm Solf became the first governor, in its political relations with the Samoan people, Solf’s government showed similar qualities of intelligence and care as in the economic arena.
He skillfully grafted Samoan institutions into the new system of government by the acceptance of native customs. Solf himself learned many of the customs and rituals important to the Samoan people, when a dissident Samoan matai exceeded the limits of his considerable tolerance, Solf stepped in assertively, pronouncing that “. There was only one government in Samoa, ” and it was him, “German rule brought peace and order for the first time. Authority, in the person of the governor, became paternal and absolute. Berlin was far away, there was no cable or radio. ”Energetic efforts by colonial administrators established the first public system, a hospital was built and staffed and enlarged as needed. Of all colonial possessions of the European powers in the Pacific, German Samoa was by far the best-roaded, the imperial grants from the Berlin treasury which had marked the first eight years of German rule were no longer needed after 1908. Samoa had become a self-supporting colony, Wilhelm Solf left Samoa in 1910 to be appointed Colonial Secretary at Berlin, he was succeeded as governor by Erich Schultz, the former chief justice in the protectorate
Malietoa Tanumafili I
Susuga Malietoa Tanumafili I was the Malietoa in Samoa from 1898 until his death in 1939. He was born in 1879 to Malietoa Laupepa and Sisavai‘i Malupo Niuva‘ai and he married Momoe Lupeuluiva Meleiseā and had five children, Sisavai‘i Lupeuluiva, Vaimo‘oia, Salamāsina, Tanumafili II, and Sāveaali‘i Ioane Viliamu. Tanumafili was only 19 years old when he was declared King of Samoa by Great Britain, the vast majority of Samoa rallied behind the Matā‘afa-Sā Talavou party, including the Germans, the Tumua of Ātua-A‘ana, the Pule of Savai‘i, ‘Aiga-i-le-Tai, and most of Tuamasaga. Once again socio-religious factors came into play as the Sā Mōlī’s support came from the L. M. S, congregationalists while most other Samoan Christians backed the Sā Talavou-Sā Natūitasina-Matā‘afa parties. Perhaps the most adamant and well-known opponent of Tanumafili’s claim was Lauaki Namulau‘ulu Mamoe of Sāfotulafai, Savaii and he argued that not only was Tanumafili too young and inexperienced to rule, but that his installment as Malietoa was illegitimate and invalid according to Samoan custom.
Fearing for their lives, King Tanumafili I and Vice-King Tamasese Lealofi boarded a British ship where they lived for two months to avoid assassination attempts. The Germans declared Matā‘afa the head of all chiefs while the British, Tanumafili’s high chiefs were allowed to return from Tutuila in March 1899 and war parties were reorganized. Tanumafili was able to defeat Matā‘afa with the ammunition and military aid of the Americans and British, foreign political influences by this time had become deeply ingrained in the Samoan struggle for leadership. A committee composed of the foreign consuls called together the leaders of parties on 20 May 1899. The official tri-nation adjustment of jurisdiction was signed in Washington, D. C, under this new government Matā‘afa Iosefo was named Ali‘i Sili of Samoa while the German Kaiser was declared Tupu Sili of Samoa. The young Tanumafili – no longer King of Samoa – left for the British Fijian islands to further his university education, the Kaiser sent Dr.
Wilhelm Solf to govern German Samoa in March 1900. Solf seemed to be supportive of the political system that previous European consuls had blatantly disregarded. Other Samoan chiefs were upset over a perceived attitude adjustment of their paramounts, in 1901, the old days of Tumua and Pule are past, whose regimes have been absolutely guided by the laws and customs of Samoa. But now at the present time I wish to openly proclaim throughout our islands, Malietoa Tanumafili disappointed many of his followers when he refused to accept the kingly ava and instead passed on his rights and privileges to the German government. In January 1903, having arrived from Fiji, he declared, let us all obey and honour His Excellency the Governor, the respect and honour which Malietoa possessed in days gone by now belong to our Sovereign the Kaiser. The words to which Samoa was accustomed ‘Let Samoa obey Malietoa’ has now ended and the German imperial officers came to confide in Matā‘afa Iosefo and endorsed him as the legitimate leader of the itū mālō.
Matā‘afa’s actions in his term, reveal that his declared obeisance to Germany was probably a front for underlying motives and this representation was accomplished by installing the acknowledged heads of the Sā Tupua and the Sā Malietoa as Ta‘imua. The office of Ta‘imua was an executive and advisory position first held by Tupua Tamasese Lealofi I of the Sā Tupua, Tanumafili returned to Samoa and began reasserting his claim to the Malietoa title only after Malietoa Fa‘alataitaua had died
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. In the case of tribal societies existing within larger colonial and post-colonial states. The most common types are the chairman of a council and/or a broader popular assembly in parliamentary cultures, the war chief, the hereditary chief and this term has largely fallen out of use and such personages are now often called kings. Historically, tribal societies represent a stage between the band society of the Paleolithic stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities. Stratified tribal societies led by tribal kings thus flourished from the Neolithic stage into the Iron Age, albeit in competition with civilisations, after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, tribal kingdoms were again established over much of Europe in the wake of the Migration period. By the High Middle Ages, these had coalesced into super-regional monarchies. Tribal societies remained prevalent in much of the New World, excepting Paleolithic or Mesolithic band societies in Oceania, europeans forced centralized governments onto these societies during colonialism, but in some instances they have retained or regained partial self-government.
Tribal chiefs are known as Sheikhs, though this term is sometimes applied as an honorific title to spiritual leaders of Sufism. In Botswana, the chiefs of the various tribes are constitutionally empowered to serve as advisers to the government as members of the Ntlo ya Dikgosi. In addition to this, they serve as the ex officio chairs of the tribal kgotlas, meetings of all of the members of the tribes. The band is the unit of governance among the First Nations in Canada. As well, there may be hereditary or charismatic chiefs. There were 614 bands in Canada in 2012, there is a national organization, the Assembly of First Nations, which elects a national chief to act as spokesperson of all First Nations bands in Canada. The offices and traditional realms of the chiefs of Ghana are constitutionally protected by the constitution of the country. The chiefs serve as custodian of all lands and the culture of the traditional area. The Solomon Islands have a Local Court Act which empowers chiefs to deal with crimes in their communities, apo Rodolfo Aguilar serves as the chieftain of the Tagbanwa tribes people living in Banuang Daan and Cabugao settlements in Coron Island, Philippines.
His position is recognized by the Filipino government, the pre-colonial states that existed in what is today Uganda were summarily abolished following independence from Great Britain. However, following constitutional reforms in 1993, a number of them were restored as politically neutral constituencies of the state by the government of Yoweri Museveni, generally, a tribe or nation is considered to be part of an ethnic group, usually sharing cultural values
The Samoan Crisis was a confrontation standoff between the United States, Imperial Germany and Great Britain from 1887–1889 over control of the Samoan Islands during the Samoan Civil War. The standoff ended on 15 and 16 March when a hurricane wrecked all six warships in the harbour, Calliope was able to escape the harbour and survived the storm. Robert Louis Stevenson did not witness the storm and its aftermath at Apia but did, Samoan Civil War First Samoan Civil War Second Samoan Civil War Siege of Apia German Samoa Conroy, Robert. Only luck kept the United States from being occupied by Kaiser Wilhelm IIs army between 1899 and 1904, amerika Samoa, A History of American Samoa and Its United States Naval Administration. Hurricane at Apia, Samoa, 15–16 March 1889, the New Empire, An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1860–1898. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, after the Storm, True Stories of Disaster and Recovery at Sea. A Footnote to History, Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa, glory for the Squadron, HMS Calliope in the Great Hurricane at Samoa 1889.
Journal of the Australian Naval Institute
The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic. The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families and this included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory. Its influence helped define modern German culture, after 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, a heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the worlds strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base.
In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britains Royal Navy, after the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately led to World War I. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had two allies and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, however, left the once the First World War started in August 1914. In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front, it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, it failed, but the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution and this failed, and by October the armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system.
The Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution as the Emperor and all the ruling monarchs abdicated, and a republic took over. The German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarcks pragmatic Realpolitik. He envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany, the war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867, comprising the 22 states north of the Main. The new constitution and the title Emperor came into effect on 1 January 1871, during the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, William accepted to be proclaimed Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The second German Constitution was adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April 1871 and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, the political system remained the same.
The empire had a parliament called the Reichstag, which was elected by universal male suffrage, the original constituencies drawn in 1871 were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas
The Independent State of Samoa, commonly known as Samoa and, until 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions. The two main islands are Savaii and Upolu with four smaller islands surrounding the landmasses, the Lapita people discovered and settled the Samoan islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed a language and cultural identity. Samoa is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Western Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976. The entire island group, which includes American Samoa, was called Navigator Islands by European explorers before the 20th century because of the Samoans seafaring skills. The oldest date so far for remains in Samoa has been calculated by New Zealand scientists to a true age of circa 3,000 years ago from a Lapita site at Mulifanua during the 1970s. The origins of the Samoans are closely studied in research about Polynesia in various scientific disciplines such as genetics, linguistics.
Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century, jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman, was the first known European to sight the Samoan islands in 1722. This visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768, contact was limited before the 1830s, which is when English missionaries and traders began arriving. Christian missionary work in Samoa began in 1830 by John Williams, of the London Missionary Society arriving in Sapapalii from The Cook Islands and Tahiti. However, Robert Louis Stevenson, who lived in Samoa from 1889 until his death in 1894, wrote in A Footnote to History, Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa, … the Samoans are gentle people. The Germans in particular began to show great commercial interest in the Samoan Islands, especially on the island of Upolu, the United States laid its own claim and formed alliances with local native chieftains, most conspicuously on the islands of Tutuila and Manua. Britain sent troops to protect British business enterprise, harbour rights and this was followed by an eight-year civil war, during which each of the three powers supplied arms, training and in some cases combat troops to the warring Samoan parties.
The Samoan crisis came to a critical juncture in March 1889 when all three colonial contenders sent warships into Apia harbour, and a larger-scale war seemed imminent, a massive storm on 15 March 1889 damaged or destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict. The Second Samoan Civil War reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, the Siege of Apia occurred in March 1899. Samoan forces loyal to Prince Tanu were besieged by a force of Samoan rebels loyal to Mataafa Iosefo. Supporting Prince Tanu were landing parties from four British and American warships, after several days of fighting, the Samoan rebels were finally defeated. American and British warships shelled Apia on 15 March 1899, including the USS Philadelphia, the eastern island-group became a territory of the United States and was known as American Samoa
American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa. American Samoa consists of five islands and two coral atolls. The largest and most populous island is Tutuila, with the Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, All islands except for Swains Island are part of the Samoan Islands, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, and some 300 miles south of Tokelau. To the west are the islands of the Wallis and Futuna group, the 2010 census showed a total population of 55,519 people. The total land area is 199 square kilometers, slightly more than Washington, American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the U. S. and one of two U. S. territories south of the Equator, along with the uninhabited Jarvis Island. Tuna products are the exports, and the main trading partner is the United States. American Samoa is noted for having the highest rate of enlistment of any U. S. state or territory. Most American Samoans are bilingual and can speak English and Samoan fluently, Samoan is the same language spoken in neighboring independent Samoa.
Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century, dutchman Jacob Roggeveen was the first known European to sight the Samoan Islands in 1722. This visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768, contact was limited before the 1830s, when English missionaries and traders began arriving. The site of battle is called Massacre Bay. Mission work in the Samoas had begun in late 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived from the Cook Islands, by that time, the Samoans had gained a reputation for being savage and warlike, as violent altercations had occurred between natives and European visitors. In March 1889, an Imperial German naval force entered a village on Samoa, three American warships entered the Apia harbor and prepared to engage the three German warships found there. Before any shots were fired, a typhoon wrecked both the American and German ships, a compulsory armistice was called because of the lack of any warships.
Forerunners to the Tripartite Convention of 1899 were the Washington Conference of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889, the following year, the USA formally occupied its portion, a smaller group of eastern islands, one of which contains the noted harbor of Pago Pago. The Navy secured a Deed of Cession of Tutuila in 1900, the territory became known as the US Naval Station Tutuila. On July 17,1911, the US Naval Station Tutuila, in 1918 during the final stages of World War I, the flu pandemic had taken its toll, spreading rapidly from country to country. The result of Poyers quick actions earned him the Navy Cross from the US Navy, with this distinction, American Samoans regarded Poyer as their hero for what he had done to prevent the deadly disease