The Second Vienna Award known as the Second Vienna Diktat, was the second of two territorial disputes arbitrated by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Rendered on 30 August 1940, it assigned the territory of Northern Transylvania from Romania to Hungary.. After World War I, the multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary was divided by the Treaty of Trianon to form several new nation-states, but Hungary claimed that the new state borders did not follow the real ethnic boundaries; the new nation-state of Hungary was about a third the size of former Hungary, millions of ethnic Magyars were to be left outside the Hungarian borders. Many historically-important areas of Hungary were assigned to other countries, the distribution of natural resources came out unevenly as well. Thus, the various non-Magyar populations of the old kingdom saw the treaty as justice for the historically-marginalized nationalities, from the Hungarian point of view the treaty had been unjust, a national humiliation and a real tragedy; the Treaty and its consequences dominated Hungarian public life and political culture in the inter-war period.
Moreover, the Hungarian government swung more and more to the right. The alliance with Nazi Germany made possible Hungary to regain southern Czechoslovakia in the First Vienna Award of 1938 and Subcarpathia in 1939. However, neither that nor the subsequent military conquest of Carpathian Ruthenia in 1939 satisfied Hungarian political ambitions; the awards allocated only a fraction of the territories lost by the Treaty of Trianon, the loss that the Hungarians resented the most was that of Transylvania ceded to the Romanians. At the end of June 1940, the Romanian government gave in to a Soviet ultimatum, allowed Moscow to take over both Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, which were incorporated into Romania after World War I, Hertza region. Though the territorial loss was undesirable from its perspective, the Romanian government preferred it rather than a military conflict, which could have arisen if Romania had resisted Soviet advances since Finland had just ceded territories after its war with the Soviets.
However, the Hungarian government interpreted the fact that Romania permanently gave up some areas as an admission that it no longer insisted on keeping its national territory intact under pressure. The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina thus inspired Budapest to escalate its efforts to resolve "the question of Transylvania". Hungary hoped to gain as much of Transylvania as possible, but the Romanians would have none of that and submitted only a small region for consideration; the Hungarian-Romanian negotiations fell through entirely. As a result and Hungary were "browbeaten" into accepting the Axis arbitration. Meanwhile, the Romanian government had acceded to Italy's request for territorial cessions to Bulgaria, another German-aligned neighbor. On 7 September, under the Treaty of Craiova, the "Cadrilater" was ceded by Romania to Bulgaria. On 1 July 1940, Romania repudiated the Anglo-French guarantee of 13 April 1939, now worthless in light of France's collapse; the next day, King Carol II addressed a letter to Hitler suggesting Germany send a military mission to Romania and renew the alliance of 1883.
Germany used Romania's new desperation to force a revision of the territorial settlement produced by the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 in favor of Germany's old allies: Hungary and Bulgaria. In an exchange of letters between Carol and Hitler, the former insisted that no territorial exchange occur without a population exchange, the German leader conditioned German goodwill towards Romania on the latter's good relations with Hungary and Bulgaria; the Romanian foreign minister at the time was Mihail Manoilescu. In accordance with German wishes, Romania began negotiations with Hungary at Turnu Severin on 16 August; the initial Hungarian claim was 69,000 km² of territory with 3,803,000 inhabitants two thirds Romanian. Talks were broken off on 24 August; the German and Italian governments proposed an arbitration, characterised in the minutes of the Romanian crown council of 29 August as "communications with an ultimative character made by the German and Italian governments." The Romanians accepted, Foreign Ministers Joachim von Ribbentrop of Germany and Galeazzo Ciano of Italy met on 30 August 1940 at the Belvedere Palace in Vienna.
They reduced the Hungarian demands to 43,492 km² with a population of 2,667,007. A Romanian crown council met overnight on 30–31 August to accept the arbitration. At the meeting, Iuliu Maniu demanded that King Carol abdicate and the Romanian army resist the Hungarian takeover of northern Transylvania, his demands were pragmatically rejected. The population statistics in Northern Transylvania and the changes following the award are presented in detail in the next section; the rest of Transylvania, known as Southern Transylvania, with 2,274,600 Romanians and 363,200 Hungarians, remained Romanian. The territory in question covered an area of 43,104 km²; the 1930 Romanian census registered for this region a population of 2,393,300. In 1941 the Hungarian authorities conducted a new census which registered a total population of 2,578,100. Both censuses asked separately about nationality; the results of the two censuses are summarized in the following table. As Árpád E. Varga wrote, "the census conducted in 1930 met international statistical requirements in every respect.
In order to establish nationality, the compilers devised a complex criterion system, unique at the
The Marquis Date Munenari was the eighth head of the Uwajima Domain during the Late Tokugawa shogunate and a politician of the early Meiji era. Munenari was born in the 4th son of the hatamoto Yamaguchi Naokatsu. Munenari known as Kamesaburō 亀三郎, was a candidate for adoption by the heirless 7th generation Uwajima lord Date Munetada because Naokatsu's father was the 5th Uwajima lord, Date Muratoki. Munenari succeeded to headship in 1844; the tairō Ii Naosuke ordered Munenari's retirement in 1858. He was placed under house arrest, he returned to prominence in the subsequent years of political maneuvering in Kyoto, as a member of the conciliatory kōbu-gattai party. Late in Bunkyū 3, as a proponent of kōbu-gattai, he was made a member of the imperial advisory council, together with Matsudaira Katamori and other like-minded lords. After the fall of the shogunate in 1868, Munenari took an active role in the new imperial government. Munenari was a crucial figure in Japan's international relations during the early Meiji period.
In 1871, representing the Japanese government, he signed the Sino-Japanese Friendship and Trade Treaty with Li Hongzhang, a viceroy of Qing Dynasty China. In 1871, the han system was abolished in Japan, he was able to cut his political ties to Uwajima. In 1881, Munenari entertained King Kalākaua, of the Kingdom of Hawaii, on the first state visit to Japan of an actual head of state in its recorded history, he was first created a count in the new peerage system, but was promoted to marquess. Munenari died at Imado in Tokyo in 1892, at age 75. Ansei purge Date clan Date Munenari 伊達宗城. Date Munenari zaikyō nikki. Tokyo: Nihon shiseki kyōkai 日本史籍協会, 1916. Nihonshi Jiten 日本史辞典. Tokyo: Ōbunsha 旺文社, 2000. Much of this article has been compiled from corresponding content on the Japanese Wikipedia. Date Munenari 伊達宗城. Date Munenari zaikyō nikki. Tokyo: Nihon shiseki kyōkai 日本史籍協会, 1916. Hyōdō Ken'ichi 兵頭賢一. Date Munenari Kō-den 伊達宗城公傳. Annotated by Kondō Toshifumi 今藤俊文. Tokyo: Sōsendo shuppan 創泉堂出版, 2005. Kusunoki Seiichirō 楠精一郎.
Retsuden Nihon kindaishi: Date Munenari kara Kishi Nobusuke made 列伝・日本近代史: 伊達宗城から岸信介まで. Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha 朝日新聞社, 2000. Miyoshi Masafumi 三好昌文. Bakumatsu ki Uwajima-han no dōkō: Date Munenari wo chūshin ni: Dai ikkan 幕末期宇和島藩の動向: 伊達宗城を中心に: 第一卷. Uwajima: Miyoshi Masafumi 三好昌文, 2001. Tokugawa Nariaki, Date Munenari ōfuku shokanshū 徳川斉昭・伊達宗城往復書翰集. Edited by Kawachi Hachirō 河內八郎. Tokyo: Azekura Shobō 校倉書房, 1993. Totman, Conrad; the Collapse of the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1862-1868. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1980. Media related to Date Munenari at Wikimedia Commons Date Munenari at Find a Grave Date Munenari bio
The Mark Steel Solution was broadcast on BBC Radio 5 for a series, before three series were broadcast on BBC Radio 4. The show's original slogan was "Give me thirty minutes and I’ll convince you of anything!" Delivered by Mark Steel, each scripted lecture presents persuasive, yet witty, arguments for a bizarre solution to a contemporary social problem by highlighting the flaws in the present system. Many of the arguments are illustrated by miniature sketches, featuring Mark Steel, Pete Sinclair, Maria McErlane, Kim Wall, it was produced by Phil Clark, was written by Mark Steel and Pete Sinclair. Series 1, 1992 S01 E01 - The Royal Family - "The Royal Family should be chosen by weekly lottery" S01 E02 - The Family - "Nobody should be allowed to live in the same family for more than a year" S01 E03 - Judges - "Criminals should be recruited as high courts judges" S01 E04 - School - "Nobody should go to school until they're 35" S01 E05 - England - "Anyone born in England should be deported" S01 E06 - The Economy - "All government economic policy should be decided by sport" Series 2, 1994 S02 E01 - Unemployment - "Having a job should be illegal" S02 E02 - Transport - "Transport should only be paid for by people who don't use it" S02 E03 - Housing - "Everyone in Britain should be rehoused at random" S02 E04 - The Royal Family - "The Royal Family should be chosen by weekly lottery" Series 3, 1995 S03 E01 - Sexuality - "Everyone should have to be gay for two years" S03 E02 - Charity - "Anybody who gives to charity should be jailed" S03 E03 - Crime - "Criminals should decide their own punishment" S03 E04 - Immigration - "Anyone born in England should be deported" Series 4, August and September 1996 S04 E01 - Religion - "People should have to change their religion every Monday" S04 E02 - Media - "Anyone in charge of the media should be sacked after thirty minutes" S04 E03 - Education - "Nobody should go to school until they are 36" S04 E04 - Life - "Pessimists should be persecuted by law" The Mark Steel Lectures The Mark Steel Revolution Mark Steel's in Town
Francesco de Mura was an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period, active in Naples and Turin. His late work reflects the style of neoclassicism. Francesco de Mura referred to as Franceschiello, was a pupil of Francesco Solimena later with Domenico Viola, where he met his contemporary, Mattia Preti. While still in his teens he painted frescoes in San Nicola alla Carità in Naples, he painted ten canvases of the Virtues and an Adoration of the Magi for the church of Santa Maria Donnaromita. His other works include frescoes of the Adoration of the Magi in the apsidal dome of the church of the Nunziatella. De Mura painted portraits. Among his pupils was Pietro Bardellino and Girolamo Starace. Christ at the Column. St. John the Baptist. Assumption of the Virgin. Hobbes, James R.. Picture collector's manual. T. & W. Boone, 29 Bond Street, London. Pp. 293. Grove Art Encyclopedia abstract. Short biography. Aurora and Tithonus, prince of Troy. Allegory of Malta. Media related to Francesco de Mura at Wikimedia Commons
Blessed Juan de Prado was a Spanish Roman Catholic priest and a professed member from the Order of Friars Minor. He served as part of the missions in Muslim Morocco at the request of Pope Urban VIII and bought much solace to the small Christian population there before the ruler had him murdered. Pope Benedict XIII confirmed his beatification in mid-1728 after confirming that the priest had been murdered in hatred of his Christian faith. Juan de Prado was born in León circa 1563 to a noble family and was orphaned sometime prior to 1568, he undertook theological studies at the college at Salamanca, entered the Order of Friars Minor in 1584. He began his ministry as a preacher, he served in various Franciscan houses as novice master and as guardian. In 1610 he was elected provincial minister of the Franciscan Province of San Diego. In 1613 an outbreak of plague in Morocco killed all the Franciscans engaged there in the difficult mission. Juan was appointed by Pope Urban VIII as an apostolic missionary to work among the small Christian population.
He and two companions departed on November 27 from Cadiz and arrived for the mission in Marrakesh, where he evangelized and provided comfort to the faithful there while administering the sacraments to them. They dedicated themselves to work among the Christian slaves; the local authorities ordered them to leave the country, but the three Franciscans did not and continued their activity. Sultan Al Walid ben Zidan had them imprisoned, they were sentenced to hard labor in the crushing of saltpeter, a mineral for the manufacture of gunpowder. Questioned by the sultan, they did not hesitate to profess their Christian faith and were therefore scourged. At a subsequent public interrogation, Juan ignored the presence of Sultan and directed his attention and statements to some apostates present. Al Walid struck him. Juan was wounded by two arrows; the Sultan ordered that Juan be burnt to death, but as he continued to exhort the executioners to follow Christ, one of them became impatient and smashed his head with a stone.
Pope Benedict XIII confirmed - on 24 May 1728 - that the late Franciscan had been killed "in odium fidei", thus permitting his formal beatification
Founded in 1981, the American Journalism Historians Association seeks to advance education and research in mass communication history. Through its annual meeting, regional conferences, awards and publications, members work to raise historical standards and ensure that all scholars and students recognize the vast importance of media history and apply this knowledge to the advancement of society; the organization sponsors an annual fall meeting. 120 historians attend and participate in discussions surrounding teaching and research in media history. Throughout the meeting, scholars present peer-reviewed research, participate in topical panel discussions and generate ideas for articles and books. At the annual meeting, scholars participate vigorously in a silent auction that generates thousands of dollars for graduate student aid. Media history scholars from across the Southeast gather each February for the annual AJHA Southeast Symposium; the conference is designed to promote graduate and undergraduate research and provides a scholarly forum for student research presentations and discussions.
The AJHA partners with the History Division of AEJMC to sponsor a spring conference in New York City. This interdisciplinary gathering accepts submissions in all areas of journalism and communication history from all time periods and welcomes scholars from all academic disciplines and stages of their academic careers; this AJHA committee works to encourage the study of history in graduate and undergraduate mass communication programs. Some of its actions include: Encouraging all schools to offer an undergraduate history course and require it of their majors Encouraging graduate schools to recognize that history is as important as theory, social science research or any other area of graduate study Evaluating the history curricula in doctoral programs; the AJHA Speakers Bureau features members who share their expertise and knowledge with the media and local and national organizations. The diversity of the organization's membership enables its bureau to provide a wealth of educational resources on a wide variety of topics related to mass communication history.
American Journalism, the AJHA's quarterly peer-reviewed journal, publishes articles, research notes, book reviews, correspondence dealing with media history. Recent editions of American Journalism are available via the EBSCO database. Contributions may focus on social, intellectual, political or legal issues. American Journalism welcomes articles that treat the history of communication in general; the Intelligencer is the quarterly newsletter of the AJHA. It includes news about the organization and its members as well as conference updates. Sidney Kobre Award for Lifetime Achievement in Journalism History - The organization's highest honor recognizes individuals with an exemplary record of sustained achievement in media history through teaching, professional activities, or other contributions to the field. Margaret A. Blanchard Dissertation Prize - Awarded annually for the best doctoral dissertation dealing with mass communication history. A cash award of $500 accompanies the prize. AJHA History Award - Recognizes a practicing journalist whose work has been exemplary in the host community of the annual meeting.
AJHA Teaching Awards - Honors excellence in the teaching of journalism and mass communication history and recognizes those who make a positive impact on student learning and influence other teachers by example. The award is designed to focus national attention on the importance of teaching in journalism and mass communication history. AJHA Book Award - Recognizes the best book in media history as judged by a panel of AJHA members; the book award winner is honored at the closing gala of the annual meeting. During the annual meeting, the AJHA recognizes exceptional peer-reviewed research papers in several categories: faculty paper, student paper, conference paper, minority paper, women's interest paper. A panel of judges presents an award to the single best article published during the year in American Journalism. Center for Intercultural Dialogue List of history awards Official website