Secretariat (horse)

Secretariat was an American Thoroughbred racehorse who, in 1973, became the first Triple Crown winner in 25 years. His record-breaking victory in the Belmont Stakes, which he won by 31 lengths, is regarded as one of the greatest races of all time. During his racing career, he won five Eclipse Awards, including Horse of the Year honors at ages two and three, he was nominated to the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1974. In the List of the Top 100 U. S. Racehorses of the 20th Century, Secretariat was ranked second only to Man o' War, a large chestnut colt given the nickname "Big Red", although there was substantial controversy associated with that ranking. At age two, Secretariat finished fourth in his 1972 debut in a maiden race, but won seven of his remaining eight starts, including five stakes victories, his only loss during this period was in the Champagne Stakes, where he finished first but was disqualified to second for interference. He received the Eclipse Award for champion two-year-old colt, was the 1972 Horse of the Year, a rare honor for a horse so young.

At age three, Secretariat not only won the Triple Crown, he set speed records in all three races. His time in the Kentucky Derby still stands as the Churchill Downs track record for ​1 1⁄4 miles, his time in the Belmont Stakes stands as the American record for ​1 1⁄2 miles on the dirt, his controversial time in the Preakness Stakes was recognized as a stakes record in 2012. Secretariat's win in the Gotham Stakes tied the track record for 1 mile, he set a world record in the Marlboro Cup at ​1 1⁄8 miles, further proved his versatility by winning two major stakes races on turf, he lost three times that year: in the Wood Memorial and Woodward Stakes, but the brilliance of his nine wins made him an American icon. He won his second Horse of the Year title, plus Eclipse Awards for champion three-year-old colt and champion turf horse. At the beginning of his three-year-old year, Secretariat was syndicated for a record-breaking $6.08 million on condition that he be retired from racing by the end of the year.

Although he sired several successful racehorses, he was most influential through his daughters' offspring, becoming the leading broodmare sire in North America in 1992. His daughters produced several notable sires, including Storm Cat, A. P. Indy, Gone West and Chief's Crown, through them Secretariat appears in the pedigree of many modern champions. Secretariat died in 1989 due to laminitis at age 19, he is recognized as one of the greatest horses in racing history. Secretariat was bred by Christopher Chenery's Meadow Stud, but the breeding was arranged by Penny Chenery, who had taken over the running of the stable in 1968 when her father became ill. Secretariat was sired by Bold Ruler and his mare was Somethingroyal, a daughter of Princequillo. Bold Ruler was the leading sire in North America from 1963 to 1969 and again in 1973. Owned by the Phipps family, Bold Ruler possessed both speed and stamina, having won the Preakness Stakes and Horse of the Year honors in 1957, American Champion Sprint Horse honors in 1958.

Bold Ruler was retired to stud at Claiborne Farm, but the Phippses owned most of the mares to which Bold Ruler was bred, few of his offspring were sold at public auction. To bring new blood into their breeding program, the Phippses sometimes negotiated a foal-sharing agreement with other mare owners: Instead of charging a stud fee for Bold Ruler, they would arrange for multiple matings with Bold Ruler, either with two mares in one year or one mare over a two-year period. Assuming two foals were produced, the Phipps family would keep one and the mare's owner would keep the other, with a coin toss determining who received first pick. Under such an arrangement, Chenery sent two mares to be bred to Bold Ruler in 1968, Hasty Matelda and Somethingroyal, she sent Cicada and Somethingroyal in 1969. The foal-sharing agreement stated that the winner of the coin toss would get first pick of the foals produced in 1969, while the loser of the toss would get first pick of the foals due in 1970. In the spring of 1969, a colt and filly were produced.

In the 1969 breeding season, Cicada did not conceive, leaving only one foal due in the spring of 1970. Thus, the winner of the coin toss would get only one foal, the loser would get two. Chenery said that both owners hoped they would lose the coin toss, held in the fall of 1969 in the office of New York Racing Association Chairman Alfred G. Vanderbilt II, with Arthur "Bull" Hancock of Claiborne Farm as witness. Ogden Phipps took the 1969 weanling filly out of Somethingroyal; the filly was named The Bride and never won a race, though she did become a stakes producer. Chenery received the Hasty Matelda colt in 1969 and the as-yet-unborn 1970 foal of Somethingroyal, which turned out to be Secretariat. On March 30, 1970, at 12:10 a.m. at the Meadow Stud in Caroline County, Somethingroyal foaled a bright-red chestnut colt with three white socks and a star with a narrow stripe. The foal nursed 30 minutes later. Howard Gentry, the manager of Meadow Stud, was at the foaling and said, "He was a well-made foal.

He was as perfect a foal that I delivered." The colt soon distinguished himself from the others. "He was always the leader in the crowd," said Gentry's nephew, who worked at the farm. "To us, he was Big Red, he had a personality. He was a clown and was always cutting up, always into some devilment." Some time Chenery got her first look at the foal and made a one word e


Askeptosauridae is a family of thalattosaurs within the superfamily Askeptosauroidea. Fossils have been found from Italy and China. Askeptosaurids are distinguished from other thalattosaurs by narrow skulls. Askeptosauridae was named in 1952 to include the genus Askeptosaurus. In 2000, the genus Anshunsaurus, which includes two species, was added to the family. In a 2005 phylogenetic analysis, Endennasaurus was included within Askeptosauridae; that year a new study placed Endennasaurus outside Askeptosauridae as a basal member of Askeptosauroidea. More recent studies have placed the genus Miodentosaurus from China in the family as well. Below is a cladogram modified from Wu et al. showing the phylogenetic relationships of askeptosaurids

St Brendan's parish, Coolock

St Brendan's is a parish in Coolock, Dublin in Ireland, served by the Church of St Brendan. The parish is in the Fingal South East deanery of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin; the parish is based on the civil parish of Coolock. During penal times, it was one of the few functioning Catholic parishes in Dublin; the Celtic Church did not utilise parochial structures, being based around monastic settlements, but following restructuring under figures such as St. Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, the papal legate Cardinal Paparo in 1152, the Christian Church in Ireland was divided in the 12th century into thirty-eight dioceses, each comprising a number of parishes; the Diocese of Dublin was raised to the status of Archdiocese, with forty parishes, one of, Coolock. The boundaries of this ancient parish are best reflected today in those of the Civil Parish of Coolock and Church of Ireland parish of the same name, it had 1,199 acres across ten townlands, is believed to have had a sparse population but good agricultural lands.

In the early years, it was a dependency of Swords, one of north County Dublin's three major ecclesiastical settlements, with a chapel dedicated to St. Brendan of Clonfert. Shortly after formation, the Anglo-Norman invasion made changes across the whole Dublin region, in the Reportorium Viride of John Alen, it is stated that the church at Coolock was at first in the gift of the Baron de Nugent, the Priory of Llanthony, who held the right of presentation until the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII, when the parsonage was granted to Edward Griffin and John Bathe. Following the break between Henry VIII and the Papacy, the Anglican Churches came into being and from this point – around 1536, when Henry VIII imposed the Act of Supremacy in Ireland – there were two Parishes of Coolock, one in the Roman Catholic Church, one in the Church of Ireland; the Catholic Church in Ireland came under increasing pressure, with the assumption of control of properties by the new Church of Ireland, found itself without many places of worship, with its priests under suspicion.

One consequence of this was that it became impossible to continue to operate all the historical parishes, at the Synod of Leinster at Kilkenny in 1614, many were grouped. It was at this time that the Union Parish of Coolock was formed, combining the existing parishes, of differing size and population, of Glasnevin, Santry, Killester, Raheny and Coolock itself. To some extent, the distinct identity of the component parishes remained, there are references to them in documents over the centuries; until the late 17th century, the new extended Parish of Coolock was based at Artaine, notably supported by the Hollywood family, the Church of St. Brendan at Coolock was allowed to fall into ruin, until a new Church of Ireland building was erected on its site in 1790. In 1630, the Anglican Archbishop Bulkeley noted that the Roman Catholic priest was Father James Drake, based at Artaine Castle, whose brother provided Catholic schooling, it is believed that Drake led the parish from no than 1620; the next priest recorded, after the Cromwellian period and the Restoration, is Richard Cahill, Parish Priest from circa 1680–1720, resident at Artaine, who arranged in 1689 for the building of the first public place of worship within the whole extended parish, a small chapel at Coolock, but who had to say mass in private houses when anti-Catholic laws were applied more strongly.

He appears to have had a colleague, who may have been his successor, Fr. Cassidy; the next known parish priest was Nicholas Gernon, who departed office in 1733, succeeded by Andrew Tuite, presiding from 1733–1771. Government returns in 1731 note the presence of one resident priest, a chapel at Coolock and several itinerant priests. Tuite was made a canon in 1747 and a report in 1766 noted him as parish priest, with a curate and two chapels, it is not known where the second chapel was but based on areas with and without records of such buildings, Donnelly in 1915 considered Ballymun part of Santry as possible. Terence McLoughlin was appointed as parish priest in 1771, holding office until 1785. During McLoughlin's time in office, the parish centre moved to Coolock, the first surviving Parochial Registers date from this period. McLoughlin had a curate, William Green, who remained in office after his death, and, based in Drumcondra. In 1785, John Larkin, a canon since 1781, was made parish priest.

Both he and his curate died in 1797, the year in which the chapel at Ballymun is recorded as having been redeveloped. Larkin's successor was Patrick Ryan, who held office from 1797–1805. Ryan, made a canon in 1798, was made co-adjutor Bishop of Ferns in 1804, with right of succession, became bishop there in 1814, he is reported in 1800 as having an income of 110 Irish pounds, a curate, Fr. Strong. A nominee for the office of parish priest, Andrew Long, took on its duties on 13 January 1805 and was confirmed in that office, although for a matter of weeks in March and April of that year, another, a Dr. Murray, was appointed to the post by the Holy See. Dr. Murray resigned and Dr. Long was formally appointed by the Archbishop of Dublin. Fr. Strong was succeeded as curate in 1808 by a Fr. Ham. Around 1810, Long was asked to take on the role of pro tem Superior and Administrator of the Irish College in Paris, confiscated, along with much other British property following the French Revolution, he remained parish priest but was given an extra curate to support him