Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Operations security is a process that identifies critical information to determine if friendly actions can be observed by enemy intelligence, determines if information obtained by adversaries could be interpreted to be useful to them, executes selected measures that eliminate or reduce adversary exploitation of friendly critical information. In a more general sense, OPSEC is the process of protecting individual pieces of data that could be grouped together to give the bigger picture. OPSEC is the protection of critical information deemed mission essential from military commanders, senior leaders, management or other decision-making bodies; the process results in the development of countermeasures, which include technical and non-technical measures such as the use of email encryption software, taking precautions against eavesdropping, paying close attention to a picture you have taken, or not talking on social media sites about information on the unit, activity or organization's Critical Information List.
The term "operations security" was coined by the United States military during the Vietnam War. OPSEC is a five-step iterative process that assists an organization in identifying specific pieces of information requiring protection and employing measures to protect them. Identification of Critical information: Critical information is information about friendly intentions and activities that allow an adversary to plan to disrupt their operations. U. S. Army Regulation 530-1 has redefined Critical Information into four broad categories, using the acronym CALI – Capabilities, Activities and Intentions; this step results in the creation of a Critical Information List. This allows the organization to focus resources on vital information, rather than attempting to protect all classified or sensitive unclassified information. Critical information may include, but is not limited to, military deployment schedules, internal organizational information, details of security measures, etc. Analysis of Threats: A Threat comes from an adversary – any individual or group that may attempt to disrupt or compromise a friendly activity.
Threat is further divided into adversaries with capability. The greater the combined intent and capability of the adversary, the greater the threat; this step uses multiple sources, such as intelligence activities, law enforcement, open source information to identify adversaries to a planned operation and prioritize their degree of threat. Analysis of Vulnerabilities: Examining each aspect of the planned operation to identify OPSEC indicators that could reveal critical information and comparing those indicators with the adversary's intelligence collection capabilities identified in the previous action. Threat can be thought of as the strength of the adversaries, while vulnerability can be thought of as the weakness of friendly organizations. Assessment of Risk: First, planners analyze the vulnerabilities identified in the previous action and identify possible OPSEC measures for each vulnerability. Second, specific OPSEC measures are selected for execution based upon a risk assessment done by the commander and staff.
Risk is calculated based on the probability of Critical Information release and the impact if such as release occurs. Probability is further subdivided into the level of vulnerability; the core premise of the subdivision is that the probability of compromise is greatest when the threat is capable and dedicated, while friendly organizations are exposed. Application of Appropriate OPSEC Measures: The command implements the OPSEC measures selected in the assessment of risk action or, in the case of planned future operations and activities, includes the measures in specific OPSEC plans. Countermeasures must be continually monitored to ensure that they continue to protect current information against relevant threats; the U. S. Army Regulation 530-1 refers to "Measures" as the overarching term, with categories of "Action Control". An OPSEC Assessment is the formal application of this process to an existing operation or activity by a multidisciplinary team of experts; these assessments identify the requirements for additional OPSEC measures and required changes to existing ones.
Additionally, OPSEC planners, working with Public Affairs personnel, must develop the Essential Elements of Friendly Information used to preclude inadvertent public disclosure of critical or sensitive information. The term "EEFI" is being phased out in favor of "Critical Information", so all affected agencies use the same term, minimizing confusion. In 1966, United States Admiral Ulysses Sharp established a multidisciplinary security team to investigate the failure of certain combat operations at the Vietnam War; this operation was dubbed Operation Purple Dragon, included personnel from the National Security Agency and the Department of Defense. When the operation concluded, the Purple Dragon team codified their recommendations, they called the process "Operations Security" in order to distinguish the process from existing processes and ensure continued inter-agency support. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed National Security Decision Directive 298; this document established the National Operations Security Program and named the Director of the National Security Agency as the executive agent for inter-agency OPSEC support.
This document established the Interagency OPSEC Support
A code talker was a person employed by the military during wartime to utilize a little-known language as a means of secret communication. The term is now associated with United States service members during the world wars who used their knowledge of Native American languages as a basis to transmit coded messages. In particular, there were 400 to 500 Native Americans in the United States Marine Corps whose primary job was to transmit secret tactical messages. Code talkers transmitted messages over military telephone or radio communications nets using formally or informally developed codes built upon their native languages; the code talkers improved the speed of encryption and decryption of communications in front line operations during World War II. There were two code types used during World War II. Type one codes were formally developed based on the languages of the Comanches, Hopies and Navajos, they used words from their languages for each letter of the English alphabet. Messages could be encoded and decoded by using a simple substitution cipher where the ciphertext was the native language word.
Type two code was informal and directly translated from English into the native language. If there was no word in the native language to describe a military word, code talkers used descriptive words. For example, the Navajo did not have a word for submarine; the name code talkers is associated with bilingual Navajo speakers specially recruited during World War II by the US Marine Corps to serve in their standard communications units of the Pacific theater. Code talking, was pioneered by the Cherokee and Choctaw peoples during World War I. Other Native American code talkers were deployed by the United States Army during World War II, including Lakota, Meskwaki and Comanche soldiers. Native speakers of the Assiniboine language served as code talkers during World War II to encrypt communications. One of these code talkers was Gilbert Horn Sr. who grew up in the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation of Montana and became a tribal judge and politician. In November 1952, Euzko Deya magazine reported that in May 1942, upon meeting about 60 US Marines of Basque ancestry in a San Francisco camp, Captain Frank D. Carranza thought to use the Basque language for codes.
His superiors were wary. There were 35 Basque Jesuits in Hiroshima, led by Pedro Arrupe. There was a colony of Basque jai alai players in China and the Philippines, there were Basque supporters of Falange in Asia; the American Basque code talkers were kept away from these theaters. According to Euzko Deya, on August 1, 1942, Lieutenants Nemesio Aguirre, Fernández Bakaicoa, Juanana received a Basque-coded message from San Diego for Admiral Chester Nimitz; the message warned Nimitz of Operation Apple to remove the Japanese from the Solomon Islands. They translated the start date, August 7, for the attack on Guadalcanal; as the war extended over the Pacific, there was a shortage of Basque speakers and the US military came to prefer the parallel program based on the use of Navajo speakers. In 2017, Pedro Oiarzabal and Guillermo Tabernilla published a paper refuting Euzko Deya's article. According to Oiarzabal and Tabernilla, they could not find Carranza, Fernández Bakaicoa, or Juanana in the National Archives and Records Administration or US Army archives.
They did find a small number of US Marines with Basque surnames, but none of them in worked in transmissions. They suggest that Carranza's story was an Office of Strategic Services operation to raise sympathy for US intelligence among Basque nationalists; the first known use of code talkers in the US military was during World War I. Cherokee soldiers of the US 30th Infantry Division fluent in the Cherokee language were assigned to transmit messages while under fire during the Second Battle of the Somme. According to the Division Signal Officer, this took place in September 1918 when their unit was under British command. During World War I, company commander Captain Lawrence of the US Army overheard Solomon Louis and Mitchell Bobb having a conversation in the Choctaw language. Upon further investigation, he found; the Choctaw men in the Army's 36th Infantry Division trained to use their language in code and helped the American Expeditionary Forces in several battles of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
On October 26, 1918, the code talkers were pressed into service and the "tide of battle turned within 24 hours... and within 72 hours the Allies were on full attack." German authorities knew about the use of code talkers during World War I and sent a team of thirty anthropologists to the United States to learn Native American languages before the outbreak of World War II. However, the task proved too difficult because of the array of native dialects. Nonetheless, after the US Army learned of the Nazi effort, it opted not to implement a large-scale code talker program in the European theater. A total of 14 code talkers using the Comanche language took part in the Invasion of Normandy and served in the 4th Infantry Division in Europe. Comanche soldiers of the 4th Signal Company compiled a vocabulary of over 100 code terms using words or phrases in their own language. Using a substitution method similar to the Navajo, the code talkers used descriptive Comanche language words for things that did not have translations.
For example, the Comanche language word for tank was turtle, bomber was pregnant airplane, machine gun was sewing machine, Adolf Hitler was crazy white man. Two Comanche code talker
Forrester is an American market research company that provides advice on existing and potential impact of technology, to its clients and the public. Their 2016 adjusted EBITDA was $29.3 million and their 2015 adjusted EBITDA was $26.5 million. Forrester has five research centers in the US: Cambridge. C.. It has four European research centers in Amsterdam, Frankfurt and Paris and four research centers in the APAC region in New Delhi, Singapore and Sydney; the firm has 27 sales locations worldwide. It offers a variety of services including syndicated research on technology as it relates to business, quantitative market research on consumer technology adoption as well as enterprise IT spending, research-based consulting and advisory services, workshops and executive peer-networking programs. Forrester was founded in July 1983 by George Forrester Colony, now chairman of the board and chief executive officer, in Cambridge, Massachusetts; the company's first report, "The Professional Automation Report," was published in November 1983.
In November 1996, Forrester announced its initial public offering of 2,300,000 shares. In February 2000, the company announced its secondary public offering of 626,459 shares; the company acquired Fletcher Research, a British Internet research firm, in November 1999. In July 2008, Forrester announced the acquisition of New York City-based JupiterResearch. Forrester acquired Strategic Oxygen on December 1, 2009, Springboard Research on May 12, 2011. In September 2017, Forrester launched their first consumer product, an Apple and Android mobile app that allows consumers to rate companies using a simple system based upon a stoplight; the app uses the three colors. Users can leave a comment and the business can reply once a comment has five or more users. George F. Colony, Chairman of the Board and CEO On January 31, 2006, the company announced that on January 26, 2006 its independent registered public accounting firm, BDO Seidman, LLP, informed the company that it had incorrectly accounted for performance-based stock options to purchase 940,500 shares of common stock granted on March 31, 2005.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or by disguising them as something else. Examples include the leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier, the leaf-mimic katydid's wings. A third approach, motion dazzle, confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object visible but momentarily harder to locate; the majority of camouflage methods aim for crypsis through a general resemblance to the background, high contrast disruptive coloration, eliminating shadow, countershading. In the open ocean, where there is no background, the principal methods of camouflage are transparency and countershading, while the ability to produce light is among other things used for counter-illumination on the undersides of cephalopods such as squid; some animals, such as chameleons and octopuses, are capable of changing their skin pattern and colours, whether for camouflage or for signalling.
It is possible. Military camouflage was spurred by the increasing range and accuracy of firearms in the 19th century. In particular the replacement of the inaccurate musket with the rifle made personal concealment in battle a survival skill. In the 20th century, military camouflage developed especially during the First World War. On land, artists such as André Mare designed camouflage schemes and observation posts disguised as trees. At sea, merchant ships and troop carriers were painted in dazzle patterns that were visible, but designed to confuse enemy submarines as to the target's speed and heading. During and after the Second World War, a variety of camouflage schemes were used for aircraft and for ground vehicles in different theatres of war; the use of radar since the mid-20th century has made camouflage for fixed-wing military aircraft obsolete. Non-military use of camouflage includes making cell telephone towers less obtrusive and helping hunters to approach wary game animals. Patterns derived from military camouflage are used in fashion clothing, exploiting their strong designs and sometimes their symbolism.
Camouflage themes recur in modern art, both figuratively and in science fiction and works of literature. In ancient Greece, Aristotle commented on the colour-changing abilities, both for camouflage and for signalling, of cephalopods including the octopus, in his Historia animalium: The octopus... seeks its prey by so changing its colour as to render it like the colour of the stones adjacent to it. Camouflage has been a topic of research in zoology for well over a century. According to Charles Darwin's 1859 theory of natural selection, features such as camouflage evolved by providing individual animals with a reproductive advantage, enabling them to leave more offspring, on average, than other members of the same species. In his Origin of Species, Darwin wrote: When we see leaf-eating insects green, bark-feeders mottled-grey. Grouse, if not destroyed at some period of their lives, would increase in countless numbers. Hence I can see no reason to doubt that natural selection might be most effective in giving the proper colour to each kind of grouse, in keeping that colour, when once acquired and constant.
The English zoologist Edward Bagnall Poulton studied animal coloration camouflage. In his 1890 book The Colours of Animals, he classified different types such as "special protective resemblance", or "general aggressive resemblance", his experiments showed that swallowtailed moth pupae were camouflaged to match the backgrounds on which they were reared as larvae. Poulton's "general protective resemblance" was at that time considered to be the main method of camouflage, as when Frank Evers Beddard wrote in 1892 that "tree-frequenting animals are green in colour. Among vertebrates numerous species of parrots, tree-frogs, the green tree-snake are examples". Beddard did however mention other methods, including the "alluring coloration" of the flower mantis and the possibility of a different mechanism in the orange tip butterfly, he wrote that "the scattered green spots upon the under surface of the wings might have been intended for a rough sketch of the small flowerets of the plant, so close is their mutual resemblance."
He explained the coloration of sea fish such as the mackerel: "Among pelagic fish it is common to find the upper surface dark-coloured and the lower surface white, so that the animal is inconspicuous when seen either from above or below." The artist Abbott Handerson Thayer formulated what is sometimes called Thayer's Law, the principle of countershading. However, he overstated the case in the 1909 book Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, arguing that "All patterns and colors whatsoever of all animals that preyed or are preyed on are under certain normal circumstances obliterative", that "Not one'mimicry' mark, not one'warning color'... nor any'sexually selected' color, exists anywhere in the world where there is not every reason to belie
National Security Agency
The National Security Agency is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence; the NSA is tasked with the protection of U. S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since it has become the largest of the U. S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. The NSA conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end; the NSA has been alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet, which damaged Iran's nuclear program.
The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency, maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe. SCS collection tactics encompass "close surveillance, wiretapping and entering". Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, both of which specialize in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source intelligence gathering; the NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations – which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own. As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service, which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and other U. S. defense cryptanalysis components. To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service; the NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage.
In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens; the documents revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing"; the origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. S. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section, known as the Cipher Bureau, it was headquartered in Washington, D. C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times.
On July 5, 1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of two civilian clerks, it absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. After the disbandment of the U. S. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. S. government created the Cipher Bureau known as Black Chamber. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization. Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company, its true mission, was to break the communications of other nations. Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference, during which it aided American negotiators by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.
The Black Chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U. S. telegram company at the time, as well as several other communications companies to illegally give the Black Chamber access to cable traffic of foreign embassies and consulates. Soon, these companies publicly discontinued their collaboration. Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U. S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail". During World War II, the Signal Intelligence Service was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers; when the war ended, the SIS was reorganized as the Army Security Agency, it was placed under the leadership of the Director of Military Intelligence. On May 20, 1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency; this organization was established within the U. S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
National Institute of Standards and Technology
The National Institute of Standards and Technology is a physical sciences laboratory, a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce. Its mission is to promote industrial competitiveness. NIST's activities are organized into laboratory programs that include nanoscale science and technology, information technology, neutron research, material measurement, physical measurement; the American AI initiative has called NIST to lead the development of appropriate technical standards for reliable, trustworthy, secure and interoperable AI systems. The Articles of Confederation, ratified by the colonies in 1781, contained the clause, "The United States in Congress assembled shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states—fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States". Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution of the United States, transferred this power to Congress.
To coin money, regulate the value thereof, of foreign coin, fix the standard of weights and measures". In January 1790, President George Washington, in his first annual message to Congress stated that, "Uniformity in the currency and measures of the United States is an object of great importance, will, I am persuaded, be duly attended to", ordered Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson to prepare a plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage and Measures of the United States, afterwards referred to as the Jefferson report. On October 25, 1791, Washington appealed a third time to Congress, "A uniformity of the weights and measures of the country is among the important objects submitted to you by the Constitution and if it can be derived from a standard at once invariable and universal, must be no less honorable to the public council than conducive to the public convenience", but it was not until 1838, that a uniform set of standards was worked out. In 1821, John Quincy Adams had declared "Weights and measures may be ranked among the necessities of life to every individual of human society".
From 1830 until 1901, the role of overseeing weights and measures was carried out by the Office of Standard Weights and Measures, part of the United States Department of the Treasury. In 1901, in response to a bill proposed by Congressman James H. Southard, the National Bureau of Standards was founded with the mandate to provide standard weights and measures, to serve as the national physical laboratory for the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Samuel W. Stratton as the first director; the budget for the first year of operation was $40,000. The Bureau took custody of the copies of the kilogram and meter bars that were the standards for US measures, set up a program to provide metrology services for United States scientific and commercial users. A laboratory site was constructed in Washington, DC, instruments were acquired from the national physical laboratories of Europe. In addition to weights and measures, the Bureau developed instruments for electrical units and for measurement of light.
In 1905 a meeting was called that would be the first "National Conference on Weights and Measures". Conceived as purely a metrology agency, the Bureau of Standards was directed by Herbert Hoover to set up divisions to develop commercial standards for materials and products.page 133 Some of these standards were for products intended for government use, but product standards affected private-sector consumption. Quality standards were developed for products including some types of clothing, automobile brake systems and headlamps and electrical safety. During World War I, the Bureau worked on multiple problems related to war production operating its own facility to produce optical glass when European supplies were cut off. Between the wars, Harry Diamond of the Bureau developed a blind approach radio aircraft landing system. During World War II, military research and development was carried out, including development of radio propagation forecast methods, the proximity fuze and the standardized airframe used for Project Pigeon, shortly afterwards the autonomously radar-guided Bat anti-ship guided bomb and the Kingfisher family of torpedo-carrying missiles.
In 1948, financed by the United States Air Force, the Bureau began design and construction of SEAC, the Standards Eastern Automatic Computer. The computer went into operation in May 1950 using a combination of vacuum tubes and solid-state diode logic. About the same time the Standards Western Automatic Computer, was built at the Los Angeles office of the NBS by Harry Huskey and used for research there. A mobile version, DYSEAC, was built for the Signal Corps in 1954. Due to a changing mission, the "National Bureau of Standards" became the "National Institute of Standards and Technology" in 1988. Following September 11, 2001, NIST conducted the official investigation into the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings. NIST, known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards, is a measurement standards laboratory known as a National Metrological Institute, a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce; the institute's official mission is to: Promote U. S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life.
NIST had an operating budget for fiscal year 2007 of about $843.3 million. NIST's 2009 budget was $992 million