A bowling green is a finely-laid, close-mown and rolled stretch of turf for playing the game of bowls. Before 1830, when Edwin Beard Budding of Thrupp, near Stroud, invented the lawnmower, lawns were kept cropped by grazing sheep on them; the world's oldest surviving bowling green is the Southampton Old Bowling Green, first used in 1299. When the French adopted "boulingrin" in the 17th century, it was understood to mean a sunk geometrically shaped piece of perfect grass, framed in gravel walks, which formed the centre of a planted wood called a bosquet, somewhat like a formalized glade; the diarist Samuel Pepys relates a conversation he had with the architect Hugh May: "Then walked to Whitehall, where saw nobody but walked up and down with Hugh May, a ingenious man. Among other things, discoursing of the present fashion of gardens to make them plain, that we have the best walks of gravell in the world, France having none, nor Italy. Bowling green specifications for the lawn bowls variation of the sport are stipulated in World Bowls' Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
For the variant known as crown green bowls, no such stipulation is documented by the national governing body and bowls clubs are free to form the dimensions and other specifications as they feel fit. A "crown green" has just that, a crown or raised centre section with the outer edges of the green dropping off towards the surrounding ditch. Other greens are as level as possible. Several games of bowls can be played on a bowling green at the same time; the number of games depends on the dimensions of the green. Each game is played on its own portion of the green; these divided portions of the green are called rinks. The length of a green in the direction of play will be between 40 metres; the green should have a suitable level playing surface made of grass or of an approved synthetic material. The green is surrounded by a ditch between 200 millimetres and 380 millimetres wide, between 50 millimetres and 200 millimetres deep; the ditch has a bank against its outer edge. The top of the bank should be at least 230 millimetres about the surface level of the green.
Greens are built in a square shape as close to 40 metres as possible. This allows for games to be played in either direction; the advantages of playing in different directions are that: the wear on the green is more and. In cities, where outdoor space is limited, greens are 40 metres in length, it is not unusual to find greens. On rectangular greens games are played in one direction only; the length of a rectangular green is still between 40 metres. The width can vary from as little as 8 metres to as much as 60 metres or more; the width of a rink for outdoor play will be between 5.8 metres. The centre line of the rink can be marked along the surface of the green starting at 2 metres from each end ditch; the side boundaries of each rink are shown by boundary pegs. The side boundary of the outside rink should be at least 600 millimetres from the side ditch. Laws of the Game for Crown Green Bowls Crown Green Bowling at Bowls.org.uk
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Samuel Smith (Liberal politician)
Samuel Smith was a British politician. He served as a Liberal Member of Parliament from 1882 to 1885 and from 1886 to 1906, he was noted for being a champion of "social purity" and opposed many plays with open displays of sexuality that he saw as "glorification of the vulgarest debauchery". Targets included the plays Zaza. Born near Borgue, Galloway, he was educated at Borgue parish school and Kirkcudbright Academy before attending Edinburgh University, his grand-father and his uncle, were each parish minister of Borgue. The former wrote'A General View of the Agriculture of Galloway', he was apprenticed to a Liverpool cotton broker in 1853. By 1864 he was head of the Liverpool branch of James Finlay & Co. a large cotton business of Glasgow and Bombay. Smith was first elected to Parliament on 11 December 1882 in a by-election in Liverpool, following the Conservative MP Viscount Sandon's succession to the Peerage as Earl of Harrowby on 19 November 1882; the three-seat Liverpool constituency was split for the 1885 general election and Smith stood in the new Liverpool Abercromby seat.
However, he lost to the Conservative candidate William Lawrence by 807 votes. He returned to Parliament in a by-election in Flintshire on 3 March 1886; this by-election followed the elevation to the Peerage of Lord Richard Grosvenor. Smith remained the seat's MP, he died that year aged 70. Edge Hill University has a hall of residence called Smith in honour of his contribution to the institution, he co-founded the university in 1885. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs British Parliamentary Election Results 1885–1918, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Samuel Smith
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Gloucestershire. Founded in 1870, Gloucestershire have always been first-class and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England; the club played its first senior match in 1870 and W. G. Grace was their captain; the club plays home games at the Bristol County Ground in the Bishopston area of north Bristol. A number of games are played at the Cheltenham cricket festival at the College Ground and matches have been played at the Gloucester cricket festival at The King's School, Gloucester. Gloucestershire's most famous players have been W. G. Grace, whose father founded the club, Wally Hammond, who scored 113 centuries for them; the club has had two notable periods of success: in the 1870s when it was unofficially acclaimed as the Champion County on at least three occasions, from 1999 to 2006 when it won seven limited overs trophies, a "double double" in 1999 and 2000, the Sunday League in 2000.
Champion County – 1874, 1876, 1877. It is known that the related sport of "Stow-Ball" aka "Stob-Ball" was played in the county during the 16th century. In this game, the bat was called a "stave". See Alice B Gomme: The Traditional Games of England and Ireland. A game in Gloucester on 22 September 1729 is the earliest definite reference to cricket in the county. From until the founding of the county club little has been found outside parish cricket. In the early 1840s, Dr Henry Grace and his brother-in-law Alfred Pocock founded the Mangotsfield Cricket Club which merged in 1846 with the West Gloucestershire Cricket Club, whose name was adopted until 1867, after which it became the Gloucestershire County Cricket Club. Grace hoped that Gloucestershire would join the first-class county clubs but the situation was complicated in 1863 by the formation of a rival club called the Cheltenham and Gloucestershire Cricket Club. Dr Grace's club played Gloucestershire's initial first-class match versus Surrey at Durdham Down in Bristol on 2, 3 & 4 June 1870.
Gloucestershire joined the County Championship at this time but the existence of the Cheltenham club seems to have forestalled the installation of its "constitutional trappings". The Cheltenham club was wound up in March 1871 and its chief officials accepted positions in the hierarchy of Gloucestershire. So, although the exact details and dates of the county club's foundation are uncertain, it has always been assumed that the year was 1870 and the club celebrated its centenary in 1970. What is certain is that Dr Grace was able to form the county club because of its playing strength his three sons WG, EM and Fred; the early history of Gloucestershire is dominated by the Grace family, most notably W G Grace, the club's original captain and held that post until his departure for London in 1899. His brother E M Grace, although still an active player, was the original club secretary. With the Grace brothers and Billy Midwinter in their team, Gloucestershire won three Champion County titles in the 1870s.
Since Gloucestershire's fortunes have been mixed and they have never won the official County Championship. They struggled in the pre-war years of the County Championship because their best batsmen, apart from Gilbert Jessop and Charlie Townsend, were rarely available; the bowling, except when Townsend did sensational things on sticky wickets in late 1895 and late 1898, was weak until George Dennett emerged – it had the fault of depending far too much on him. Wally Hammond, who still holds many of the county's batting records formed part of an strong inter-war team, although the highest championship finish during this period was second in 1930 and 1931, when Charlie Parker and Tom Goddard formed a devastating spin attack. Outstanding players since the war include Tom Graveney, "Jack" Russell and overseas players Mike Procter, Zaheer Abbas and Courtney Walsh. Gloucestershire was successful in one-day cricket in the late 1990s and early 2000s winning several titles under the captaincy of Mark Alleyne and coaching of John Bracewell.
The club operated on a small budget and was famed as a team greater than the sum of its parts, boasting few international stars. Gloucestershire's overall knockout record between 1999 and 2002 was 28 wins and seven losses from 37 games, including 16 wins from 18 at the Bristol County Ground; the club's run of success started by defeating Yorkshire to win the Benson & Hedges Super Cup in 1999 before beating neighbours Somerset in the 1999 NatWest Trophy final at Lord's. In 2000 Gloucestershire completed a hat-trick of one-day titles, winning all the domestic limited overs tournaments, the Benson and Hedges Cup, the C&G Trophy and the Sunday League in the same season; the club maintained its success winning the C&G Trophy in 2003 and 2004, beating Worcestershire in the final on both occasions. The club's captain f
Liverpool City Council
Liverpool City Council is the governing body for the city of Liverpool in Merseyside, England. It consists of three for each of the city's 30 wards; the council is controlled by the Labour Party and is led by Mayor Joe Anderson. It is a constituent council of Liverpool City Region Combined Authority. Liverpool has been a town since 1207, it has had a town corporation since before the 19th century, this was one of the corporations reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. The corporation created a police force in 1836. Liverpool was granted city status in 1880; when local government was reformed in 1888 under the Local Government Act 1888 it was one of the cities to become a county borough, thus independent of Lancashire. This situation persisted until 1974 with the Local Government Act 1972, when due to urban expansion and the accretion of a large metropolitan area, the city was made a metropolitan district of the metropolitan county of Merseyside; this saw the old corporation nomenclature abolished and the council reconstituted as Liverpool City Council.
In 1835 Liverpool expanded into the village of Everton and the township of Kirkdale in the 1860s. In 1895 Wavertree and parts of Toxteth and West Derby were incorporated into the city. Fazakerley and Gateacre followed the rest of West Derby known as West Derby Rural in 1928 and Speke in 1932. In 1986 the council of Merseyside was abolished and its functions devolved to its districts, but the county still exists. Liverpool has never been a district council under Lancashire County Council. In the late 1970s the City was run by the Liberal Party under Sir Trevor Jones; as part of their plans, a cost-cutting exercise was drawn up, to reduce the council's costs by 25%. In 1979 the Conservative Party won the General Election; the new government intended to cut council spending but Liverpool City Council negotiated an exception from this, on the grounds that they were following government policy and cutting 25%. During the 1980s, the Trotskyist Militant group gained control of Liverpool's Labour Party and the council, attempted to challenge the national government on several issues including refusing to set a budget in 1985.
The council adopted a'deficit budget' in which spending exceeded income, causing a financial crisis. The leadership of the Labour Party was drawn into the controversy, culminating with Neil Kinnock's speech to the Party Conference in 1985, denouncing Liverpool City Council without explicitly naming it. Derek Hatton, councillor for Netherley ward and Deputy Leader of the Council, shouted "lies" at the platform, Eric Heffer, MP for Liverpool Walton constituency, left the conference platform; the Labour Party succeeded in expelling members of Militant, Hatton himself was expelled from the Labour Party in June 1986. 1998 The Liberal Democrats win control of Liverpool City Council, led by Councillor Mike Storey 2001 Paradise Project is unveiled as plan to transform Chavasse Park in city centre with creation of new retail complex - to be called Liverpool ONE. 2003 Liverpool win the UK nomination of European Capital of Culture for 2008. 2004 Liverpool's waterfront and parts of the city centre are given World Heritage status.
2005 Liverpool Culture Company is established to deliver city's 800th anniversary in 2007 and European Capital of Culture in 2008. 2005 in November Lib Dem leader of the Council Mike Storey resigns after eight years following accusations of plotting to try to engineer departure of Council's Chief Executive, Sir David Henshaw. 2005 Cllr Storey was replaced as leader by Warren Bradley. Sir David Henshaw was replaced as chief executive by Colin Hilton. 2005 Liverpool City Council issue a formal apology for the flooding of Capel Celyn, near Bala, North Wales. The community was destroyed and the land flooded to create Llyn Celyn in 1965; the reservoir was created to supply water to Liverpool and Wirral. 2007 Council owned. 2007 Liverpool celebrates 800th anniversary on 28 August. 2007 Council owned. 2008 Liverpool launches its year as European Capital of Culture on January 11 with a "people's party" outside St George's Hall, attended by more than 40,000 people. On January 12 the Liverpool Echo Arena, owned by the council, was opened with a concert featuring Liverpool music bands past and present.
2008 Council awarded 1 star by Audit Commission. 2008 Liberal Democrats lose overall control of city on 1 May in local elections, however a midnight defection of an Independent Councillor gives them a majority of 1. 2008 Green Party take second seat in St Michael's ward, becoming a recognisable "group" on the council. 2009 The council announces a major shake up of middle management. 2010 The Labour party win control of the council for the first time in 12 years, with Councillor Joe Anderson becoming the new council leader 2010 The Liverpool Schools Investment Programme was created in response to UK government scrapping Building Schools for the Future. £180m was invested over an eight year period, transforming 22 of the city’s primary and secondary schools - including 15 new builds. 2011 The Labour Party's Jake Morrison, aged 18, defeats Lord Mike Storey after 38 years service 2012 The Labour Party's Joe Anderson was elected as the first Mayor for Liverpool on a three year term. 2013 Council owned.
2015 Joe Anderson was re-elected as Mayor of Liverpool on a five year term. 2016 Council established Paddington Village - a £1bn development site to attract world class science research and