Sega Games Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo. The company known as Sega Enterprises Ltd. and Sega Corporation, is a subsidiary of Sega Holdings Co. Ltd., part of Sega Sammy Holdings. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega of Europe, are headquartered in Irvine and London. Sega's arcade division, once part of Sega Corporation, has existed as Sega Interactive Co. Ltd. a Sega Holdings subsidiary, since 2015. The company was founded by Martin Bromley as Nihon Goraku Bussan on June 3, 1960, which became known as Sega Enterprises, Ltd. after acquiring Rosen Enterprises, an importer of coin-operated games. Sega developed its first coin-operated game with Periscope in the late 1960s. In 1969, Sega was sold to Western Industries. Following a downturn in the arcade business in the early 1980s, Sega began to develop video game consoles, starting with the SG-1000 and Master System, but struggled against competitors such as the Nintendo Entertainment System.
In 1984, Sega executives David Rosen and Hayao Nakayama led a management buyout of the company with backing from CSK Corporation. Sega released its next console, the Sega Genesis, in 1988. Although it was a distant third in Japan, the Genesis found major success after the release of Sonic the Hedgehog in 1991 and outsold its main competitor, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, in the U. S; however in the decade, Sega suffered commercial failures such as the 32X, Sega Saturn, Dreamcast consoles. In 2001, Sega stopped manufacturing consoles to become a third-party developer and publisher, was acquired by Sammy Corporation in 2004. In the years since the acquisition, Sega has been more profitable, but has been criticized for prioritizing quantity of game releases over quality. Sega produces multi-million-selling game franchises including Sonic the Hedgehog, Total War, Yakuza, is the world's most prolific arcade game producer, it operates amusement arcades and produces other entertainment products, including Sega Toys.
Sega is a subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings, a corporate conglomerate with over 60 individual subsidiaries. In 1940, American businessmen Martin Bromley, Irving Bromberg, James Humpert formed Standard Games in Honolulu, Hawaii, to provide coin-operated amusement machines to military bases, they saw that the increase in military personnel with the onset of World War II would create demand for entertainment at military bases. After the war, the founders sold Standard Games and established a new distributor, Service Games, named for the military focus. In 1951, the United States government outlawed slot machines in US territories, so in 1952 Bromley sent two employees, Richard Stewart and Ray LeMaire, to Tokyo to establish a new distributor; the company provided coin-operated slot machines to U. S. bases in Japan, by 1953 had changed its name to Service Games of Japan. The name Sega, an abbreviation of Service Games, was first used in 1954 on the Diamond Star Machine, a slot machine. On May 31, 1960, Service Games of Japan was dissolved.
On June 3, Bromley established two companies to take over its business activities: Nihon Goraku Bussan and Nihon Kikai Seizō. Kikai Seizō focused on manufacturing Sega machines, while Goraku Bussan served as a distributor and operator of coin-operated machines jukeboxes; the two companies merged in 1964. In 1954, David Rosen, an American officer in the United States Air Force stationed in Japan, launched a two-minute photo booth business in Tokyo; this company became Rosen Enterprises, in 1957 began importing coin-operated games to Japan. In 1965, Nihon Goraku Bussan acquired Rosen Enterprise to form Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Rosen was installed as the CEO and managing director. Shortly afterward, Sega stopped leasing to military bases and moved its focus from slot machines to become a publicly traded company of coin-operated amusement machines, its imports included Rock-Ola jukeboxes, pinball games by Williams, gun games by Midway Manufacturing. Because Sega imported second-hand machines that required maintenance, Sega began the transition from importer to manufacturer by constructing replacement guns and flippers for its imported games.
According to former Sega director Akira Nagai, this led to Sega developing their own games as well. The first electromechanical game Sega manufactured was the submarine simulator game Periscope, released worldwide in the late 1960s; the game sported light and sound effects considered innovative, was successful in Japan. It was placed in malls and department stores, it cost 25 cents per play in the United States. Sega was surprised by the success, for the next two years produced and exported between eight and ten games per year. Despite this, rampant piracy in the industry would lead to Sega stepping away from exporting its games. In order to advance the company, Rosen had a goal to take the company public, decided this would be easier to accomplish in the United States than in Japan. Rosen was advised that this would be easiest accomplished by Sega being acquired by a larger company. In 1969, Sega was sold to American conglomerate Gulf and Western Industries, although Rosen remained CEO following the sale.
Rosen continued to develop his relationship with Gulf and Western chairman Charles Bluhdorn, in 1974 Gulf and Western made Sega Enterprises, Ltd. a subsidiary of an American company renamed Sega Enterprises, Inc. Sega released Pong-Tron, its first video-based game, in 1973. Despite late competition from Taito's hit arcade game Space Invaders in 1978, Sega prospered from the arcade gam
Virtua Fighter (video game)
Virtua Fighter is a fighting game created for the Sega Model 1 arcade platform by AM2, a development group within Sega, headed by Yu Suzuki. It was released in October 1993, it is the first game in the Virtua Fighter series, the first arcade fighting game to feature 3D polygon graphics. The game has been ported to several platforms including the Sega Saturn, Sega 32X, Microsoft Windows. A critically acclaimed and hit game, Virtua Fighter was regarded for its in-depth fighting engine and real world fighting techniques, has been revolutionary and influential in the evolution of the genre and video games in general. An update titled Virtua Fighter Remix, developed by AM1, was released for the Saturn in 1995, ported to the arcade that same year; the game's remake, Virtua Fighter 10th Anniversary, was released for the PlayStation 2 in 2003 as a stand-alone title in Japan and as a bonus to Virtua Fighter 4: Evolution in North America. The Virtua label indicates that the onscreen action takes place in 3D.
The images were created using flat-shaded quads. Beyond 3D, it retained the staple of each with their own distinctive moves. In the game's single-player mode, the player faces all eight characters in a pre-determined order, followed by a fight with the game's boss, Dural; each fight is a best-of-three match, the player has three ways to win: knocking out the opponent, forcing him/her out of the ring, or having more health left when time runs out. Unlike other fighting games of the early 1990s, the game relies on a control stick and only three buttons, Punch and Guard although different situations and button combinations led to a vast variety of moves for each character. Akira Yuki—A kung fu teacher from Japan, fights with bajiquan. Pai Chan—Martial arts movie star from Hong Kong, fights with ensei-ken. Lau Chan—Pai's father and a cook from China, fights with koen-ken. Wolf Hawkfield—Professional wrestler from Canada, fights with professional wrestling. Jeffry McWild—Fisherman from Australia, fights with pancratium.
Kage-Maru —Ninja from Japan, fights with jujutsu. Sarah Bryant -- College student from San Francisco, CA, fights. Jacky Bryant—Sarah's older brother and a race car driver from San Francisco, fights with jeet kune do. Dural—A gynoid, the game's boss character and is Kage's missing mother, she fights with a mix of all the other characters' styles. An Arab fighter named Siba was planned, his character model appeared on some Virtua Fighter arcade cabinets, he was dropped, but appeared in Fighters Megamix. Once in the Shōwa period, the defunct Japanese army intended to approach Henry Pu-yi, the last Emperor of the Ching Dynasty in their effort to take advantages. However, they were defeated by the Imperial guards. During World War II, the Japanese army research the mysteries of Hakkyoku-ken to create supersoldiers, developing the ultimate martial art. Half a century has passed since the ultimate World Fighting Tournament is about to start, all kinds of fighters from around the world engage to determine the world's best.
Behind the Tournament, there exists an intrigue designed by a sinister syndicate. Virtua Fighter was created using hardware jointly developed by aerospace technology firm Lockheed Martin and Sega, dubbed the Model 1. According to Sega of Japan's publicity manager, Kurokawa, "We deliberately didn't publicize all the moves at the same time but instead revealed them to gamers one at a time by means of the Japanese videogame press." Virtua Fighter was a launch game for the Sega Saturn, served as the pack-in launch game in North America. Its Sega 32X version was developed by the same team responsible for the Genesis port of Virtua Racing. Virtua Fighter Remix was an update of the original Virtua Fighter with higher-polygon models, texture mapping, some gameplay changes, it was given free to all registered Saturn owners in the United States via mail. It had an arcade release on the ST-V and ported to Microsoft Windows as Virtua Fighter PC. With the 2003 PlayStation 2 release of Virtua Fighter 4: Evolution arriving in time for the series' 10th anniversary, a remake of Virtua Fighter, Virtua Fighter 10th Anniversary, was released on the PlayStation 2.
While the music and low-polygon visual style were retained from the first game, the character roster, animations and movesets were taken from Evolution. In the previous PS2 release of Virtua Fighter 4, a button code would make the player's character look like a VF1 model. In Japan, the game was included as part of a box set with a book called Virtua Fighter 10th Anniversary: Memory of a Decade and a DVD; the box set was published by Enterbrain. In North America, the game was included in the home version of Virtua Fighter 4: Evolution, in Europe it was only available as a promotional item. In an early preview of the arcade game, the October 1993 issue of Electronic Gaming Monthly hailed Virtua Fighter as a demonstration of "just how far video games have come in the last eight years." EGM made particular note of the advanced graphics, how the camera moves along different axes depending on the fighters' location, the use of multiple viewpoints in the instant replay, the high quality of the gamepl
Pachinko is a type of mechanical game originating in Japan and is used as both a form of recreational arcade game and much more as a gambling device, filling a Japanese gambling niche comparable to that of the slot machine in Western gaming. Pachinko parlors are widespread in Japan, they also feature a number of slot machines. Modern pachinko machines are customizable. Gambling for cash is illegal in Japan. Pachinko balls won from games cannot be exchanged directly for money in the parlor; the balls may not be removed from the premises, are engraved in identifiable patterns showing to which parlor they belong. Balls won at the parlor are exchanged for prizes or tokens, which can be exchanged for cash at a place nominally separate from the parlor. One prize exchange may serve a number of nearby parlors, getting a percentage of the prize's value when it is collected by the parlor. By 1994, the pachinko market in Japan was valued at ¥30 trillion; as of 2015, Japan's pachinko market generates more gambling revenue than that of Las Vegas and Singapore combined.
A pachinko machine resembles a vertical pinball machine, but is different from Western pinball in several ways. First, a pachinko machine uses small steel balls, which are rented to the player by the owner, while pinball games use a larger, captive ball; the pachinko balls are not only the active object, but are the bet and the prize. The player loads one or more balls into the machine presses and releases a spring-loaded handle, attached to a padded hammer inside the machine, thus launching the ball into a metal track; the track guides the ball around the edge of the playing field when the ball loses momentum, it falls into the playing field from near the top. Some pachinko machines have a bumper to bounce the ball as it reaches the top, while other machines allow the ball to travel all the way around the field, to fall on the second time that it reaches the top. In either case, the ball enters the playing field, populated by a large number of brass pins, several small cups into which the player hopes the ball will fall, a hole at the bottom into which the ball will fall if it doesn't enter a catcher.
The ball bounces from pin to pin, both slowing the fall and making it travel laterally across the field. A ball which enters a catcher will trigger a payout, in which a number of balls are dropped into a tray at the front of the machine. Many games made since the 1960s feature "tulip" catchers, which have small flippers which open to expand the width of the catcher. Tulip catchers are controlled by the machine, may open and close randomly or in a pattern; the object of the game is to capture as many balls as possible. These balls can be exchanged for prizes. Pachinko machines were strictly mechanical, but modern ones have incorporated extensive electronics, becoming similar to video slot machines. Pachinko machines were first built during the 1920s as a children's toy called the "Corinth game", based on and named after the American "Corinthian bagatelle". Another inspiration was the Billard japonais,'Japanese billiards', invented in Western Europe during the 18th century, it spread from there. All of Japan's pachinko parlors were closed down during World War II but re-emerged in the late 1940s.
Pachinko has remained popular since. As a country influenced by Japan during its occupation, Taiwan has many pachinko establishments. Nowadays an estimated 80 percent of pachinko parlors in Japan are owned by ethnic Koreans; until the 1980s, pachinko machines were mechanical devices, using bells to indicate different states of the machine. Electricity was used only to flash lights and to indicate problems, such as a machine emptied of its balls. Balls were launched using a flipper. Manufacturers in this period included Sankyo. After that time, pachinko machines incorporated more electronic features, thus requiring electricity for operation. To play pachinko, players get a number of metal balls by inserting cash or cards directly into the machine they want to use; these balls are shot into the machine via pulling a lever once for each launch from a ball tray. The balls fall vertically through an array of pins, cups and various obstacles until they reach the bottom of the machine screen; the player has a chance to get more balls to play with if one of the launched balls hits a certain place during the fall through the Pachinko machine.
Having more balls is considered a benefit, because it allows the player to remain in the game longer and have a larger winning chance. Newer machines have a digital slot machine on a large screen in the center of the system; the objective of this part is to get 3 symbols in a row for a jackpot. Older pachinko machines had a spring-loaded lever for shooting the balls individually, but newer ones use a round knob that controls the strength of an electrically fired plunger that shoots the balls onto the playing field; when shot, the balls drop through an array of pins. Every ball
Sonic the Hedgehog (1991 video game)
Sonic the Hedgehog referred to as Sonic 1, is a platform game developed by Sonic Team and published by Sega for the Sega Genesis console. It was released in North America in June 1991, in PAL regions and Japan the following month; the game features an anthropomorphic hedgehog named Sonic in a quest to defeat Doctor Robotnik, a scientist who has imprisoned animals in robots and stolen the powerful Chaos Emeralds. The gameplay involves collecting rings as a form of health and a simple control scheme, with jumping and attacking controlled by a single button. Development began in 1990 when Sega ordered its developers to create a game featuring a mascot for the company. After considering a number of suggestions, the developers decided on a blue hedgehog and named themselves "Sonic Team" to match their character. Sonic the Hedgehog, designed for fast gameplay, was influenced by games by Super Mario series creator Shigeru Miyamoto. Sonic the Hedgehog uses a novel technique that allows Sonic's sprite to roll along curved scenery, which originated in a tech demo created by programmer Yuji Naka.
Sonic the Hedgehog was well received by critics, who praised its visuals and gameplay. It was commercially successful, establishing the Genesis as a key player in the 16-bit era and allowing it to compete with Nintendo and their Super Nintendo Entertainment System console; the game has been ported a number of times, inspired several clones, a successful franchise, adaptations into other media. It is cited as one of the greatest video games of all time. Sonic the Hedgehog is a side-scrolling platform video game; the gameplay centers around Sonic's ability to run at high speed through levels that include springs, bottomless pits, vertical loops. The levels are populated with hazards in the form of robots inside which Dr. Robotnik has trapped animals. Destroying a robot frees the creature, but is not necessary to complete the game; the player must avoid touching spikes, falling into bottomless pits, being crushed by moving walls or platforms, as well as drowning, which may be prevented by breathing air bubbles from vents.
Sonic's main means of attack is the Spin Attack, in which he curls into a ball and spins his body, damaging enemies and certain obstacles upon collision. This may be performed by rolling on the ground. At the start of the game, the player is given three lives, each of which may be lost if Sonic collides with hazardous enemies or objects while in possession of no rings, falls to the bottom of the level screen, or exceeds an act's ten-minute time limit. Signposts act as checkpoints to allow Sonic to return to the most activated post when he loses a life; the time resets. The game ends when the player runs out of lives, although the player may return to the beginning of the act with three lives if the player has any continues. Scattered around each level are gold rings. Collecting 100 rings rewards the player with an extra life. Rings act as a layer of protection against hazards: if Sonic holds at least one ring when he collides with an enemy or dangerous obstacle, he survives. However, all his rings scatter, disappear in a few seconds if not picked up again.
If he is hit without holding any rings, he loses a life. Shields and temporary invincibility can be collected to provide additional layers of protection, but certain hazards, such as drowning, being crushed, bottomless pits, or running out of time, kill Sonic regardless of rings or other protection; the game is split into six principal zones, followed by a short'Final Zone'. Each main zone has its own visual style, while some enemies appear throughout, each zone has unique enemies and obstacles; each main zone is split into three acts. At the end of each main zone's third act, the player confronts Dr. Robotnik for a boss fight. For most of the fights, Robotnik's vehicle is fitted with different weapons. After completing the sixth zone, the player continues directly to the single-level "Final Zone" for a last encounter with Robotnik inside a large machine environment. Destroying Robotnik's machine ends the game. A brief animation shows Sonic's return to the first zone. Optionally, if Sonic reaches the end of any zone's Act 1 or Act 2 while holding at least 50 rings, a large ring appears through which he can jump to enter a "Special Stage."
In the Special Stages, Sonic is continually curled up in his Spin Attack animation, bounces off the bumpers and walls of a rotating maze. In these levels, the player earns a number of continues for each multiple of 50 rings collected, but the main goal is to obtain the Chaos Emerald hidden within the maze. Colliding with any of the blocks marked "GOAL" ends the level. In an attempt to steal the six Chaos Emeralds and harness their power, the evil Dr. Ivo Robotnik has trapped the animal inhabitants of South Island in aggressive robots and stationary metal capsules; the player controls Sonic, who aims to halt Robotnik's plans by freeing his animal friends and collecting the emeralds himself. If the player collects all the Chaos Emeralds and completes the game, an ending sequence is shown. If all the emeralds are not collected, Robotnik taunts the player while juggling any of the Chaos Emeralds not collected by the player. In 1990, Sega ordered its in-house development studio to develop a game featuring a mascot for the company.
This was a position held by the character Alex Kidd, but he was considered too similar to Nintendo's mascot Mario and deemed unsatisfactory. Sega had competition with Nintendo, dominant at the time, Sega
An amusement arcade is a venue where people play arcade games such as video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games, merchandisers, or coin-operated billiards or air hockey tables. In some countries, some types of arcades are legally permitted to provide gambling machines such as slot machines or pachinko machines. Games are housed in cabinets; the term used for ancestors of these venues in the beginning of the 20th century was penny arcades. Video games were introduced in amusement arcades in the late 1970s and were most popular during the golden age of arcade video games, the early 1980s. Arcades became popular with children and adolescents, which led parents to be concerned that video game playing might cause them to skip school. A penny arcade can be any type of venue for coin-operated devices for entertainment; the term came into use about 1905-1910. The name derives from the penny, once a staple coin for the machines; the machines used included: bagatelles, a game with elements of billiards and non-electrical pinball, early forms of non-electrical pinball machines, fortune-telling machinery, slot machines, coin-operated Amberolas peep show machines, which allowed the viewer to see various objects and pictures Mutoscopes love tester machines.
Coin operated shooter gamesPenny arcades led to the creation of video arcades in the 1970s. Arcades catering for video games began to gain momentum in the late 1970s with games such as Space Invaders and Galaxian and became widespread in 1980 with Pac-Man and others; the central processing unit in these games allowed for more complexity than earlier discrete-circuitry games such as Atari's Pong. During the late 1970s video-arcade game technology had become sophisticated enough to offer good-quality graphics and sounds, but it remained basic and so the success of a game had to rely on simple and fun gameplay; this emphasis on the gameplay explains why many of these games continue to be enjoyed as of 2018, despite the progress made by modern computing technology. The golden age of video arcade games in the 1980s became a peak era of video arcade game popularity and earnings. Color arcade games became more prevalent and video arcades themselves started appearing outside their traditional bowling-alley and bar locales.
Designers experimented with a wide variety of game genres, while developers still had to work within strict limits of available processor-power and memory. The era saw the rapid spread of video arcades across Western Europe and Japan; the number of video-game arcades in North America, for example, more than doubled between 1980 and 1982, reaching a peak of 13,000 video game arcades across the region. Beginning with Space Invaders, video arcade games started to appear in supermarkets, liquor stores, gas stations and many other retail establishments looking for extra income; this boom came to an end in the mid-1980s, in what has been referred to as "the great coin-op video crash of 1983". On November 30, 1982, Jerry Parker, the Mayor of Ottumwa, declared his city the "Video Game Capital of the World"; this initiative resulted in many firsts in video game history. Playing a central role in arcade history, Ottumwa saw the birth of the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard and the U. S. National Video Game Team, two organizations that still exist today.
Other firsts that happened in the Video Game Capital of the World included: the first video-game-themed parade the first video game world championship the first study of the brain waves of video-game champions the first billion-point video-game performance the first official day to honor a video-game player High game-turnover in Japanese arcades required quick game-design, leading to the adoption of standardized systems like JAMMA, Neo-Geo and CPS-2. These systems provided arcade-only consoles where the video game ROM could be swapped to replace a game; this allowed easier development and replacement of games, but it discouraged the hardware innovation necessary to stay ahead of the technology curve. Most US arcades didn't see the intended benefit of this practice since many games weren't exported to the US, if they were, distributors refused to release them as a ROM, preferring to sell the entire ROM, sometimes the cabinet as a package. In fact, several arcade systems such as Sega's NAOMI board are arcade versions of home systems.
The arcade industry entered a major slump in mid-1994. Arcade attendance and per-visit spending, though not as poor as during the 1983 crash, declined to the point where several of the largest arcade chains either were put up for sale or declared bankruptcy, while many large arcade machine manufacturers moved to get out of the business. In the second quarter of 1996, video game factories reported 90,000 arcade cabinets sold, as compared to 150,000 cabinets sold in 1990; the main reason for the slump was increasing competition from console ports. During the 1980s it took several years for an arcade game to be released on a home console, the port differed from the arcade version. In the late 1990s, a bar opened in the new Crown Casino complex in Melbourne, Australia named Barcode
The Sega Saturn is a 32-bit fifth-generation home video game console developed by Sega and released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America, July 8, 1995 in Europe. The successor to the successful Sega Genesis, the Saturn has a dual-CPU architecture and eight processors, its games are in CD-ROM format, its game library contains several arcade ports as well as original games. Development of the Saturn began in 1992, the same year Sega's groundbreaking 3D Model 1 arcade hardware debuted. Designed around a new CPU from Japanese electronics company Hitachi, another video display processor was incorporated into the system's design in early 1994 to better compete with Sony's forthcoming PlayStation; the Saturn was successful in Japan, but failed to sell in large numbers in the United States after its surprise May 1995 launch, four months before its scheduled release date. After the debut of the Nintendo 64 in late 1996, the Saturn lost market share in the U. S. where it was discontinued in 1998.
Having sold 9.26 million units worldwide, the Saturn is considered a commercial failure. The failure of Sega's development teams to release a game in the Sonic the Hedgehog series, known in development as Sonic X-treme, has been considered a factor in the console's poor performance. Although the Saturn is remembered for several well-regarded games, including Nights into Dreams, the Panzer Dragoon series, the Virtua Fighter series, its reputation is mixed due to its complex hardware design and limited third-party support. Sega's management has been criticized for its decisions during the system's development and discontinuation. Released in 1988, the Genesis was Sega's entry into the fourth generation of video game consoles. In mid-1990, Sega CEO Hayao Nakayama hired Tom Kalinske as CEO of Sega of America. Kalinske developed a four-point plan for sales of the Genesis: lower the price of the console, create a U. S.-based team to develop games targeted at the American market, continue aggressive advertising campaigns, sell Sonic the Hedgehog with the console.
The Japanese board of directors disapproved of the plan, but all four points were approved by Nakayama, who told Kalinske, "I hired you to make the decisions for Europe and the Americas, so go ahead and do it." Magazines praised Sonic as one of the greatest games made, Sega's console took off as customers, waiting for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System decided to purchase a Genesis instead. However, the release of a CD-based add-on for the Genesis, the Sega CD, was commercially disappointing. Sega experienced success with arcade games. In 1992 and 1993, the new Sega Model 1 arcade system board showcased Sega AM2's Virtua Racing and Virtua Fighter, which played a crucial role in popularizing 3D polygonal graphics. In particular, Virtua Fighter garnered praise for its simple three-button control scheme, with strategy coming from the intuitively observed differences between characters that felt and acted differently rather than the more ornate combos of two-dimensional competitors. Despite its crude visuals—with characters composed of fewer than 1,200 polygons—Virtua Fighter's fluid animation and realistic depiction of distinct fighting styles gave its combatants a lifelike presence considered impossible to replicate with sprites.
The Model 1 was an expensive system board, bringing home releases of its games to the Genesis required more than its hardware could handle. Several alternatives helped to bring Sega's newest arcade games to the console, such as the Sega Virtua Processor chip used for Virtua Racing, the Sega 32X add-on. Development of the Saturn was supervised by Hideki Sato, Sega's director and deputy general manager of research and development. According to Sega project manager Hideki Okamura, the Saturn project started over two years before the system was showcased at the Tokyo Toy Show in June 1994; the name "Saturn" was the system's codename during development in Japan, but was chosen as the official product name. Computer Gaming World in March 1994 reported a rumor that "the Sega Saturn... will release in Japan before the end of the year" for $250–300. In 1993, Sega and Japanese electronics company Hitachi formed a joint venture to develop a new CPU for the Saturn, which resulted in the creation of the "SuperH RISC Engine" that year.
The Saturn was designed around a dual-SH2 configuration. According to Kazuhiro Hamada, Sega's section chief for Saturn development during the system's conception, "the SH-2 was chosen for reasons of cost and efficiency; the chip has a calculation system similar to a DSP, but we realized that a single CPU would not be enough to calculate a 3D world." Although the Saturn's design was finished before the end of 1993, reports in early 1994 of the technical capabilities of Sony's upcoming PlayStation console prompted Sega to include another video display processor to improve the system's 2D performance and texture-mapping. CD-ROM-based and cartridge-only versions of the Saturn hardware were considered for simultaneous release during the system's development, but this idea was discarded due to concerns over the lower quality and higher price of cartridge-based games. According to Kalinske, Sega of America "fought against the architecture of Saturn for quite some time". Seeking an alternative graphics chip for the Saturn, Kalinske attempted to broker a deal with Silicon Graphics, but Sega of Japan rejected the proposal.
Silicon Graphics subsequently collaborated with Nintendo on the Nintendo 64. Kalinske, Sony Electronic Publishing's Olaf Olafsson, Sony America's Micky Schulhof h
Puyo Puyo marketed under the name Puyo Pop in North America and Europe, is a series of tile-matching video games created by Compile. Sega has owned the franchise with games after 2001 being developed by Sonic Team. Puyo Puyo was created as a spin-off franchise to Madō Monogatari, a series of first-person dungeon crawler RPGs by Compile; the characters from Puyo Puyo originated from Madō Monogatari. As of 2017, Sega Sammy Holdings has reported that the Puyo Puyo franchise has sold a combined total of 25 million units in physical and digital sales since Sega obtained the rights; the first Puyo Puyo game was developed by Compile and released in 1991 for the MSX2 and Family Computer Disk System. The puzzle game features characters from the 1990 RPG Madō Monogatari 1-2-3 developed by Compile; the game includes "Endless" mode, where the player attempts to amass a large score, "Mission" mode, where the player is given a pre-configured board and must attempt to satisfy conditions, a two-player competitive mode.
Compile and Sega collaborated to create an arcade version of Puyo Puyo. It was released in October 1992 for Sega's System C2 hardware. Unlike the previous release, the game focuses on competitive play; the game was ported to several major platforms with the Mega Drive becoming a bestseller. The game was followed by Puyo Puyo 2 in September 1994 released for Sega System C2. 2 adds the ability to counter the opponent's chains. Like its predecessor, 2 was released on a variety of home platforms. In 2004, it was included in the Sega Ages 2500 line of PlayStation 2 games. Puyo Puyo Sun, released in 1996 for the Sega Titan Video arcade hardware, adds a "Sun Puyo" mechanic that allows the player to send extra Nuisance to opponents. Puyo Puyo~n, released in 1999 for the Dreamcast, adds character-specific powers that assist the player in clearing Puyo. Compile's final Puyo Puyo game, Puyo Puyo BOX, includes ports of the first two arcade games alongside original content. Compile released a variety of spin-off titles on home consoles and through their Disc Station disk magazine.
The Nazo Puyo series expands on the original Puyo Puyo's Mission mode, with the 1994 Nazo Puyo: Arle no Roux for Game Gear, 1995 Super Nazo Puyo: Rulue no Roux for Super Famicom and 1996 Super Nazo Puyo 2: Rulue no Tetsuwan Hanjouki for Super Famicom introducing RPG elements. Other notable spin-offs include the roguelike Waku Waku Puyo Puyo Dungeon, Puyo Puyo DA! Dancing game, Arle no Bouken: Mahou no Jewel monster-collecting RPG. Sonic Team's first Puyo Puyo games were Minna de Puyo Puyo for the Game Boy Advance, released in Japan in 2001 and elsewhere in 2002 as Puyo Pop, it is one of three games named Puyo Pop, the others being the Neo Geo Pocket Color port of 2 and an N-Gage-exclusive game. Sega released Puyo Pop Fever on November 2003 for their NAOMI arcade hardware; the game features an entirely new set of characters, alongside new gameplay mechanics such as Fever Mode. Like its arcade predecessors, Fever was ported to many platforms. A direct sequel, Puyo Puyo Fever 2 was released in 2005.
Fever 2 added an expanded single-player mode. Puyo Puyo 7, released in 2009, adds a third protagonist and includes a new "Transformation" gameplay system. In addition, games celebrating Puyo Puyo's 15th and 20th Anniversary were released. Puyo Puyo! 15th Anniversary includes more than ten gameplay rulesets, including the rules of the first Puyo Puyo, 2, Fever, reintroduces characters that were absent from the series since Minna de Puyo Puyo, gives every character in the game a single-player story. Puyo Puyo!! 20th Anniversary adds more rulesets, such as Sun rules. Puyo Puyo Tetris, released in 2014, includes both Puyo Tetris gameplay. Puyo Puyo!! Quest is a free-to-play RPG released for iOS and Android in 2013. Sega has claimed that the game is a major success, stated that the game has reached 11 million downloads and a monthly income of over 500 million yen as of February 2015. Puyo Puyo was a mini-game in Hatsune Miku: Project Mirai Deluxe/DX in 2015. In the mini-game, the Vocaloid you play with has to win against the Vocaloids that you are not playing as currently.
Costumes of Arle and the Dark Prince are unlockable in the mini-game. Technically, the mini-game marks as the first Puyo Puyo game overseas in over a decade. Puyo Puyo Chronicle was released on December 8, 2016, in Japan for Nintendo 3DS, as part of the original Puyo Puyo game's 25th anniversary with no plans for localization, despite the demand for it. Unlike the other anniversary games, it features an RPG mode, although the classic rules are included, features a new character named Ally. Puyo Puyo eSports, a digital title with an emphasis on eSports tournament play, was released for PlayStation 4 and Nintendo Switch on October 25, 2018 in Japan; the 1992 arcade Puyo Puyo was translated to English with character name changes and minor visual changes to the Harpy character's skit. The Game Gear port of the 1992 arcade game, when used in a non-Japanese Game Gear, loads a similar version titled Puzlow Kids.