In computing, a segmentation fault or access violation is a fault, or failure condition, raised by hardware with memory protection, notifying an operating system the software has attempted to access a restricted area of memory. On standard x86 computers, this is a form of general protection fault; the OS kernel will, in response perform some corrective action passing the fault on to the offending process by sending the process a signal. Processes can in some cases install a custom signal handler, allowing them to recover on their own, but otherwise the OS default signal handler is used causing abnormal termination of the process, sometimes a core dump. Segmentation faults are a common class of error in programs written in languages like C that provide low-level memory access, they arise due to errors in use of pointers for virtual memory addressing illegal access. Another type of memory access error is a bus error, which has various causes, but is today much rarer. Many programming languages may employ mechanisms designed to avoid segmentation faults and improve memory safety.
For example, the Rust programming language, which appeared in 2010, employs an'Ownership' based model to ensure memory safety, garbage collection has been employed since around 1960, which avoids certain classes of memory errors which could lead to segmentation faults. A segmentation fault occurs when a program attempts to access a memory location that it is not allowed to access, or attempts to access a memory location in a way, not allowed; the term "segmentation" has various uses in computing. With memory protection, only the program's own address space is readable, of this, only the stack and the read-write portion of the data segment of a program are writable, while read-only data and the code segment are not writable, thus attempting to read outside of the program's address space, or writing to a read-only segment of the address space, results in a segmentation fault, hence the name. On systems using hardware memory segmentation to provide virtual memory, a segmentation fault occurs when the hardware detects an attempt to refer to a non-existent segment, or to refer to a location outside the bounds of a segment, or to refer to a location in a fashion not allowed by the permissions granted for that segment.
On systems using only paging, an invalid page fault leads to a segmentation fault, segmentation faults and page faults are both faults raised by the virtual memory management system. Segmentation faults can occur independently of page faults: illegal access to a valid page is a segmentation fault, but not an invalid page fault, segmentation faults can occur in the middle of a page, for example in a buffer overflow that stays within a page but illegally overwrites memory. At the hardware level, the fault is raised by the memory management unit on illegal access, as part of its memory protection feature, or an invalid page fault. If the problem is not an invalid logical address but instead an invalid physical address, a bus error is raised instead, though these are not always distinguished. At the operating system level, this fault is caught and a signal is passed on to the offending process, activating the process's handler for that signal. Different operating systems have different signal names to indicate that a segmentation fault has occurred.
On Unix-like operating systems, a signal called. On Microsoft Windows, the offending process receives a STATUS_ACCESS_VIOLATION exception; the conditions under which segmentation violations occur and how they manifest themselves are specific to hardware and the operating system: different hardware raises different faults for given conditions, different operating systems convert these to different signals that are passed on to processes. The proximate cause is a memory access violation, while the underlying cause is a software bug of some sort. Determining the root cause – debugging the bug – can be simple in some cases, where the program will cause a segmentation fault, while in other cases the bug can be difficult to reproduce and depend on memory allocation on each run; the following are some typical causes of a segmentation fault: Attempting to access a nonexistent memory address Attempting to access memory the program does not have rights to Attempting to write read-only memory These in turn are caused by programming errors that result in invalid memory access: Dereferencing a null pointer, which points to an address that's not part of the process's address space Dereferencing or assigning to an uninitialized pointer Dereferencing or assigning to a freed pointer A buffer overflow A stack overflow Attempting to execute a program that does not compile correctly.
(Some compilers will output an e
St. Martinus University Faculty of Medicine is a private medical school located in Willemstad, Curaçao, which started operating in 2003. In October 2005, the school had half the number of students it needed to break and in October 2007, Banco de Caribe announced an auction of the university property. Education of students never halted and the auction never manifested. In 2010, SMU came under the administration of Priyamvada Sharma. In 2013 the university became a designated educational institution for the Canada Student Loans Program. Third-year medical students do clerkships in Pontiac, Michigan. St. Martinus University is listed in the World Directory of Medical Schools, its graduates are eligible to apply for ECFMG certification, allowing them to take the United States Medical Licensing Examination and become licensed to practice medicine in the US, it is recognized by the Medical Council of India as a degree-granting university/institution. It is not accredited by the Caribbean Accreditation Authority for Education in Medicine and other Health Professions, Accreditation Commission of Colleges of Medicine, or Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders.
International medical graduate List of medical schools in the Caribbean Official website
William Abel Pantin was an historian of mediaeval England who spent most of his academic life at the University of Oxford. Pantin was born in Blackheath, south London, on 1 May 1902, he was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, where he obtained a first-class degree in Modern History in 1923. He undertook research at the University of Oxford after winning a Bryce Research Studentship. From 1926 he taught history at the Victoria University of Manchester, first as an Assistant Lecturer and as the Bishop Fraser Lecturer. At Manchester he worked under F. M. Powicke, Professor of Mediaeval History, who influenced Pantin's work for the rest of his life. In 1929 the Royal Historical Society awarded its Alexander Prize to Pantin for his essay The General and Provincial Chapters of the English Black Monks, 1215–1540; the "Black Monks" were the Order of Saint Benedict, whose history in England remained a subject of Pantin's research and published works for the rest of his life. In 1928 Powicke moved to Oxford to become Regius Professor of Modern History.
In 1933 Pantin followed, becoming a tutorial fellow and Lecturer in History at Oriel College, Oxford. He was a university lecturer in mediaeval archaeology and history from 1937 onwards. Pantin was active in the Oxford Architectural and Historical Society, serving on the Editorial Committee of its journal Oxoniensia and on the OAHS's Sub-Committee for Old Houses, he was President of the OAHS 1959–64. During his career at Oxford a substantial number of the city's unique mediaeval buildings were destroyed for redevelopment. In 1936–37 the University of Oxford had a row of historic houses in Broad Street demolished to make way for the New Bodleian Library. In 1954–55 F. W. Woolworth had the mediaeval Clarendon Hotel in Cornmarket Street demolished to make way for a new retail store. In 1959 Oxford City Council had Lower Fisher Row beside Castle Mill Stream demolished as slum clearance. In each case Pantin recorded the buildings as as possible before and during their demolition, published his results in Oxoniensia.
In 1940 Pantin was appointed General Editor of the Oxford Historical Society. He developed an interest in the archives of the University of Oxford, which in 1946 appointed him Keeper of the Archives. Pantin was appointed a Fellow of the British Academy in 1948 and was a member of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England from 1963 onwards. Pantin retired from his college and university posts in 1969, Oriel College made him an Honorary Fellow in 1971, he died on 10 November 1973. There was a William Abel Pantin Trust to further historical research in Oxford and support the charitable and educational functions of the Provost and Fellows of Oriel College, Oxford, it was founded in January 1971 and dissolved in August 2013. "Some Recent Works on Monasticism". The Journal of the Historical Association. London: Historical Association. 12. 1927–28. Documents Illustrating the General and Provincial Chapters of the English Black Monks, 1215–1540. I. London: Royal Historical Society. 1931. Documents Illustrating the General and Provincial Chapters of the English Black Monks, 1215–1540.
II. London: Royal Historical Society. 1933. "College Muniments: A Preliminary Note". Oxoniensia. Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. I: 140–143. 1936. Documents Illustrating the General and Provincial Chapters of the English Black Monks, 1215–1540. III. London: Royal Historical Society. 1937. "The Recently Demolished Houses in Broad Street". Oxoniensia. Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. II: 171–200. 1937. Formularies Which Bear on the History of Oxford, c. 1204–1420. Oxford Historical Society, New Series. I. Oxford: Oxford Historical Society. 1939. "Notley Abbey". Oxoniensia. Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. VI: 22–48. 1941. "Tackley's Inn, Oxford". Oxoniensia. Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. VII: 80–93. 1942. Canterbury College Oxford. Oxford Historical Society, New Series, Vol VIII. III. Oxford: Clarendon Press for the Oxford Historical Society. 1944. "Gloucester College". Oxoniensia. Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. XI–XII: 65–74. 1946–47. Canterbury College Oxford. I. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
1947. Canterbury College Oxford. II. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1947. "The development of domestic architecture in Oxford". Antiquaries Journal. London: Society of Antiquaries of London. XXVII: 120 ff. 1947. Doi:10.1017/s0003581500016796. Canterbury College Oxford. IV. Oxford: Clarendon Press for the Oxford Historical Society. 1950. The English Church in the Fourteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1955... "The Golden Cross, Oxford". Oxoniensia. Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. 1955. CS1 maint: others "The Clarendon Hotel Oxford. Part II: The Buildings". Oxoniensia. Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. XXIII: 84–129. 1958. "Medieval Priests' Houses in South-West England". Medieval Archaeology. Society for Medieval Archaeology. 1: 118–146. 1957. "Monuments or Muniments? The interrelation of Material Remains and Documentary". Medieval Archaeology. Society for Medieval Archaeology. 2: 156–158. 1958. "Chantry Priests' Houses and other Medieval Lodgings". Medieval Archaeology. Society for Medieval Archaeology.
3: 216–258. 1959. "Houses of the Oxford Region. I. Fisher Row, Oxford". Oxoniensia. Oxford: Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. XXV: 121–125. 1960. "Houses of the Oxford Region. II. Hordley Farm". Oxoniensia. Oxford: Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. XXV: 126–130. 1960. "The Mer