Kiyohara no Motosuke
Kiyohara no Motosuke was a Heian period waka poet and Japanese nobleman. His daughter was famous today for writing The Pillow Book, he is designated a member of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals, one of his poems is included in the famous Ogura Hyakunin Isshu. His court career included terms as governor of Higo Province; as one of the Five Men of the Pear Chamber, Kiyohara no Motosuke assisted in the compilation of the Gosen Wakashū. This group compiled kundoku readings for texts from the Man'yōshū, his poems are included in several official poetry anthologies, including the Shūi Wakashū. A personal collection known as the Motosukeshū remains. E-text of his poems in Japanese Brief biography in English
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Fujiwara no Michinaga
Fujiwara no Michinaga was a Japanese statesman. His rule represents the high point of the Fujiwara clan control over the government of Japan. In 995 during the reign of Emperor Ichijō, his two elder brothers Michitaka and Michikane died of disease, he struggled with the elder son of Michitaka, for political power. With support of Senshi, his sister and mother of Ichijō, Michinaga succeeded in gaining power as well the support of majority of the court, he was appointed Nairan, the secretary of the emperor and the reviewer of all the documents sent to the emperor before the emperor himself read them. 995: Nairan Michinaga exerted de facto reign over Japan in the early 11th century. This can be seen from the fact that he was father to four empresses, uncle to two emperors and grandfather to another three. 995: Udaijin 996: Sadaijin Though Ichijō had an empress, a daughter of Michitaka, he claimed there were two types of empresshood and therefore it was legal for an emperor to have two empresses at the same time.
Michinaga's ambitions led him to make his own daughter, Shōshi, a second empress of Ichijō. In 1000 Shōshi was announced as a Chūgū empress and the existing empress Teishi was given the title of Kōgō empress, it was the first time. A power struggle between Korechika and Michinaga continued until Teishi's unexpected death in 1001, which sealed Michinaga's power since Shōshi became the only empress after Teishi's death. In 1006, Michinaga invited Murasaki Shikibu to become Empress Shōshi's tutor. Shōshi was the mother of two princes who became emperors: Emperor Go-Suzaku. Michinaga's other daughters and Ishi, followed similar fates to Shōshi and further ensured Michinaga's power over the court. 1011: In the 25th year of Emperor Ichijō's reign, the emperor abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Sanjō is said to have acceded to the throne. After Ichijō retired because of illness, Emperor Sanjō ascended the throne. Though Sanjō was a nephew of Michinaga. 1011: Michinaga is Sesshō 1011: Fujiwara Michinaga is granted the extraordinary privilege of travelling to and from the court by ox-drawn cart.
Michinaga and Sanjō's opinions varied. Michinaga pressured Sanjō to retire and Sanjō did so in 1016 under a condition made upon Sanjō's succession. Sanjō's elder son was appointed as Go-Ichijō's successor. 1011: Prince Atsunari, the second son of former-Emperor Ichijo, is proclaimed Crown Prince. Sanjō's eldest son, Prince Atsuakira, had been the designated heir, but pressure from Michinaga forced the young prince to abandon his position. Michinaga's political power and influence led to the crown prince's resignation by his will. Michinaga was pleased by this decision and gave his daughter to this prince as a wife, ensuring that the prince would not be an obstacle in the future. 1012: Emperor Sanjō marries a daughter of Sesshō and Kampaku Fujiwara no Michinaga. During the initial years of Go-Ichijō's reign, Fujiwara no Michinaga ruled from his position as sesshō. Although Michinaga never formally took on the title of kampaku regent, he exercised great power and influence. 1013: Sanjō visits the home of Michinaga.
1013: Sanjō visited the home of Michinaga where he enjoyed himself with horse riding and archery. 1015: Michinaga's 50th birthday is celebrated. 1016: Michinaga is Sesshō for Emperor Go-Ichijō 1017: retired from Sesshō 1017: Prince Atsuakira, the eldest son of Emperor Sanjo, had been named Crown Prince, but after he is struck by a skin disease and under intense pressure from Michinaga. 1017: Michinaga made a pilgrimage to the Iwashimizu Shrine accompanied by many courtiers. The travelers divided themselves amongst 15 boats for a floating trip down the Yotogawa River. One of the vessels overturned, more than 30 people lost their lives. 1017: Michinaga was elevated to the office of Daijō Daijin. 1018: retires from Daijō Daijin 1019: Becomes a priest. Michinaga exercised such powers after he formally retired from public life in 1019, he continued to direct the affairs of Fujiwara no Yorimichi. Michinaga is popularly known as the Mido Kampaku, implying that he had usurped the full power of a kampaku without calling himself that, though he retained the title sesshō regent in a short term from 1016 till 1017.
In 1017, he gave this office to his heir Yorimichi. Soon afterwards, a series of emperors started to retire to a monastery early in life, put their young sons on the throne to run the country from behind the scenes; as it turned out, this tactic allowed the emperors to wrestle power back from the Fujiwara clan, only to see it fall to the Taira warrior clan instead. January 3, 1028: Michinaga died at the age of 62. Michinaga left a diary, Midō Kanpakuki, one of the prime sources of information a
The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after modern Kyōto, it is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family. Many emperors had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian means "peace" in Japanese; the Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 CE after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō, by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu Kanmu first tried to move the capital to Nagaoka-kyō, but a series of disasters befell the city, prompting the emperor to relocate the capital a second time, to Heian. A rebellion occurred in China in the last years of the 9th century, making the political situation unstable.
The Japanese missions to Tang China was suspended and the influx of Chinese exports halted, a fact which facilitated the independent growth of Japanese culture called kokufu bunka. Therefore, the Heian Period is considered a high point in Japanese culture that generations have always admired; the period is noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would take power and start the feudal period of Japan. Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in fact, power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, the Fujiwara, other noble families required guards and soldiers; the warrior class made steady political gains throughout the Heian period. As early as 939 CE, Taira no Masakado threatened the authority of the central government, leading an uprising in the eastern province of Hitachi, simultaneously, Fujiwara no Sumitomo rebelled in the west. Still, a true military takeover of the Japanese government was centuries away, when much of the strength of the government would lie within the private armies of the shogunate.
The entry of the warrior class into court influence was a result of the Hōgen Rebellion. At this time Taira no Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency, their clan, the Taira, would not be overthrown until after the Genpei War, which marked the start of the Kamakura shogunate. The Kamakura period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors and established the shogunate in Kamakura; when Emperor Kanmu moved the capital to Heian-kyō, which remained the imperial capital for the next 1,000 years, he did so not only to strengthen imperial authority but to improve his seat of government geopolitically. Nara was abandoned after only 70 years in part due to the ascendancy of Dōkyō and the encroaching secular power of the Buddhist institutions there. Kyōto had good river access to the sea and could be reached by land routes from the eastern provinces; the early Heian period continued Nara culture. Kanmu endeavored to improve the Tang-style administrative system, in use.
Known as the ritsuryō, this system attempted to recreate the Tang imperium in Japan, despite the "tremendous differences in the levels of development between the two countries". Despite the decline of the Taika–Taihō reforms, imperial government was vigorous during the early Heian period. Kanmu's avoidance of drastic reform decreased the intensity of political struggles, he became recognized as one of Japan's most forceful emperors. Although Kanmu had abandoned universal conscription in 792, he still waged major military offensives to subjugate the Emishi, possible descendants of the displaced Jōmon, living in northern and eastern Japan. After making temporary gains in 794, in 797, Kanmu appointed a new commander, Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, under the title Sei-i Taishōgun. By 801, the shōgun had defeated the Emishi and had extended the imperial domains to the eastern end of Honshū. Imperial control over the provinces was tenuous at best, however. In the ninth and tenth centuries, much authority was lost to the great families, who disregarded the Chinese-style land and tax systems imposed by the government in Kyoto.
Stability came to Japan, but though succession was ensured for the imperial family through heredity, power again concentrated in the hands of one noble family, the Fujiwara which helped Japan develop more. Following Kanmu's death in 806 and a succession struggle among his sons, two new offices were established in an effort to adjust the Taika–Taihō administrative structure. Through the new Emperor's Private Office, the emperor could issue administrative edicts more directly and with more self-assurance than before; the new Metropolitan Police Board replaced the ceremonial imperial guard units. While these two offices strengthened the emperor's position temporarily, soon they and other Chinese-style structures were bypassed in the developing state. In 838 the end of the imperial-sanctioned missions to Tang China, which had begun in 630, marked the effective end of Chinese influence. Tang China was in a state of decline, Chinese Buddhists were persecuted, undermining Japanese respect for Chinese institutions.
Japan began to turn inward. As the Soga clan had taken control of the throne in the sixth century, the Fujiwara by the ninth century had intermarried with the imperial family, one of their members was the first head of the Emperor's Private O
Donald Lawrence Keene was an American-born Japanese scholar, teacher and translator of Japanese literature. Keene was University Professor Emeritus and Shincho Professor Emeritus of Japanese Literature at Columbia University, where he taught for over fifty years. Soon after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, he retired from Columbia, moved to Japan permanently, acquired citizenship under the name Kīn Donarudo, his poetic nom de plume is Kīn Donarudo, which he also used as a nickname. Keene received a Bachelor's degree from Columbia University in 1942, he studied the Japanese language at the U. S. Navy Japanese Language School in Boulder, Colorado and in Berkeley and served as an intelligence officer in the Pacific region during World War II. Upon his discharge from the US Navy, he returned to Columbia where he earned a master's degree in 1947. Keene studied for a year at Harvard University before transferring to Cambridge University where he earned a second master's and became a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge from 1948–1954, a University Lecturer from 1949–1955.
In the interim, in 1953, he studied at Kyoto University, earned a Ph. D. from Columbia in 1949. Keene credits Ryūsaku Tsunoda as a mentor during this period. While studying in the East Asian library at Columbia, a man whom Keene did not know invited him to dinner at the Chinese restaurant where Keene and Lee, a Chinese-American Columbia graduate student, ate every day; the man's name was Jack Kerr, he had lived in Japan for several years and taught English in Taiwan. Kerr invited Keene to study Japanese in the summer to learn Japanese from a student he taught in Taiwan, for Kerr to have competition when learning Japanese, their tutor was Inomata Tadashi, they were taught elementary spoken Japanese and kanji. While staying at Cambridge, after winning a fellowship for Americans to study in England, Keene went to meet Arthur Waley, best known for his translation work in classical Chinese and Japanese literature. For Keene, Waley's translation of Chinese and Japanese literature was inspiring arousing in Keene the thought of becoming a second Waley.
Keene was a Japanologist who published about 25 books in English on Japanese topics, including both studies of Japanese literature and culture and translations of Japanese classical and modern literature, including a four-volume history of Japanese literature which has become the standard work. Keene published about 30 books in Japanese, some of which have been translated from English, he was president of the Donald Keene Foundation for Japanese Culture. Soon after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, Keene retired from Columbia and moved to Japan with the intention of living out the remainder of his life there, he acquired Japanese citizenship, adopting the legal name キーン ドナルド. This required him to relinquish his American citizenship. Keene was well known and respected in Japan and his relocation there following the earthquake was lauded. On February 24, 2019, Keene died in Tokyo, aged 96. Although Keene was not married, in 2013 he adopted shamisen player Seiki Uehara as a son. In an overview of writings by and about Keene, OCLC/WorldCat lists 600+ works in 1,400+ publications in 16 languages and 39,000+ library holdings.
These lists are not finished. Chikamatsu Monzaemon, The Battles of Coxinga: Chikamatsu's Puppet Play, Its Background and Importance Dazai Osamu, No Longer Human Chikamatsu Monzaemon, The Major Plays of Chikamatsu Includes critical commentary Yoshida Kenkō, Essays in Idleness: The Tsurezuregusa of Kenko Mishima Yukio, Five Modern Noh Plays - Including: Madame de Sade Chushingura: The Treasury of Loyal Retainers, a Puppet Play Mishima Yukio, After the Banquet Abe Kobo The man who turned into a stick: three related plays. Original text published by Tokyo University Press. Dazai Osamu, The Setting Sun??, The tale of the shining Princess Abe Kobo, Friends: a play Abe Kobo, Three Plays Matsuo Bashō, The Narrow Road to Oku Kawabata Yasunari, The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter Yamamoto Yuzo, One Hundred Sacks of Rice: A Stage Play Miyata Masayuki, Donald Keene, H. Mack Horton, 源氏物語 - The Tale of Genji. Bilingual illustrated text with essay. Donald Keene & Oda Makoto, The Breaking Jewel, Donald Anthology of Japanese Literature from the Earliest Era to the Mid-Nineteenth Century The Old Woman, the Wife, the Archer: Three Modern Japanese Short Novels Anthology of Chinese Literature: From the 14th Century to the Present Day Love Songs from the Man'Yoshu Keene was awarded various honorary doctorates, from: University of Cambridge St. Andrews Presbyterian College Middlebury College Columbia University Tohoku University Waseda University Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Keiwa College K
The Diary of Lady Murasaki
The Diary of Lady Murasaki is the title given to a collection of diary fragments written by the 11th-century Japanese Heian era lady-in-waiting and writer Murasaki Shikibu. It is written in kana a newly developed writing system for vernacular Japanese, more common among women, who were unschooled in Chinese. Unlike modern diaries or journals, 10th-century Heian diaries tend to emphasize important events more than ordinary day-to-day life and do not follow a strict chronological order; the work includes vignettes, waka poems, an epistolary section written in the form of a long letter. The dairy was written between 1008 and 1010 when Murasaki was in service at the imperial court; the largest portion detail the birth of Empress Shōshi's children. Shorter vignettes describe interactions among imperial ladies-in-waiting and other court writers, such as Izumi Shikibu, Akazome Emon and Sei Shōnagon. Murasaki includes her observations and opinions throughout, bringing to the work a sense of life at the early 11th century Heian court, lacking in other literature or chronicles of the era.
A Japanese picture scroll, the Murasaki Shikibu Diary Emaki was produced during the Kamakura period in the 13th century, the fragments of the diary serve as the basis for three important translations to English in the 20th century. At the peak of the Heian period, from the late 10th to early 11th century, as Japan sought to establish a unique national culture of its own it saw the genesis of early Japanese classical literature, which to a large part emerged from women's court literature. Through the rise and use of kana, aristocratic women court writers formed a foundation for classical court literature, according to Haruo Shirane. Kokin Wakashū's first imperial waka collection, published c. 905, set the foundation for court literature. Up to this point, Japanese literature was written in Chinese – traditionally the language of men in the public sphere, it was in the literature of the imperial court that the gradual shift toward vernacular kana writing system was most evident, where waka poetry became immensely popular.
As Shirane explains: "Waka became integral to the everyday life of the aristocracy, functioning as a form of elevated dialogue and the primary means of communication between the sexes, who were physically segregated from each other."By the early 11th century new genres of women's court literature were appearing in the form of diaries and poetic stories. Women, relegated to the private sphere embraced the use of kana, unlike men who still conducted business in Chinese. Women's writing showed a marked difference from men's, more introspective in nature, thus written Japanese was developed by women who used the language as a form of self-expression and, as Japanese literature scholar Richard Bowring says, by women who undertook the process of building "a flexible written style out of a language that had only existed in a spoken form". Emperor Ichijō's court, dominated by the powerful Fujiwara clan, was the seat of two rival imperial empresses, Teishi and Shōshi, each with ladies-in-waiting who were proficient writers producing works honoring their mistresses and the Fujiwara clan.
The three most noteworthy Heian era diaries in the genre of Nikki Bungaku – Murasaki's Murasaki Shikibu nikki, Sei Shōnagon's The Pillow Book and Izumi Shikibu's – came from the empresses's courts. Murasaki's diary covers a discrete period, most from 1008 to 1010. Only short and fragmentary pieces of the diary survive and its importance lies, in part, in the revelations about the author, about whom most of the known biographical facts come from it and from her c. 1014 short poetry collection, the Murasaki Shikibu shū. Murasaki's given name is unknown. Women were identified by their rank or that of a husband or another close male relative. "Murasaki" was given from a character in Tale of the Genji. A member of a minor branch of the Fujiwara clan, her father was a scholar of Chinese literature who educated both his children in classical Chinese, although educating a female child was exceedingly uncommon. Around 998 Murasaki married Fujiwara no Nobutaka. Two years her husband died. Scholars are unsure when she started writing the novel The Tale of Genji but she was writing after she was widowed in a state of grief.
In her diary she describes her feelings after her husband's death: "I felt depressed and confused. For some years I had existed from day to day in listless fashion... doing little more than registering the passage of time.... The thought of my continuing loneliness was quite unbearable". On the strength of her reputation as an author, Murasaki entered service with Shōshi at court certainly at the request of Shōshi's father, Fujiwara no Michinaga as an incentive to continue adding chapters to The Tale of Genji, she began writing her diary after entering imperial service. The diary consists of a number of vignettes containing lengthy description of Shōshi's's eldest son Prince Atsuhira's birth, an epistolary section. Set at the imperial court in Kyoto, it opens with these words: "As autumn advances, the Tsuchimikado mansion looks unutterably beautiful; every branch on every tree by the lake and each tuft of grass on the banks of the stream takes on its own particular color, intensified by the evening light."
The opening vignettes are followed by short accounts of the events surrounding Shōshi's pregnancy. She begins with a description of the Empress's removal from the Imperial palace to her father's hous
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu is a classical Japanese anthology of one hundred Japanese waka by one hundred poets. Hyakunin isshu can be translated to "one hundred people, one poem ", it was compiled by Fujiwara no Teika while he lived in the Ogura district of Japan. One of Teika's diaries, the Meigetsuki, says that his son, Fujiwara no Tameie, asked him to arrange one hundred poems for Tameie's father-in-law, Utsunomiya Yoritsuna, furnishing a residence near Mount Ogura. In order to decorate screens of the residence, Fujiwara no Teika produced the calligraphy poem sheets. Hishikawa Moronobu provided woodblock portraits for each of the poets included in the anthology. In his own lifetime, Teika was better known for other work. For example, in 1200, Teika prepared another anthology of one hundred poems for ex-Emperor Go-Toba; this was called the Shōji Hyakushu. Emperor Tenji Empress Jitō Kakinomoto no Hitomaro Yamabe no Akahito Sarumaru no Taifu Ōtomo no Yakamochi Abe no Nakamaro Kisen Hōshi Ono no Komachi Semimaru Ono no Takamura Henjō Retired Emperor Yōzei Minamoto no Tōru Emperor Kōkō Ariwara no Yukihira Ariwara no Narihira Fujiwara no Toshiyuki Lady Ise Prince Motoyoshi Sosei Fun'ya no Yasuhide Ōe no Chisato Sugawara no Michizane Fujiwara no Sadakata Fujiwara no Tadahira Fujiwara no Kanesuke Minamoto no Muneyuki Ōshikōchi no Mitsune Mibu no Tadamine Sakanoue no Korenori Harumichi no Tsuraki Ki no Tomonori Fujiwara no Okikaze Ki no Tsurayuki Kiyohara no Fukayabu Fun'ya no Asayasu Ukon Minamoto no Hitoshi Taira no Kanemori Mibu no Tadami Kiyohara no Motosuke Fujiwara no Atsutada Fujiwara no Asatada Fujiwara no Koretada Sone no Yoshitada Egyō Minamoto no Shigeyuki Ōnakatomi no Yoshinobu Fujiwara no Yoshitaka Fujiwara no Sanekata Fujiwara no Michinobu Michitsuna no Haha Takashina no Takako known as Takashina no Kishi or Kō no Naishi Fujiwara no Kintō Izumi Shikibu Murasaki Shikibu Daini no Sanmi Akazome Emon Koshikibu no Naishi Ise no Taifu Sei Shōnagon Fujiwara no Michimasa Fujiwara no Sadayori Sagami Gyōson Suō no Naishi Retired Emperor Sanjō Nōin Hōshi Ryōzen Minamoto no Tsunenobu Yūshi Naishinnō-ke no Kii Ōe no Masafusa Minamoto no Toshiyori Fujiwara no Mototoshi Fujiwara no Tadamichi Retired Emperor Sutoku Minamoto no Kanemasa Fujiwara no Akisuke Taiken Mon In no Horikawa Tokudaiji Sanesada Dōin Fujiwara no Shunzei Fujiwara no Kiyosuke Shun'e Saigyō Jakuren Kōkamonin no Bettō Princess Shikishi Inpumon'in no Tayū Kujō Yoshitsune Nijōin no Sanuki Minamoto no Sanetomo Asukai no Masatsune Jien Saionji Kintsune Fujiwara no Teika Fujiwara no Ietaka Retired Emperor Go-Toba Retired Emperor Juntoku Poem number 2One of the poems attributed to Empress Jitō was selected by Fujiwara no Teika.
The text is visually descriptive. From the Shinkokinshū, but the original poem was from the Man'yōshū. Poem number 26 A quite different poem is attributed to Sadaijin Fujiwara no Tadahira in the context of a specific incident. After abdicating, former Emperor Uda visited Mount Ogura in Yamashiro Province, he was so impressed by the beauty of autumn colours of the maples that he ordered Fujiwara no Tadahira to encourage Uda's son and heir, Emperor Daigo, to visit the same area. Prince Tenshin or Prince Teishin was Tadahira's posthumous name, this is the name used in William Porter's translation of the poem which observes that "he maples of Mount Ogura, If they could understand, Would keep their brilliant leaves, until he Ruler of this land Pass with his Royal band." The accompanying 18th century illustration shows a person of consequence riding an ox in a procession with attendants on foot. The group is passing through an area of maples. Fujiwara no Teika chose this poem from the Shūi Wakashū for the Hyakunin Isshu.'*'By modern Romanization, "Miyuki matanamu".
The Ogura Hyakunin Isshu has been translated into many languages and into English many times, beginning with Yone Noguchi's Hyaku Nin Isshu in English in 1907. Other translations include: William N. Porter, A Hundred Verses from Old Japan Clay MacCauley, Hyakunin-isshu Tom Galt, The Little Treasury of One Hundred People, One Poem Each Joshua S. Mostow, Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image Peter McMillan, One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each Emiko Miyashita and Michael Dylan Welch, 100 Poets: Passions of the Imperial Court Many other anthologies compiled along the same criteria—one hundred poems by one hundred poets—include the words hyakunin isshu, notably the World War II-era Aikoku Hyakunin Isshu, or One Hundred Patriotic Poems by One Hundred Poets. Important is Kyōka Hyakunin Isshu, a series of parodies of the original Ogura collection. Teika's anthology is the basis for the card game of karuta, popular since the Edo period. Many forms of playing game