Gâtinais was a province of France, containing the area around the valley of the Loing, corresponding to the northeastern part of the département of Loiret, the south of the present department of Seine-et-Marne. Under the Bourbons, the Gâtinais had been divided between the provinces of Île-de-France and Orléans. In the words of the modern tourist slogan for the "two Gâtinais", it lies between the Seine and the Loire. Under the Franks, Gâtinais was the pagus Wastinensis, one of five belonging to the Archbishop of Sens; the west part of Puisaye and the archbishop's other fiefs in the northwest of the modern department of Yonne, west of that river, are often considered part of Gâtinais. Around the 10th century, the main town of this province was Château-Landon, a twenty-five mile circle around Notre-Dame de Château-Landon comprised it; the western part, Gâtinais orléanais corresponds to the arrondissements of Montargis and a large part of Pithiviers, in Loiret. Pithiviers has for several centuries been the most representative town of Gâtinais.
The eastern part, Gâtinais français, had Nemours as its chief town, corresponds to the arrondissement of Fontainebleau in Seine-et-Marne. This is an agricultural area, although the west is wooded, it was for several centuries known for its saffron, a crop that disappeared from this area because of the heavy charges on human work and the impossibility to mechanise this particular crop. It is famous for its honey, produced by traditional methods in the whole area. A region called Gâtinais is a neighbour of the fictional land of Poictesme in James Branch Cabell's Biography of the Life of Manuel
Subprefectures in France
In France, a subprefecture is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement; the civil servant in charge of a subprefecture is the subprefect, assisted by a general secretary. Between May 1982 and February 1988, subprefects were known instead by the title commissaire adjoint de la République. Where the administration of an arrondissement is carried out from a prefecture, the general secretary to the prefect carries out duties equivalent to those of the subprefect; the municipal arrondissements of Paris and Marseille are divisions of the city rather than the prefecture, so are not arrondissements in the same sense. List of subprefectures of France List of arrondissements of France
The Marne is a river in France, an eastern tributary of the Seine in the area east and southeast of Paris. It is 514 kilometres long; the river gave its name to the departments of Haute-Marne, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne. The Marne starts in the Langres plateau, runs north bends west between Saint-Dizier and Châlons-en-Champagne, joining the Seine at Charenton just upstream from Paris, its main tributaries are the Rognon, the Blaise, the Saulx, the Ourcq, the Petit Morin and the Grand Morin. Near the town of Saint-Dizier, part of the flow is diverted through the artificial Lake Der-Chantecoq; this ensures the maintenance of minimum river flows in periods of drought. The Celts of Gaul worshipped a goddess known as Dea Matrona, associated with the Marne; the Marne is famous as the site of two eponymous battles during World War I. The first battle was a turning point of the war, fought in 1914; the second battle was fought four years in 1918. The Marne was navigable as a free-flowing river until the 19th century.
It had one gated 500 m shortcut, the Canal de Cornillon in Meaux, built in 1235, the oldest canal in France. Canalisation was started in 1837 and completed to Épernay in 1867, it included a number of canals to bypass the most extravagant meanders. In World War I, the Marne was the scene of two notable battles. In the First Battle of the Marne, the military governor of Paris, General Joseph Gallieni, took the initiative in driving the Germans back from the capital, rendering their war-plan inoperative. In the Second Battle of the Marne, the last major German offensive on the Western Front was defeated by an Allied counter-attack, leading to the Armistice. During the heyday of canal transportation, the Marne was a major artery connecting Paris and the Seine with major rivers to the east: the Meuse, the Moselle and the Rhine, the Saône and Rhône. To facilitate transportation along the Marne itself, a number of lateral canals were constructed alongside; the most extensive was the Canal latéral à la Marne, which runs 67 km between Vitry-le-François and Dizy.
Downstream of this were several more, including the Canal de Meaux à Chalifert, the Canal de Chelles, the Canal de Saint-Maurice which ended at Charenton-le-Pont near the Marne's confluence with the Seine. Furthermore, a portion of the Canal de l'Ourcq runs parallel and quite close to the Marne before swinging away to enter Paris from the north. Haute-Marne: Langres, Saint-Dizier. During the 19th and 20th centuries the Marne inspired many painters, among whom were: River Marne navigation guide with maps and details of places and moorings on the river, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, 8th ed. 2010, publ. Imray Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals
Loiret is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of north-central France. The department is named after the river Loiret, a tributary of the Loire, and, located wholly within the department; the capital of the department is Orléans, about 110 km southwest of Paris. As well as being the regional capital, it is a historic city on the banks of the Loire, it has a large central area with many historic buildings and mansions, a cathedral dating back to the thirteenth century, rebuilt after being destroyed by Protestant forces in 1568. The Loire Valley is famous for its several châteaux. Loiret is one of the original 83 departments, created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790 by order of the National Constituent Assembly; the new departments were to be uniformly administered and equal to one another in size and population. It was created from the former province of Orléanais, too large to continue in its previous form; the Loire Valley was occupied in Palaeolithic times as attested by numerous archaeological sites in the department.
The Celts were here, bringing crafts and trades, the Romans occupied the area after the Gallic Wars. They built roads and founded cities such as Cenabum, on the site of present-day Orléans, Sceaux-du-Gâtinais. Around 451, the Huns were repelled before reaching Cenabum; the Franks reached the Clovis I reigned in the area. A time of peace and prosperity ensued during the reign of Charlemagne; the department of Loiret was in the province of Orléans in north central France, along with the departments of Loir-et-Cher and Eure-et-Loir now forms the region Centre-Val de Loire. To the north of Loiret lie the departments of Eure-et-Loir and Seine-et-Marne, to the east lies Yonne, to the southeast Nièvre, to the south Cher, to the west Loir-et-Cher; the department consists of flat low-lying land through which flows the River Loire. This river enters the department near Châtillon-sur-Loire in the southeast, flows northwestwards to Orleans where it turns to flow south west, leaving the department near Beaugency.
The Canal d'Orléans connects the Loire River at Orléans to a junction with the Canal du Loing and the Canal de Briare in the village of Buges near Montargis. The River Loire and these canals formed important trading routes before the arrival of the railways; the River Loiret, after which the department is named, is 12 km long and joins the Loire southwest of Orléans. Its source is at Orléans-la-Source, its mouth at Saint-Hilaire-Saint-Mesmin. Other rivers in the department, are the River Loing, a right-bank tributary of the Loire, the River Ouanne which flows into the Loing; the department has a total area of 6,757 km2 and is 119 km from west to east and 77 km from north to south. Large parts of the land are used for agriculture, these are separated by low wooded hills and some forested areas; the northwestern part of the department is in the wheat-growing region known as Beauce, an undulating plateau with some of France's best agricultural land. This area was popular with the French aristocracy in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period, there are many historic châteaux in the department including Château d'Augerville, Château de Bellegarde, Château de Gien, Château du Hallier, Château de Meung-sur-Loire, Château de Sully-sur-Loire and Château de Trousse-Barrière.
The part of the department south of the River Loire is known as the Sologne and is an area of heathland and marshland, interspersed by hills where vines are grown. The eastern part of the department was part of a province of that name; until the beginning of the 21st century, it used to be renowned for the production of saffron, but the crop could not be mechanised, production dwindled as the cost of production became too high. Of the 1,669,332 acres of land in the department, 975,000 acres are arable, 100,000 acres are vines, 60,000 acres are pasture, 280,000 acres are forested, 16,000 acres are plantations and orchards and 140,000 acres are unproductive moorland and heathland; the soil is in general productive. Other crops include fruit, asparagus and herbs. Vines are cultivated and wine produced, the area is noted for its fruit preservation. Bee-keeping takes place and honey is produced. Loiret has little industrial development, commerce is centred about the sale of corn, cattle, cider, flour, fish, salt and wool.
The only minerals extracted are stone, limestone and clay. The department benefits from its proximity to Paris. Orléans is connected to Paris via fast express trains; the A71 autoroute links Paris with Orléans and Clermont-Ferrand, the A10 autoroute links Paris with Orléans and Bordeaux, the Route nationale 20 links Paris with Orléans, Limoges and Spain. Orléans is associated with Joan of Arc; the Cathedral of Sainte-Croix was built in the Gothic style between 1278 and 1329, destroyed by Protestant forces in 1568, rebuilt between the 17th and 19th centuries. Cantons of the Loiret department Communes of the Loiret department Arrondissements of the Loiret department Prefecture website General Council website Loiret at Curlie
Provins is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. Provins, a town of medieval fairs, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001. Provins is not the largest city in the arrondissement; the largest town is Montereau-Fault-Yonne. The arrondissement has 125 communes and 112,020 residents; the canton of Provins has 21,000 residents. Provins was home to one of the Champagne fairs that were crucial to the medieval European economy, when the city was under the protection of Counts of Champagne. Provins is known for its medieval fortifications, such as the Tour César and well-preserved city walls; the Saint Quiriace Collegiate Church is located here. The Empress Galla Placidia is said to have presented Ancona in Italy with the relics of Judas Cyriacus. However, the saint's head was situated at Provins, brought from Jerusalem by Henry I of Champagne, who built a church in this town to display it, it is still at the Saint Quiriace Collegiate Church, although construction work during the 12th century was never completed due to financial difficulties during the reign of Philippe le Bel.
A dome was added in the 17th century, the old families of Provins who lived in the upper town were called "Children of the Dome." After the addition of the dome, however, no further restoration efforts have been made towards the church. The police station is a piece of contemporary architecture designed by Parisian architects Philippe Ameller and Jacques Dubois. Two sets of caves underlie parts of the town; the first type were used to store food in the Middle Ages. The second, type contains Bronze and Iron Age graffiti. Provins has important rose cultivation, it produces all sorts of foods from roses, its main specialties are rose petal jam, Provinois rose honey and rose candy. Provins used to be a large producer of wine, with the medieval methods of wine making still being carried out by residents, some vineyards are still being used to produce. Public preschools: Coudoux, Raymond Louis, Terrier Rouge, Ville Haute and Voulzie. Public primary schools: Coudoux, Désiré Laurent, Terrier Rouge, Ville Haute and Voulzie.
Public junior high schools: Jules Verne, Lelorgne de Savigny, Marie Curie. Public senior high schools: Thibaut de Champagne and Les Pannevelles. There is a private preschool through Institution Sainte-Croix. Provins is the birthplace of: Marie Jules César Savigny, zoologist Edmond Nocard and microbiologist Maurice Hayot, violinist Dominique A, songwriter and singer David Moncoutié, retired road racing cyclistProvins is the hometown of: Christian Jacob and politician Provins is twinned with: Bendorf, Germany Pingyao, China Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department INSEE City council website Champagne and Brie in Medieval History of Navarre http://www.provins.net/ http://www.provins.org/ http://www.provins-medieval.com/ Provins photos 1999 Land Use, from IAURIF Ameller Dubois and Associates, architects of the Provins police station French Ministry of Culture list for Provins Map of Provins on Michelin
Melun is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is a southeastern suburb of Paris 41.4 km from the centre of Paris. Melun is the prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne, the seat of an arrondissement, its inhabitants are called Melunais. Meledunum began as a Gaulish town. Roman Meledunum was a mutatio where fresh horses were kept available for official couriers on the Roman road south-southeast of Paris, where it forded the Seine. Around 500 A. D, Clovis I granted Melun to a Gallo-Roman magnate, who had fought for Clovis several times and influenced his conversion to Christianity; the Normans sacked it in 845. The castle of Melun became a royal residence of the Capetian kings. Hugh Capet gave Melun to Bouchard, his favorite. In the reign of Hugh's son, Robert II of France, the count of Champagne, bought the city, but the king took it back for Bouchard in 999; the chatelain Gautier and his wife, who had sold the city, were hanged. Robert died there in July 1031.
Robert of Melun was an English scholastic Christian theologian who taught in France, became Bishop of Hereford in England. He studied under Peter Abelard in Paris before teaching there and at Melun, which gave him his surname. Aurelianus Donatus Bouchard I Count of Vendôme and Count of Paris The early viscounts of Melun were listed by 17th and 18th century genealogists, notably Père Anselme. Based on closer reading of the original documents, Adolphe Duchalais constructed this list of viscounts in 1844: Salo Joscelin I William Ursio William the Carpenter Hilduin, Ursio II, Jean Adam Joscelin II The title became an honorary peerage; such viscounts include Claude Louis Hector de Villars. Melun is served by the Gare de Melun, an interchange station on Paris RER line D, on the Transilien R suburban rail line, on several national rail lines; the Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame, Melun was the original home of the Melun Diptych. The nearby château of Vaux-le-Vicomte is considered a smaller predecessor of Palace of Versailles.
The officers' school of the French Gendarmerie is located in Melun. Melun is the birthplace of: Morgan Ciprès, pair skater Jérémie Bela, footballer Willy Boly, footballer Pierre Certon, composer of the Renaissance Jacques Amyot, writer Chimène Badi, singer Samir Beloufa, professional footballer Raphaël Desroses, basketball player Stéphane Dondon, basketball player Judah of Melun, French rabbi and tosafist Yvan Kibundu, footballer Edmé-François Mallet and encyclopédiste Steven Mouyokolo, footballer Granddi Ngoyi, footballer Yrétha Silété, figure skater Bertrand Grospellier, poker player William the Carpenter, viscount of Melun in the 11th century A campus of the École nationale de l'aviation civile is located in Melun. Public high schools/sixth form colleges: Lycée Léonard de Vinci Lycée Jacques-Amyot Lycée Georges SandThere is one private high school/sixth form college: Lycée Saint Aspais Melun is twinned with: Ouidah, Benin Spelthorne, United Kingdom Crema, Italy Stuttgart-Vaihingen, Germany Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department INSEE Initial text from the "Carpenters' Encyclopedia of Carpenters 2001" Compiled by John R. Carpenter.
The Viscounts and Counts of Melun are listed in Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln, Neue Folge, Volume VII, Tafels 55 & 56. Cawley, Paris Region Nobility - Vicomtes de Melun, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Official website Tourist office website 1999 Land Use, from IAURIF French Ministry of Culture list for Melun Map of Melun on Michelin
Aube is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. As with sixty departments in France, this department is named after a river: the Aube. With 305,606 inhabitants, Aube is 76th department in terms of population; the inhabitants of the department are known as Aubois or AuboisesThe department was constituted as it is today by a decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790. The Aube department is located in the south-west side of the Grand Est region, it borders the departments of Marne in the north, Haute-Marne to the east, Côte-d'Or in the south-east, Yonne in the south-west, Seine-et-Marne in the west. Within the department regions of natural or traditional countryside can be identified as follows: northwest quarter: Champagne crayeuse northwestern tip: the Nogentais southwest of Troyes: the Othe region to the south: le Chaourçois to the northeast: the Briennois to the east: the Barrois between Troyes and Barrois: Champagne wetlands Aube is divided into 431 communes totalling 308,503 inhabitants.
Major cities with more than 10,000 inhabitants) are: Troyes, Romilly-sur-Seine, La Chapelle-Saint-Luc, Saint-André-les-Vergers and Sainte-Savine. They are located in the centre of the department. Four of those five cities are part of the Agglomeration of Troyes. There are 23 rivers throughout the department, the four main rivers being the Seine, the Aube, the Armance, the Vanne; the department has 140,000 hectares of forests. Located in the Community of communes of Forests and lands in Champagne, the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park was one of the first natural parks created in France. In the same place, there is the Orient Lake and the Amance and Temple lakes where fishing, recreational water sports, bathing are available; each lake specialises in one or more of these activities. The climate is moderate without intense cold or excessive heat which represents a climate similar to continental and oceanic. Between 1950 and 1985 the average annual temperature recorded in the department was 10.1 °C, equivalent to the Paris basin and the cities of north-eastern France.
The average sunshine hours per year is 1771. Average annual rainfall is quite high. In general there is more rain in autumn than in winter but rainfall is highest during spring. In contrast summer is the season. There is, more rain in the south-east than the north-west. Snow is infrequent. Prevailing wind is from the west; the department has 150 km of autoroutes, 33 km of national roads, 4,517 km of departmental roads and 2,116 km of local roads. In the Agglomeration of Troyes TCAT provides a transport network between communes. Unlike many networks that are provided by other operators, the agglomeration community of the city is the owner of the company; the network serves eleven communes including two outside the Troyes agglomeration. Other cities, including Romilly-sur-Seine, have no transport network. Aube has intercity transport networks. 21 regular bus routes are operated between the major cities of the department. The use of these lines is entrusted to private coaches: Transdev – The Carriers of Aube has 15 routes, Keolis Sud Lorraine has 4 routes, Procars Champagne has 2 routes, Autocars Bardy has one route.
Five railway stations are in operation. These are: Nogent-sur-Seine, Romilly-sur-Seine, Vendeuvre-sur-Barse, Bar-sur-Aube. Aube does not have a strong rail coverage. Only one main non-electrified line passes through Aube – the line that connects Paris-Est to Mulhouse; the department has 34.8 km of navigable waterways. The city of Nogent-sur-Seine has two river ports for grain; the first inhabitants of Aube were the Tricasses and Lingones with a substantial human settlement around the year 400 BC. Saints Potentian and Savinian, Greek priests from Samos, came to preach the gospel from the middle of the 3rd century. Saint Patroclus was one of the first martyrs of the new faith in the year 259. Shortly after Saint Jule and some notables of the city of Tricasses suffered martyrdom; as elsewhere, the Christian community became large enough to accommodate a bishop. Saint Amateur was the first in 340. In the year 286 the Bagaudae ravaged the land. Emperor Julian rescued it; the territory making up Aube was first attached to France following the Treaty of Verdun.
Two important monasteries were founded in the department: one at Clairvaux in 1114, created by Bernard of Clairvaux, the other at Paraclete, by his illustrious rival, Pierre Abélard and of which Héloïse d'Argenteuil was the first abbess. Bernard of Clairvaux was noted for his eloquence at the Council of Troyes and his preaching of the Second Crusade which had no result and whose outcome was disastrous; the reunion of Champagne with the kingdom of France was finalised in 1361. Yet people wanted the incorporation of Champagne but in 1328 King Philip VI gave the city of Bar-sur-Seine to Philippe de Croy; the inhabitants, ransomed him to return it to the king on the condition that it become inalienable. The decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790 formally established the department of Aube, its first president was Augustin-Henri-Marie Picot and his first deputy was Louis Antoine Joseph Robin. Jacques Claude Beugnot was elected Attorney-General and MP; the 19th century marked the emergence of the Hosiery business i