East Coast Main Line
The East Coast Main Line is a 393-mile long major railway between London and Edinburgh via Peterborough, York, Darlington and Newcastle. The route is a key transport artery on the eastern side of Great Britain and broadly paralleled by the A1 road; the line's origins were built during the 1840s by three railway companies, the North British Railway, the North Eastern Railway, the Great Northern Railway. In 1923, the enactment of the Railway Act of 1921 led to their amalgamation to form the London and North Eastern Railway; the line was the primary route of the LNER, who competed against the London and Scottish Railway for long-distance passenger traffic between London and Scotland. The LNER's chief engineer Sir Nigel Gresley designed iconic Pacific locomotives, including the steam locomotives "Flying Scotsman" and "Mallard" which achieved a world record speed for a steam locomotive, 126 miles per hour on the Grantham-to-Peterborough section. On 1 January 1948, the railways were nationalised by the government, operated by British Railways.
During the early 1960s, steam locomotion was replaced by Diesel-electric traction, including the Deltics and sections of the line were upgraded so trains could run at speeds of up to 100 miles per hour. With the demand for higher speed, British Rail introduced InterCity 125 High Speed trains between 1976 and 1981. In 1973, the prototype of the HST, the Class 41, achieved a top speed of 143 mph in a test run on the line. During the 1980s, the line was electrified and InterCity 225 trains were introduced; the line links London, South East England and East Anglia, with Yorkshire, the North East Regions and Scotland and is important to the economy of several areas of England and Scotland. It carries key commuter flows for the north side of London and handles cross-country and local passenger services, carries freight traffic. Services north of Edinburgh to Inverness use diesel trains. In 1997, operations were privatised; the current operator is London North Eastern Railway, bringing the LNER name back into use, which took over from Virgin Trains East Coast in June 2018.
The ECML is part of Network Rail's Strategic Route G which comprises six separate lines: The main line between London King's Cross and Edinburgh Waverley stations, via Stevenage, Grantham, Newark North Gate, Doncaster, Northallerton, Durham, Morpeth, Berwick-upon-Tweed and Dunbar. The line crosses the Anglo-Scottish border at Marshall Meadows Bay; the branch line to North Berwick The Dunbar loopThe core route is the main line between King's Cross and Edinburgh, the Hertford Loop is used for local and freight services and the Northern City Line provides an inner suburban service to the city. The route has ELRs ECM1 - ECM9; the ECML was constructed by three railway companies. During the 1830s and 1840s, each company built part of the line to serve their own areas, but intended linking together to form the through route that became the East Coast Main Line. From north to south, these companies were: the North British Railway, from Edinburgh to Berwick-upon-Tweed, completed in 1846; the North Eastern Railway from Berwick-upon-Tweed to Shaftholme.
The Great Northern Railway from Shaftholme to King's Cross, completed in 1850. The GNR established an end-on connection at Askern, described by the GNR's chairman as being "a ploughed field four miles north of Doncaster". Askern was connected to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, a short section of which linked with the NER at Knottingley. In 1871, the line was shortened when the NER opened a direct line from an end-on junction with the GNR at Shaftholme just south of Askern to Selby and direct to York. Recognising that through journeys were an important and lucrative element of their businesses, the companies built special rolling stock for through traffic, services were operated under the name of "East Coast Joint Stock"; this continued from 1860 until 1922. In 1923 the Railway Act of 1921 required the companies to form North Eastern Railway. Throughout its existence, the LNER was the second largest railway company in Britain, with lines to the north and east of London. On 1 January 1948, after the Transport Act of 1947 was implemented by Clement Attlee's Labour Government, the LNER was nationalised with the other companies to form British Railways.
British Railways managed the ECML as its Eastern Region division up to discorporation during the early 1980s. Alterations to short sections of the ECML's route have taken place, including the King Edward VII Bridge in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1906 and the Selby Diversion, built to bypass mining subsidence from the Selby coalfield and a bottleneck at Selby station. During 1983, the Selby Diversion opened: it diverged from the ECML at Temple Hirst Junction, north of Doncaster, joined the Leeds to York Line at Colton Junction, south west of York; the old line between Selby and York is used as a cycleway. Mining subsidence affecting 200 metres of track 17 km to the east of Edinburgh, near Wallyford, led to a temporary realignment while the ground was stabilised; the tracks and overhead electrification equipment were re-routed. Stabilisation was completed in 2000 and the track returned to its original alignment. In 2001 severe subsidence occurred at Dolphingstone and about 2km of track was relocated avoiding a permanent speed restriction.
This was completed in 2002. The line was worked for many years
Dringhouses is a suburb a village, in York and includes the area known as Woodthorpe. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is bounded by the Knavesmire, an open area of land on which York Racecourse is situated, to the east, Askham Bogs and the A64 to the south, the York Outer Ring road to the west and the Unitary Authority Wards of Westfield and Holgate to the north; the City of York ward is called Woodthorpe. It had a population of 11,084 at the 2011 Census, it is located two and quarter miles from York City Centre. The name derives from "Drengeshirses" and means "the houses of the drengs", a "dreng" being a man who held land by a particular kind of free tenure, it is a mixture of housing estates and large open spaces, with the East Coast main railway line running through the middle. The population of Dringhouses and Woodthorpe was 10,733; the Old Norse name from which Dringhouses is derived, indicates the villagers were the descendants of Halfdan, the Viking leader who had taken the area from the Angles and had shared the land among his warriors in 876.
The free land of the Drengs became a Norman manor - owned by Archbishop Walter de Gray who granted it to his brother Robert in 1244 and thence to John, Lord Grey of Rotherfield. The title passed to Sir John Deincourt and his ancestors until it was inherited by the Wilkinson family; the last Lord of the manor, Col. Wilkinson, died on 13 January 1941; the subsequent break-up of the estate meant that most of the land in the village was no longer owned by one family. There was a long dispute over the Wapentake of the Ainsty - which included Dringhouses - from the early Middle Ages. In 1276 the Courts of Edward I dealt with a claim by the York Corporation that:-"... the citizens of York hold the wapentake of Ainsty and the city of York of the King...". The claim was based on a Charter of the reign of King John and the case was lost on the grounds that the extent of the land was not specified and, more that the Charter contained erasures. For this the Mayor was imprisoned for a short time; the claim upheld.
From that date until 1832 the people of the Ainsty and therefore Dringhouses were under the authority of York Corporation. Though Dringhouses was within the parish of Holy Trinity Priory, Micklegate, it formed a separate manor and thus lay outside of the City of York. In St Helen's Road, between 1920 and 1946, the house next to the Cross Keys car park was the Club House for the 15-hole golf course on the Hob Moor, which moved, as the York Golf Club, to Strensall, with the railway workers who used to play there moving to Pike Hills Golf Club; the present shops on Tadcaster Road were a row of cottages known as Meek's Buildings, nicknamed "Washing Tub Row" because those who lived there took in washing for the gentry. Dringhouses village was incorporated into the City in 1937; the present Marriott Hotel stands at the boundary of the village with the city and was the terminus for the trams in their heyday. The electric trams replaced the horse bus in 1911. Goddards House and Garden in Dringhouses is a former home of the Terry family, famed chocolate makers.
This Grade I listed building was built in 1927 and is a visitor attraction and regional office of the National Trust. Hob Moor, which forms part of the Knavesmire and hence Micklegate Stray, is first mentioned in documents in 1374 as'"Yhorkesmore""' and first noted as'"Hobbe Moore"' in 1624 by the cartographer, Samuel Parsons. During the early 17th century, accommodation was constructed to house plague victims on Hob Lane, leading to the Moor; this is indicated by the Plague Stone still visible today. Next to this stone is the'"Hob Stone"' which depicts the shield and effigy of a knight of the de Ros family, reputed to have given his name to the area. In 1745, the York to Tadcaster Turnpike was constructed, which follows the route of the modern Tadcaster Road in the area; the Moor has been used as an area for the Military. In 1644, the Scottish troops, who were part of the Parliamentarian Army, were encamped here during the siege of York. From 1912 to 1920, the Moor was used for training Cavalry troops.
On the eastbound carriageway of Tadcaster Road in Dringhouses is a small brick enclosure, once used as a pinfold. It is located opposite the Royal Chase. Dringhouses is part of the Dringhouses and Woodthorpe Ward in the Unitary Authority of York; as of 2011 it is represented by Labour Councillors Anna Semlyen and Gerard Hodgson and the Liberal Democrat Councillor Ann Reid. It forms part of the UK Parliamentary Constituency of York Outer and EU Constituency of Yorkshire and the Humber; the figures below were taken from the Census 2001 Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales, from the Office for National Statistics on 29 April 2001. The population in the Ward was 10,733 of which 92.1% were born in England and 3.4% from outside the United Kingdom. The largest Age Group within the population, 22.2%, were between 30 and 44 years old with 21.6% between 45 and 59 years old. Of the total population, 96.7% described their ethnic origin as White-British. The figures show that 79.2% declared they were Christian, whilst 19.9% declared no religious belief at all.
Of the population aged between 16 and 74 years old, 69.2% declared they were in some form of employment and 17.2% said they were retired. Of the 4,650 households, 52.3% were Semi-Detached and 31.3% were Detached. The level of household ownership was 84.1%. In past years, the majority of employment was in agriculture; as of 2010, the main employment can be found in the retail and education sectors, as Dringhouses has a large Tesco supermarket and the York College. Employment can be found in the Health Care centre as
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Selby is a town and civil parish in North Yorkshire, England, 14 miles south of York on the River Ouse, with a population at the 2011 census of 14,731. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Selby once had a large shipbuilding industry, was an important port on the Selby Canal which brought trade from Leeds. Selby Town F. C. play in the Northern Counties East Football League. The town’s origins date from the establishment of a Viking settlement on the banks of the River Ouse. Archaeological investigations in Selby have revealed extensive remains, including waterlogged deposits in the core of the town dating from the Roman period onwards, it is believed that Selby originated as a settlement called Seletun, referred to in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of AD 779. The town of Selby, a sizeable town on the main route north from the Midlands, is the traditional birthplace of King Henry I, fourth son of William the Conqueror, in 1068/69. King Henry I is reputed to have been born there in either 1068 or 1069.
A notable feature of the abbey is the 14th century Washington Window, featuring the heraldic arms of the ancestors of George Washington, the first president of the United States. The design is cited as an influence for the Stars and Stripes flag; the abbey was founded when Benedict saw three swans on a lake in Selby, he saw it as a sign of the Father and Holy Ghost. That is. Selby Abbey was closed in 1539 as part of the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII and the majority of the buildings have since been demolished; the central nave of the abbey church survived and in 1618 it became the parish church of Selby. There was a important battle in the English Civil War, named the Battle of Selby. There are many other historical sites, like the cholera burial ground on the north side of the abbey, the market cross and the local school, Selby High School; the Market Place has existed since the early 14th century when the market was moved away from the monastery churchyard. The Crescent which curves eastwards from James Street was planned in the early 19th century by a local man, John Audus, after seeing Lansdown Crescent in Bath, Somerset.
Selby is expanding to become a larger town. New houses and shops are being built on the present town's outskirts with the expansion of the town stretching as far as the bypass, although this has resulted in the loss of some trade from the town centre. Meanwhile, the riverfront area is being revamped with fashionable flats. Selby was a centre for shipbuilding, with vessels launched into the river; this required the more unusual technique of launching the vessels side-on into the river due to lack of space for a more conventional stern first or bow first launch. One famous vessel of the Cochrane and Son's shipyard of the town is the preserved trawler Ross Tiger at Grimsby's National Fishing Heritage Centre. Cochrane launched their last vessel into the Ouse in 1998, a historical occasion which people around the area went to see. Once Cochrane had closed, the massive cranes still stood over the skyline of Selby until 2001, when strong winds blew them down. Most of the shipyard buildings are still standing and the site along with interviews with former employees and archive film was featured in a 2013 video production'Cochranes of Selby'.
The site of the shipyard is home to many small businesses who work in the same buildings that were once used to build the Selby ships. At the lowest level of governance is Selby Town Council; the town is divided into three electoral wards, north and west, each represented by six councillors. These eighteen councillors are responsible for burial grounds, play areas and some street lighting. Elections to the town council are held every four years and the most recent elections were held in May 2007. At district level the town is part of the Selby District Council area; the town is represented by seven councillors on the District Council, two each for the west and south wards and three for the north ward. On the North Yorkshire County Council the town is part of the Selby Barlby county division which elects two representatives to the county council. In the United Kingdom Parliament Selby formed part of the Selby constituency until the 2010 general election when it became part of the new seat of Selby and Ainsty.
It is represented by Nigel Adams. The town is represented at the European level as part of the Humber constituency. Selby lies on the tidal River Ouse in a natural area of Yorkshire known as the Humberhead Levels; the main roads which cross at Selby are the A63 from Leeds to Hull and the A19 from Doncaster to York, though the A19 and A63 no longer meet in Selby itself since the opening of the Selby Bypass in 2004. The River Ouse is navigable upstream as far as York so the old toll bridge by which the A63 crossed the river at Selby had to allow for this. For many years the swing bridge in Selby was a notorious local bottleneck but since the opening of the Selby bypass congestion in the town has been relieved; the importance of Selby as a market town has declined in recent decades and its short lived prominence as the centre of the Selby Coalfield has waned. Selby is a commuter town with proximity to both Leeds, its popularity as a tourist destination, due to Selby Abbey, has led to a large amount of development and renovation in the town and surrounding area.
The residential areas of Selby have been subject to expansion an
Hull Trains is an open access operator in England owned by FirstGroup. It operates long-distance services between London King's Cross, it has a track-access agreement until December 2029. In 1999, there was only one through train per day each way between Hull and London King's Cross, GNER's Hull Executive. In May 1999, former British Rail managers Mike Jones and John Nelson lodged an application to operate an open access service through their Renaissance Trains business. A joint venture was formed with GB Railways taking an 80% shareholding and Jones and Nelson each holding 10%. In December 1999, a four-year track access agreement was granted by the Office of Rail Regulation with operations commencing on 25 September 2000. In September 2002, the access agreement was extended for ten years. In August 2003, GB Railway's shareholding was included in the sale of the business to FirstGroup. In June 2008, Hull Trains was rebranded as First Hull Trains, adopting FirstGroup's corporate blue and white colours.
In January 2009, the access rights were extended until December 2014, in February 2010 was further extended until December 2016. It was extended until December 2019. In August 2014, FirstGroup purchased the remaining 20% shareholding. In 2015, it resumed trading as Hull Trains. In March 2016, First Hull Trains obtained approval for a further 10 year open access agreement until 2029, allowing them to proceed with ordering five Class 802 electro-diesel multiple-units, announced by the operator on 3 September 2015. Hull Trains operates up to six daily return services between Hull and London King's Cross on weekdays and a daily service between Beverley and King's Cross. On weekends there are King's Cross only. Hull Trains commenced running three services per day on 25 September 2000. In December 2002 a fourth daily service commenced, in May 2004 a fifth, in May 2005 a sixth, a seventh. On 4 February 2015, one service per weekday was extended from Hull to Beverley in each direction. In December 2015, one service was extended to Beverley on weekends.
In 2008, First Hull Trains applied for track access rights to run services between Harrogate and London King's Cross via York under the First Harrogate Trains banner and from Cleethorpes to King's Cross via Lincoln and Spalding. In January 2009, the Office of Rail Regulation released its decisions on the ECML route planning and rejected First Harrogate Trains' application. Hull Trains began operations with 3-car Class 170 Turbostars hired from sister GB Railways company Anglia Railways. There was at least one occurrence of an Anglia Railways Class 86 and Mark 2 set operating as far as Doncaster; when the Strategic Rail Authority changed its policy on allowing train operating company assets to be hired out, Hull Trains needed to acquire its own fleet. It ordered four 3-car Class 170 Turbostars, the first entering service in March 2004; these were intended only as an interim solution as four 4-car Class 222 Pioneers were ordered at the same time, but because the former were part of a speculative order placed by Porterbrook they would be available in time.
The Class 170 Turbostars entered service in March 2004. It was planned that after being replaced, they would be used on new services, but these services were never introduced, so the Class 170 trains were transferred to First ScotRail; the Class 222 Pioneers entered service from May 2005. In January 2007, a Class 222 Pioneer was damaged. After making do with only three trains, in January 2008 a Class 86 was hired from the AC Locomotive Group to haul a set of Mark 3s hired from Cargo-D for weekend London King's Cross to Doncaster services. In April 2008, two Class 180 Adelantes were leased to replace the locomotive-hauled set and allow a maintenance backlog that accrued on the Class 222 Pioneers to be cleared. In 2008 another two were leased to release the Class 222 Pioneers for transfer to East Midlands Trains in 2009; these trains helped First Hull Trains gain more capacity by an extra carriage, but when the units first arrived they were plagued by technical difficulties, a period of poor reliability for the company followed.
However, First Hull Trains has improved reliability since their introduction. The units have been given a refresh internally with new seat covers and a deep clean. New catering facilities for first class have been provided, externally the units have been repainted in FirstGroup's neon blue livery. In the Class 180s, Coach A is standard seating, Coach B is standard class including the buffet/shop, Coach C is standard seating, Coach D is first class, Coach E contains airline-style seating and wheelchair accommodation. Following reliability problems being encountered with the Class 180s, an InterCity 125 was hired from First Great Western from February 2019. In April 2019, Hull Trains introduced another HST to their network following more reliability problems. In September 2015, Hull Trains announced an order for five new 5-car bi-mode high-speed trains from Hitachi, with seating for 320 people and a maximum speed of 140 mph. In its proposed track access application, Hull Trains confirmed. Maintenance of the Class 180 Adelantes was undertaken at Old Oak Common Depot alongside Great Western Railway's fleet.
Two sets are stabled and serviced each night in Hull sidings by Hull Trains staff with fuelling and emptying of toilet tanks being undertaken at Northern's Botanic Gardens Depot. The third service set is stabled at either Bounds Green or Old
Packet boats were medium-sized boats designed for domestic mail and freight transportation in European countries and their colonies, including North American rivers and canals. They were used extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries and featured scheduled service; when such ships were put into use in the 18th century on the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain and its colonies, the services were called the packet trade. Packet craft were used extensively in European coastal mail services since the 17th century, added cramped passenger accommodation; as early as 1629, the Dutch East India Company was carrying some passengers on the ill-fated Batavia from Texel in Holland to Java. Scheduled services were offered, but the time journeys took depended much on the weather, they are found to be a subject of Daniel Defoe's 1724 novel Roxana: The Fortunate Mistress. In England the King maintained a weekly packet service with the continent and Ireland using 15 packet vessels, their importance is evident from the fact that the first craft built in the colony of New South Wales was the Rose Hill Packet.
Over the two centuries of the sailing packet craft development, they came in various rig configurations which included: schooners, schooners-brigs, cutters, brigantines, feluccas, xebecs and their ultimate development in the clipper ships. Earlier they were known as dispatch boats, but the service was provided by privateers during time of war, on occasion chartered private yachts. News of "record passages" was eagerly awaited by the public, the craft's captain and crew were celebrated in the press. Behind this search for sailing faster than the wind however lay the foundations for a development in naval architecture and its science which would serve until the appearance of the steam vessels. In 1863, during the Civil War, the packet boat Marshall carried the body of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson from Lynchburg to his home in Lexington, Virginia for burial; the American canal packet boats were narrow to accommodate canals, but might be 70–90 feet long. When the Erie Canal opened in New York state in 1825 along the Mohawk River, demand rose for travelers to be accommodated.
Canal packet boats included cabin space for up to 60 passengers. Unlike European and American sailing vessels, that sought to attain greater speed under sail, the canal packet boats were drawn through the Erie Canal by teams of two or three horses or mules. Compared to overland travel, the boats were much more comfortable. Travelers could get from New York City to Buffalo in ten days, with a combination of sailing and packet boats; some passengers took the boats to see both the natural landscapes. Thousands of others used packet boats to emigrate to Ohio and other parts of the Midwest; these boats were instrumental in the settling of and travel within Upstate New York through the branch canals such as the Chenango Canal. Packet boats were popular along the James River and Kanawha Canal in Virginia, allowing travel beyond the falls upriver. Mail steamers were steamships which carried the mail across waterways, such as across an ocean or between islands during the 19th century and early 20th century, when the cost of sending a letter was declining to the point an ordinary person could afford the cost of sending a letter across great distances.
In addition to carrying mail, most mail steamers carried passengers or cargo since the revenue from the mail service, if any, was insufficient by itself to pay for the cost of its travel. However, the advantage for a steamship carrying mail was that its arrival would be advertised in advance in the newspapers, thus giving it "free advertising" as a travel option for passengers or cargo. In most cases, mail carried by mail steamers was delivered to the post office to which it was addressed. In some cases, the incoming mail would be advertised in the local newspaper for pickup at the post office or at the steamship's office for a fee, if not fee-paid; because of political instability when a post office could not provide normal services, incoming mail from a mail steamer would be delivered to a local delivery service, which would deliver the mail and charge the addressee an extra fee for the service. When this occurred, the local delivery service would place its own local service stamp or mark on the envelope when the extra fee was paid.
Mail carried by these steamers – sometimes known as paquebot mail – was subject to various regulations by the governments involved as well as the Universal Postal Union's regulations stated at the UPU Vienna Conference of 1891. The C-82 Packet twin-engined, twin-boom cargo aircraft designed and built by Fairchild Aircraft was named as a tribute to the packet boat, it was used by the United States Army Air Forces and the successor United States Air Force following World War II. Allan Line Royal Mail Steamers Postal history Royal Mail Ship Pony Express TPO and Seapost Society for all collectors of Rail and Ship Mail worldwide Service Steamer Service Postal Matters Arrival of the Mail! Paquebot mail begins at sea, postmarked on land Glossary of Stamp Collecting Terms Alaska Mail Service: the Mail Steamer Elsie By the 1930s a method of signalling the impending arrival of a mail steamer at Aden was still needed Woodcut print 1875 photo of Olive, canal freighter Driver and team
Leeds Marsh Lane railway station
Marsh Lane railway station was built as the Leeds terminus of the Leeds and Selby Railway. The combined passenger and goods station opened in 1834. During the construction of the extension of the Leeds and Selby Line into central Leeds in the 1860s the station was demolished, replaced with a large goods station and a separate through passenger station; the station was built as the Leeds terminus of the Leeds and Selby Railway which opened in 1834. The first official train to run on the line started from Marsh Lane at around 6.30 am on 22 September 1834. In 1842 the station consisted of a two-storey office building, containing a booking office on the ground floor, with the railway level with the first floor; the main station shed. The passenger lines lacked raised platforms, unlike other stations on the line. Goods were handled at a warehouse at the west end of the station, adjacent to the offices, at a supplementary building, added onto the northeast side of the original trainshed; the station included the railway's workshops in the northeast corner of the site, coal and lime depots on the south side.
After the acquisition of the Leeds and Selby by the York and North Midland Railway in 1840 passenger trains were diverted via the Y&NMR's line to its station in Hunslet Lane station. A local passenger service to Milford Junction was started in 1850. Around 1863 the site at Marsh Lane was redeveloped into a goods station; the old station was demolished and a six-storey grain warehouse was constructed on the site, designed by architect Thomas Prosser. In 1869 the North Eastern Railway's Leeds extension line from Marsh Lane to Leeds New railway station was completed, allowing through running along the Leeds and Selby Line into Leeds and beyond. A new passenger station was constructed at Marsh Lane on the route into central Leeds. In 1894 an expansion of the facilities at the station was completed; the station was closed in 1958. The Prosser grain warehouse was burnt down by a fire in the 1970s; as of 2013 the site was being offered for redevelopment by Continental Railways. Leeds Central railway station and Holbeck railway station closed in the 1950/60s Whishaw, The Railways of Great Britain and Ireland Practically Described and Illustrated, alt link Tomlinson, William Weaver, The North Eastern Railway.
A History of North Eastern Railway Architecture, 1, North Eastern Railway Association Hoole, Ken, A regional history of the railways of Great Britain. Vol 4, The North East and Charles "Leeds: Marsh Lane Station. 1961", www.flickr.com