Gravel Hill tram stop
Gravel Hill tram stop is a light rail stop serving Addington, in the London Borough of Croydon in the southern suburbs of London. It is the main destination for tourists visiting the historic site of Addington Palace, it is used by students who attend John Ruskin College and is the nearest stop for Forestdale. The tram stop is served by Tramlink. London Buses routes 130 and 466 serve the tram stop
1970 United Kingdom general election
The 1970 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 18 June 1970. It resulted in a surprise victory for the Conservative Party under leader Edward Heath, which defeated the governing Labour Party under Harold Wilson; the Liberal Party, under its new leader Jeremy Thorpe, lost half their seats. The Conservatives, including the Ulster Unionist Party, secured a majority of 31 seats; this general election was the first in which people could vote from the age of 18, after passage of the Representation of the People Act the previous year. As of 2017, it is the earliest general election from which there remain members of the House of Commons who have a record of continuous service. Clarke is the current Father of the House since the death of 86-year-old Gerald Kaufman in February 2017. Most opinion polls prior to the election indicated a comfortable Labour victory, put Labour up to 12.4% ahead of the Conservatives. On election day, however, a late swing gave the Conservatives a 3.4% lead and ended six years of Labour government, although Wilson remained leader of the Labour Party in opposition.
Writing in the aftermath of the election, the political scientist Richard Rose described the Conservative victory as "surprising" and noted a significant shift in votes between the two main parties. The Times journalist George Clark wrote that the election would be "remembered as the occasion when the people of the United Kingdom hurled the findings of the opinion polls back into the faces of the pollsters"; the result would provide the mandate for Edward Heath as Prime Minister to begin formal negotiations for the United Kingdom to become a member of the European Communities —or the "Common Market" as it was more known at the time, before it became the European Union. Prominent Labour figures George Brown and Jennie Lee were both defeated in their constituencies at this general election; the 1970 general election was the last election prior to that of 1997 where the Labour Party received more than 40% of the popular vote, the last until the 2017 election where the third-largest party by number of votes achieved less than 10% of the vote.
The election was the last. The UUP sat with the Conservative Party at Westminster, traditionally taking the Conservative parliamentary whip. To all intents and purposes the UUP functioned as the Northern Ireland branch of the Conservative Party. In 1972, in protest over the permanent prorogation of the Parliament of Northern Ireland, the Westminster UUP MPs withdrew from the alliance; the date of 18 June was chosen because Harold Wilson wanted as Prime Minister to go to the polls before the introduction of decimal coinage in early 1971, for which his government had been responsible and which he thought was hugely unpopular, because Wilson sought to gain some momentum by surprising the Conservatives, who were expecting an October election. Commentators believed that an unexpectedly bad set of balance of payments figures released on election day, a loss of national prestige after the England football team's defeat by West Germany on 15 June in the World Cup, contributed to the Labour defeat. Other factors that were cited as reasons for the Conservative victory included union indiscipline, rising prices, the risk of devaluation, the government's imposition of Selective Employment Tax, a set of jobless figures released on polling day showing unemployment at its highest level since 1940.
Interviewed by Robin Day, the outgoing Prime Minister Harold Wilson highlighted the possibility that "complacency engendered by the opinion polls" may have resulted in a poor turnout of Labour supporters. As defending world champions, England's venture in the World Cup attracted a much keener public interest than the general election did. American pollster Douglas Schoen and Oxford University academic R. W. Johnson asserted that Enoch Powell had attracted 2.5 million votes to the Conservatives, although the Conservative vote only increased by 1.7 million. Johnson stated "It became clear that Powell had won the 1970 election for the Tories... of all those who had switched their vote from one party to another, 50 per cent were working class Powellites". The Professor of Political Science Randall Hansen assessed a range of studies, including some which contended that Powell had made little or no difference to the result, but concluded that "At the least, Powell's effect was to have fired up the Conservative vote in constituencies which would have voted Tory in any event".
Election night commentators Michael Barratt and Jeffrey Preece dismissed any special "Powell factor", as did Conservative MPs Reginald Maudling, Timothy Raison and Hugh Dykes. The 1970–74 Parliament has to date been the only time since the 1924–29 Parliament in which the Conservative Party were only in government for one term before returning to opposition; the most notable casualty of the election was George Brown, deputy leader of the Labour Party, who lost to the Conservative candidate in the Belper constituency. Brown had held the seat since 1945. Unusually for the Liberal Party, the by-elections between 1966 and 1970 had proved fruitless, with many Liberal candidates losing deposits; the one exception was its by-election gain of Birmingham Ladywood in June 1969. The party found itself struggling to introduce its new leader Jeremy Thorpe to the public, owing to the extensive coverage and attention paid to Enoch Powell; the election
An animal sanctuary is a facility where animals are brought to live and be protected for the rest of their lives. Unlike animal shelters, sanctuaries do not seek to place animals with individuals or groups, instead maintaining each animal until its natural death. However, they can offer rehoming services. In some cases, an establishment may have characteristics of a shelter; the mission of sanctuaries is to be safe havens, where the animals receive the best care that the sanctuaries can provide. Animals are not bought, sold, or traded, nor are they used for animal testing; the resident animals are given the opportunity to behave as natural as possible in a protective environment. What distinguishes a sanctuary from other institutions is the philosophy that the residents come first. In a sanctuary, every action is scrutinized for any trace of human benefit at the expense of non-human residents. Sanctuaries act on behalf of the animals, the caregivers work under the notion that all animals in the sanctuary and non-human, are of equal importance.
A properly-run sanctuary is not open to the public in the sense of a zoo. A legitimate sanctuary avoids activity that would place the animals in an unduly stressful situation. One of the most important missions of sanctuaries, beyond caring for the animals, is educating the public; the ultimate goal of many sanctuaries is to change the way that humans think of, treat, non-human animals. Farm Sanctuary's shelter in upstate New York provides a home to hundreds of rescued goats, cows, poultry and other farm animals. An animal sanctuary is a facility where animals are brought to live and be protected for the rest of their lives. Unlike animal shelters, sanctuaries do not seek to place animals with individuals or groups, instead maintaining each animal until its natural death. However, they can offer rehoming services. In some cases, an establishment may have characteristics of a shelter; the mission of sanctuaries is to be safe havens, where the animals receive the best care that the sanctuaries can provide.
Animals are not bought, sold, or traded, nor are they used for animal testing. The resident animals are given the opportunity to behave as natural as possible in a protective environment. List of animal sanctuaries
South Croydon in south London is the area surrounding the valley south of central Croydon about 1 km in radius, centred on what was the Red Deer public house on the Brighton Road. It is part in the London Borough of Croydon, it is a dormitory suburb for Croydon and London. The placename Croydon is listed in the 1086 Domesday Book. South Croydon as a distinct area is found much in the 19th century, when the area was developed as a residential suburb; the area could be considered to be bounded to the north and east by the South Croydon postal boundary and to the west and south by the historic Croydon parish boundary, which runs from Conduit Lane to Croham Hurst, crossing Croham Road where it becomes Croham Valley Road across to the railway line, crossing Selsdon Road where it becomes Upper Selsdon Road and Carlton Road where it becomes Mayfield Road. Thereafter the old parish boundary follows the railway south. Landmarks of South Croydon include: The former Swan and Sugarloaf public house, now a branch of Tesco Metro.
The former Red Deer public house, now a branch of My Local Whitgift School St Peter's Church St Augustine's Church South Croydon Bus Garage 46 South EndGreen space is provided to the west by the enormous Purley Way Playing Fields, the hidden green space with gardens, Haling Grove sandwiched between Pampisford Road and the A23: the extensive Whitgift School playing fields host international cricket and rugby matches. The postal district of South Croydon includes Sanderstead and two remnants of Addington, Croham Valley and Monks Hill, it has the following schools: Haling Manor High School, Regina Coeli Catholic Primary School, St Peter's Primary School, St Giles School, Ridgeway Primary School, Gresham Primary School, Purley Oaks Primary School, Howard Primary School, Atwood Primary School, Selsdon Primary and Nursery School, Greenvale Primary School, Gilbert Scott Primary School, Whitgift School and The Quest Academy. Croydon Coombe Selsdon Sanderstead Riddlesdown Kenley Purley Purley Way Croydon Airport Waddon South Croydon Purley Oaks Sanderstead Riddlesdown Selsdon Road - closed Spencer Road halt - closed Whitgift School The Woodside & South Croydon Railway - describes Selsdon Road Station and Spencer Road Halt
A nature reserve is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws, it is more protected than a nature park. Cultural practices that equate to the establishment and maintenance of reserved areas for animals date back to antiquity, with King Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura establishing one of the world's earliest wildlife sanctuaries in the 3rd century BC. Early reservations had a religious underpinning, such as the'evil forest' areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by many ancient cultures worldwide.
The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall, West Yorkshire. He spent £9000 on the construction of a 3 mile long, 9 ft tall wall to enclose his park from poachers, he tried to encourage birdlife by hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in. He invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings and sand martins and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy. Waterton allowed local people access to his reserve and was described by David Attenborough as “one of the first people anywhere to recognise not only that the natural world was of great importance but that it needed protection as humanity made more and more demands on it”. Drachenfels was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany; the first major nature reserve was Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States, followed by the Royal National Park near Sydney and the Barguzin Nature Reserve of Imperial Russia, the first of zapovedniks set up by a federal government for the scientific study of nature.
In Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia. The term “nature reserve” is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a single national statute; as of 2016, 1767 out of a total of 11044 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term “nature reserve" in their names. In Brazil, nature reserves are classified as ecological stations estações ecológicas) or biological reserves by the National System of Conservation Units, their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, excluding direct human interference. Visits are allowed only with permission, only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the natural balance, biological diversity and natural ecological processes. Ecological stations are allowed to change the environment within defined limits for the purpose of scientific research.
A wildlife reserve in Brazil is protected, hunting is not allowed, but products and by-products from research may be sold. There are 30 nature reserves in Egypt; those nature reserves were built according to the laws no. 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to help protect the natural resources and the culture and history of those areas; the largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba in the southeast, on the Red Sea coast. Denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas; the largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km2 and is part of Thy National Park. In Sweden, there are 29 national parks; the first of them was established in 1909. In fact, Sweden was the first European country. There are 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden, they comprise about 85% of the surface, protected by the Swedish Environmental Code. In Estonia, there are 5 national parks, more than 100 nature reserves, around 130 landscape protection areas.
The largest nature reserve in Estonia is Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve, which covers 342 km2. As of 2017, France counts 10 national parks, around 8 marine parks. In 1995 Germany had 5,314 nature reserves covering 6,845 km2, the largest total areas being in Bavaria with 1,416 km2 and Lower Saxony with 1,275 km2. In Hungary, there are 10 National Parks, more than 15 nature reserves and more than 250 protected areas. Hortobágy National Park is the largest continuous natural grassland in Europe and the oldest national park in Hungary, it is situated on the plain of the Alföld. It was established in 1972. There are alkaline grasslands interrupted by marshes, they have a sizable importance. One of the most spectacular sights of the park is the autumn mi
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Sanderstead is a village and medieval-founded church parish in the London Borough of Croydon. It takes in Purley Downs and the Sanderstead Plantation, a large wooded park that includes the animated second-highest point in London; the area sits above a dry valley at the edge of the built-up area of Greater London. Cementing its secular identity from the late 19th century until abolition in 1965 it had a civil parish council; the community had a smaller farming-centred economy until the mid 19th century. All Saints' Church's construction began in about 1230 followed by great alterations and affixing of monuments including a poem attributed to John Dryden, the first Poet Laureate nationally. Sanderstead station is at the foot of the dry valley and has frequent, fast trains to East Croydon, connected to a range of London terminals and interchanges. Sanderstead is claimed to an origin of the English Sanders surname, noting at least four separate geographical clusters formed by the 19th century, two of which were by 1881 far more populous.
Sanderstead's Interwar growth coincided with electrification of the Southern Railway leaving a suburban community of households having at least one commuter to central London or Croydon. There is evidence of prehistoric human activity around Sanderstead. In 1958–60 the Sanderstead Archaeological Group excavated in the vicinity of Sanderstead pond and revealed the presence of man as far back as the Mesolithic Period nearly 12,000 years ago, as well as pottery fragments dated between 100 AD and 1300 AD and a bronze belt from the end of the Saxon era. North of the village at Croham Hurst, upon a wooded hill, are circular barrows believed to be from a Bronze Age settlement; this is now part of a public open space and the site is marked by a brass monument. A Romano-British homestead was discovered during the construction of the Atwood School. During the 1980s, when the school was extended, further excavation revealed the remains of several round huts, hearths, a brooch, pottery, some of which hailed from North Africa.
An Anglo-Saxon reference to Sanderstead can be found in the will, dated 871, of Alfred, an ealdorman. The village lay within the Anglo-Saxon administrative division of Wallington hundred, it appears to have been given to St Peter's Abbey, Winchester by Æthelflæd, the wife of Edgar the Peaceful and mother of Edward the Martyr, where it remained after the Norman Conquest. Sanderstead appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Sandestede, belonging to St Peter's Abbey, Winchester, it had a noted population of 26 including 4 slaves and 1 cottager. Its Domesday assets were assessed as 5 hides, 10 carucates of arable land, it had wood worth 30 hogs. Its Domesday entry records that in the time of Edward the Confessor it was valued at 100 shillings, now 12 pounds; the village was granted to Sir John Gresham by Henry VIII following the Dissolution of the Monasteries. It was passed to his son Richard who subsequently sold it to John Ownsted, the transfer being ratified in 1591. Ownsted died without issue in 1600, devised his estates to his two sisters and cousin Harman Atwood, with Atwood subsequently purchasing the shares of his joint legatees.
The Atwood family had a long association with Sanderstead, with inscriptions at the local church indicating a presence in the village from the reign of Edward II. The manor house, known as Sanderstead Court, was remodelled by Harman Atwood; this large country house was first constructed in the early sixteenth century. The Atwoods continued to occupy the house until 1778, it was turned into a hotel in 1928, before the Second World War it was used by the Royal Air Force. It was badly damaged by fire in 1944 and was demolished in 1958. One small part of the hotel building does however still stand. On the site now stands "Sanderstead Court", a three-storey block of flats. One of the more curious aspects of Sanderstead is that it has no pub, unlike nearby Warlingham which has around six. On the edge of the village lies the site of the Old Saw Mill now home to a number of private residences and the picturesque setting for Sanderstead Cricket Club. Cricket has been played in the area since the 18th century, with matches recorded in 1731 and 1732.
The ground itself has been in use since 1883 and continues to the present day with four teams playing in the Surrey Championship and a number of other Colts and friendly teams. Located between Limpsfield Road and Kingswood Lane is the large Kings Wood, it derives its name from a small wood to the north of Kings Wood Lodge. In 1823, Ordnance Survey Maps called the wood Sanderstead Wood, it covers some 147½ acres, criss-crossed by ancient rides and is on flat ground. It is now public open space. There is the site of a Romano-British settlement on the northern boundary, a small farmstead undisturbed for 2000 years. Sanderstead has four schools, namely, it is conveniently placed for a number of others located within a couple of miles from the village including Croydon High School, Harris Academy Purley, Riddlesdown Collegiate, Royal Russell School, The Quest Academy, Thomas More Catholic School, Warlingham School, Whitgift School. The 2011 census showed that White British was the largest ethnic group in Sanderstead ward, forming 76% of the population.
Sanderstead has returned Conservative Party MPs to the local seat of Croydon Sout