Kelud is an active stratovolcano located in East Java, Indonesia. Like many Indonesian volcanoes and others on the Pacific Ring of Fire, Kelud is known for large explosive eruptions throughout its history. More than 30 eruptions have occurred since 1000 AD. In 2007, an effusive explosion filled the crater with a lava dome, it last erupted on February 13, 2014, destroying the lava dome and ejecting boulders and ashes up to West Java about 500 kilometers from Mount Kelud. The crater filled with water during the rainy season; the eruption history of Kelud is quite unique in Indonesian history, because it was one of the few volcanoes whose activities were recorded in Indonesian historical accounts. According to Nagarakretagama canto 1 stanza 4 and 5, King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit was born in 1256 Saka, which corresponds to 1334 CE, the same year that Mount Kelud erupted. Prapanca argued that this was the divine sign that Batara Gurunata has manifest Himself on earth, reincarnated as the Javanese king.
This account describes the local Javanese psyche at that time that regarded the natural event such as volcanic eruption, as the divine sign from the gods. On May 19, 1919, an eruption at Kelud killed an estimated 5,000 people through hot mudflows. More recent eruptions in 1951, 1966, 1990 have altogether killed another 250 people. Following the 1966 eruption, the Ampera Tunnels were built on the southwestern side of the crater to reduce the water of crater lake and thus reduce the lahar hazard. A strong and explosive eruption on early February 1990 produced a 7 kilometres high column of tephra, heavy tephra falls and several pyroclastic flows. More than thirty people were killed. Workers continued to construct the Ampera Tunnel despite the still-hot pyroclastic flow deposits which reached as high as 25 m and buried the tunnel's mouth. On October 16, 2007, Indonesian authorities ordered the evacuation of 30,000 residents living near Kelud, after scientists placed the volcano on the highest alert level, meaning that they expected an imminent eruption.
Kelud erupted at about 3 p.m. local time on Saturday, November 3, 2007. The eruption was confirmed by the Indonesian government's Centre for Vulcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Although no visual confirmation was possible when the eruption began because the volcano's peak was shrouded by clouds, Indonesian government volcanologists said seismic readings showed an eruption was under way. More than 350,000 people lived within 10 kilometres of the volcano. Surabaya, Indonesia's third-largest urban area and home to one of the country's busiest airports, is 90 kilometres to the northwest. Although local inhabitants were ordered to leave their homes in mid-October, many either did not evacuate or returned in the interim. Many villagers were reported fleeing the area in panic after reports of the eruption, but by early Saturday evening, Indonesian officials said the eruption that day had not been large at all. Seismological equipment near the volcano's crater was still operating, scientists said that indicated a small eruption at best.
However, early Sunday morning, November 4, Mount Kelud spewed ash 500 metres into the air, indicating a full eruption was taking place. "The eruption isn't over," Saut Simatupang, head of Indonesian Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation Agency, said. Seismologists monitoring the crater said surface temperatures in Mount Kelud's crater lake rose on November 4 to 60.7 °C from 43.9 °C on November 3. At a depth of 15 metres, the temperature jumped to 66.1 degrees Celsius on November 4 from 45.9 degrees Celsius on November 3. The extreme heat smoke 488 metres high. On November 5, new columns of smoke and steam erupted from the crater. Boiling water cascaded down the flanks of the mountain from the crater lake, seismological equipment near the crater ceased working. Indonesian authorities said about 25,000 people remained in the danger zone, ignoring evacuation orders; the following day, a lava dome rose through the centre of the crater lake atop the mountain. Closed-circuit television cameras showed the 100-metre long oblong island had pushed about 20 metres above the surface of the lake.
The volcano continued to emit smoke, with plumes reaching a kilometre into the atmosphere. But after 48 hours of smoke and ash but no lava, Indonesian officials declared on November 8 that no eruption was immediate. Officials said the volcano was experiencing a "slow eruption" and was unlikely to explode as it had done many times in the past century. By November 12, Mount Kelud began spewing lava into its crater lake; the lava dome, which had expanded to 250 metres long and 120 metres high, cracked open and lava began oozing into the surrounding water. Smoke rose more than two kilometres into the air, ash dusted several villages around the volcano. On November 14, smoke billowed 2.5 kilometres into the air, light ash covered villages 15 kilometres away. The hot lava dome occupied the lake crater and the lake disappeared. Kelud erupted on February 13, 2014; the eruption occurred at 22:50 local time. The eruption sent volcanic ash covering an area of about 500 kilometres in diameter, with the total ejectus estimated at 120,000,000 to 160,000,000 cubic metres being a VEI 4 eruption.
Ashfall occurred over a large portion of Java island, from Malang to the west, as well as Central Java and Yogyakarta. The eruption prompted about 76,000 i
Soe Hok Gie
Soe Hok Gie was a Chinese Indonesian activist who opposed the successive dictatorships of Presidents Sukarno and Suharto. Soe was the fourth of five children in his family. After spending his final years of senior high school at Kanisius, Soe attended the University of Indonesia from 1962 until 1969, it was during his time as a student that Soe became an active dissident, protesting against President Sukarno and the PKI. Soe was a productive writer, with articles published in such newspapers as Kompas, Harian Kami, Sinar Harapan, Mahasiswa Indonesia, Indonesia Raya. After the release of Riri Riza's Gie in 2005, his articles were compiled by Stanley and Aris Santoso and republished with the title Zaman Peralihan by publisher GagasMedia. An avid proponent of living close to nature, Soe quoted Walt Whitman in his diary: "Now I see the secret of the making of the best person, it is to grow in the open air and to eat and sleep with the earth". In 1965, Soe helped found Mapala UI, a student environmentalist organisation.
He enjoyed hiking, indeed died through inhaling poisonous gas while hiking up the volcanic Mount Semeru on the day before his 27th birthday. He was laid to rest in. Fittingly, Soe once wrote in his diary: "Seorang filsuf Yunani pernah menulis... nasib terbaik adalah tidak dilahirkan, yang kedua dilahirkan tapi mati muda, dan yang tersial adalah umur tua. Rasa-rasanya memang begitu. Bahagialah mereka yang mati muda."This translates to English as "A Greek philosopher once wrote... The best fate is to never have been born, second is to be born but die young, the most unfortunate of all is to old age; this feels pretty right: Happy are those who die young." Soe attributed the statement, which echoes similar comments from Friedrich Nietzsche, to an anonymous Greek philosopher. His diary was published under the title Catatan Seorang Demonstran. Soe's university thesis was published, as Di Bawah Lantera Merah. Soe's diary served as the inspiration for a 2005 film, directed by Riri Riza and starred Nicholas Saputra as Soe Hok Gie.
Soe is the subject of a 1997 book, written by Dr. John Maxwell and entitled Soe Hok-Gie: Diary of a Young Indonesian Intellectual; the book was translated into Indonesian in 2001, re-titled Soe Hok-Gie: Pergulatan Intelektual Muda Melawan Tirani. Gie, a 2005 film based on his life List of Chinese Indonesians Soe, Hok Gie, Catatan Seorang Demonstran, Jakarta: Lembaga Penelitian, Pendidikan dan Penerangan Ekonomi dan Sosial. Soe, Hok Gie, Di Bawah Lentera Merah: Riwayat Sarekat Islam Semarang, 1917–1920, Jakarta: Frantz Fanon Foundation. Soe, Hok Gie, Zaman Peralihan, Yogyakarta: Yayasan Bentang Budaya. Soe, Hok Gie, Orang-orang di Persimpangan Kiri Jalan: Kisah Pemberontakan Madiun 1948, Yogyakarta: Yayasan Bentang Budaya, ISBN 978-979-8793-31-8. Anderson, Ben, "In Memoriam: Soe Hok-Gie", Indonesia, 9, pp. 225–227, ISSN 0019-7289. Maxwell, Soe Hok-Gie: Pergulatan Intelektual Muda Melawan Tirani, Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti, ISBN 978-979-444-422-1. Translated from Maxwell, John. Soe Hok-Gie: A Biography of a Young Indonesian Intellectual.
Australian National University. OCLC 223012031. Jahja, H. Junus, Peranakan Idealis: Dari Lie Eng Hok sampai Teguh Karya, Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia, ISBN 978-979-9023-84-1. Suryadinata, Prominent Indonesian Chinese: Biographical Sketches, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, ISBN 978-981-3055-04-9. Mapala UI
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the Universe according to the Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. It consists of temporal and spatial cosmology, the temporal cosmology being the division of the existence of a'world' into four discrete moments; the spatial cosmology consists of a vertical cosmology, the various planes of beings, their bodies, food, beauty and a horizontal cosmology, the distribution of these world-systems into an "apparently" infinite sheet of universes. The existence of world-periods, is well attested to by the Buddha; the historical Buddha made references to the existence of aeons, intimates his knowledge of past events, such as the dawn of human beings in their coarse and gender-split forms, the existence of more than one sun at certain points in time, his ability to convey his voice vast distances, as well as the ability of his disciples to be reborn in any one of these planes. The self-consistent Buddhist cosmology, presented in commentaries and works of Abhidharma in both Theravāda and Mahāyāna traditions, is the end-product of an analysis and reconciliation of cosmological comments found in the Buddhist sūtra and vinaya traditions.
No single sūtra sets out the entire structure of the universe, but in several sūtras the Buddha describes other worlds and states of being, other sūtras describe the origin and destruction of the universe. The synthesis of these data into a single comprehensive system must have taken place early in the history of Buddhism, as the system described in the Pāli Vibhajyavāda tradition agrees, despite some minor inconsistencies of nomenclature, with the Sarvāstivāda tradition, preserved by Mahāyāna Buddhists; the picture of the world presented in Buddhist cosmological descriptions cannot be taken as a literal description of the shape of the universe. It is inconsistent, cannot be made consistent, with astronomical data that were known in ancient India. However, it is not intended to be a description of; the cosmology has been interpreted in a symbolical or allegorical sense. Buddhist cosmology can be divided into two related kinds: spatial cosmology, which describes the arrangement of the various worlds within the universe.
Spatial cosmology displays the various, multitude of worlds embedded in the universe. Spatial cosmology can be divided into two branches; the vertical cosmology describes the arrangement of worlds in a vertical pattern, some being higher and some lower. By contrast, the horizontal cosmology describes the grouping of these vertical worlds into sets of thousands, millions or billions. "In the vertical cosmology, the universe exists of many worlds – one might say "planes/realms" – stacked one upon the next in layers. Each world corresponds to a mental state or a state of being". A world is not, however. A world comes into existence when the first being is born into it; the physical separation is not so important as the difference in mental state. The vertical cosmology is divided into thirty-one planes of existence and the planes into three realms, or dhātus, each corresponding to a different type of mentality; these three realms are the Ārūpyadhātu, the Rūpadhātu, the Kāmadhātu. In some instances all of the beings born in the Ārūpyadhātu and the Rūpadhātu are informally classified as "gods" or "deities", along with the gods of the Kāmadhātu, notwithstanding the fact that the deities of the Kāmadhātu differ more from those of the Ārūpyadhātu than they do from humans.
It is to be understood that deva is an imprecise term referring to any being living in a longer-lived and more blissful state than humans. Most of them are not "gods" in the common sense of the term, having little or no concern with the human world and if interacting with it; the term "brahmā. In its broadest sense, it can refer to any of the inhabitants of the Rūpadhātu. In more restricted senses, it can refer to an inhabitant of one of the eleven lower worlds of the Rūpadhātu, or in its narrowest sense, to the three lowest worlds of the Rūpadhātu A large number of devas use the name "Brahmā", e.g. Brahmā Saham
A maar is a broad, low-relief volcanic crater caused by a phreatomagmatic eruption. A maar characteristically fills with water to form a shallow crater lake which may be called a maar; the name comes from a Moselle Franconian dialect word used for the circular lakes of the Daun area of Germany. Maars are shallow, flat-floored craters that scientists interpret as having formed above diatremes as a result of a violent expansion of magmatic gas or steam. Maars range in size from 60 to 8,000 m from 10 to 200 m deep. Most maars have low rims composed of a mixture of loose fragments of volcanic rocks and rocks torn from the walls of the diatreme. Maar lakes referred to as maars, occur when groundwater or precipitation fills the funnel-shaped and round hollow of the maar depression formed by volcanic explosions. Examples of these types of maar are the three maars at Daun in the Eifel mountains of Germany. A dry maar results when a maar lake dries out, becomes aggraded or silted up. An example of the latter is the Eckfelder Maar.
Near Steffeln is the Eichholzmaar which has dried out during the last century and is being renaturalised into a maar. In some cases the underlying rock is so porous. After winters of heavy snow and rainfall many dry maars fill and temporarily with water; the largest known maars are found on the Seward Peninsula in northwest Alaska. These maars range in size from 4,000 to 8,000 m in diameter and a depth up to 300 m; these eruptions occurred in a period of about 100,000 years, with the youngest occurring about 17,500 years ago. Their large size is due to the explosive reaction that occurs when magma comes into contact with permafrost. Hydromagmatic eruptions are explosive when the ratio of water to magma is low. Since permafrost melts it provides a steady source of water to the eruption while keeping the water to magma ratio low; this produces the explosive eruptions that created these large maars. Examples of the Seward Peninsula maars include North Killeak Maar, South Killeak Maar, Devil Mountain Maar and Whitefish Maar.
Maars occur in western North America, Patagonia in South America, the Eifel region of Germany, in other geologically young volcanic regions of Earth. Elsewhere in Europe, La Vestide du Pal in the Ardèche department of France provides a spectacular example of a maar visible from the ground or air. Kilbourne Hole and Hunt's Hole, in southern New Mexico near El Paso, are maars; the Crocodile Lake in Los Baños in the Philippines was thought of as a volcanic crater is a maar. The notorious, carbon dioxide-saturated Lake Nyos in Africa is another example. An excellent example of a maar is Zuni Salt Lake in New Mexico, a shallow saline lake that occupies a flat-floored crater about 6,500 ft across and 400 ft deep, its low rim is composed of loose pieces of basaltic lava and wall rocks of the underlying diatreme, as well as random chunks of ancient crystalline rocks blasted upward from great depths. Maars in Canada are found in the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field of east-central British Columbia and in kimberlite fields throughout Canada.
A notable field of maars is found in the Pali-Aike Volcanic Field in South America. And in the Sudanese Bayuda Volcanic Field; the Auckland volcanic field in the urban area of Auckland, New Zealand has several maars, including the accessible Lake Pupuke in the North Shore suburb of Takapuna. One of the most notable craters misidentified. In the Volcanic Eifel there are about 75 maars; these include water-filled maar lakes. Both types, lake-filled maars and dry maars, are typical of the Volcanic Eifel; the last eruptions took place at least 11,000 years ago and many maars in the Eifel are older. For this reason many are heavily eroded and their shapes and volcanic features are not as obvious as those of more recent or active maars elsewhere in the early; the maars of the Eifel are well preserved. In the Eifel and Volcanic Eifel there are numerous dry maars: Mosbrucher Weiher Booser Doppelmaar Dreiser Weiher Dürres Maar Duppacher Weiher Geeser Maar Eckfelder Maar Eigelbacher Maar Hitsche Maar Immerather Risch Gerolsteiner Maar Schalkenmehrener Maar E Schönfelder Maar Steffelner Laach or "Laach Maar" Dehner Maar Walsdorfer Maar Wollmerather Maar The following volcanic features are colloquially referred to as a "maar" or "maar lake", although they are not speaking, maars: Windsborn Crater Lake and Hinkelsmaar in theManderscheid Volcano Group near Bettenfeld, crater lakes of the Mosenberg Laacher See near Maria Laach, lake in a caldera
Salvinia molesta known as giant salvinia, or as kariba weed after it infested a large portion of Lake Kariba, is an aquatic fern, native to south-eastern Brazil. It is a free floating plant that does not attach to the soil, but instead remains buoyant on the surface of a body of water; the fronds are 0.5–4 cm long and broad, with a bristly surface caused by the hair-like strands that join at the end to form eggbeater shapes. They are used to provide a waterproof covering; these fronds are produced in pairs with a third modified root-like frond that hangs in the water. Salvinia molesta is a complex of related floating ferns; this water fern is grown as an ornamental plant but has escaped and become a noxious pest in many regions worldwide. There are a few different growth forms for S. molesta. The primary growth form is an invading form with small flat leaves to the tertiary or mat form with large, folded leaves. Under the best conditions plants can form a two-foot-thick mat; these mats can put a halt to recreational activities on waterways.
S. molesta has been used to extract pollutants from the water. When this plant is dried out, it is used as satisfactory mulch. Salvinia molesta prefers to grow in slow-moving waters such as those found in lakes, billabongs, ditches and rivers, it prefers nutrient-rich waters such as those found in eutrophic water or those polluted by waste water. It does not grow in brackish or salty waters, but has been reported in streams with a tidal flow in southeast Texas, it copes well with dewatering, while it prefers to grow in moderate temperatures, it will tolerate low or high temperatures. The United States Geological Service believes that it could grow in zones 7a, 8, 9, 10 of the USDA Plant Hardiness Map. Environmental conditions can have a large impact on this plant. S. molesta can survive on a mud bank for a short period of time, but because of the dry conditions it cannot live there permanently. It grows best at a pH of 6–7.7 and at a water temperature of 20–30 °C. Growth can be increased in high light intensities.
S. molesta cannot grow in high salt concentrations. The plant originated in southeast Brazil and was exported as part of the pet industry to be used in aquaria and garden ponds. From there, it was deliberately released into the wild, it may have been brought in with fresh, iced fish. Once in a waterway, it can be spread by infested boats which not only spread it to new areas, but break the plant up which allows it to propagate, it is spread by waterfowl. S. molesta has been spread by contaminated aquatic plant stocks and other watercraft. The movement of water spreads S. molesta and the sale and exchange of S. molesta materials increases chances of release to the environment. Research done in the Philippines suggested the effectiveness of S. molesta for the treatment of blackwater effluent for an eco-friendly sewage system that uses a constructed wetland to clean the water. The result of the study showed that it can remove 30.77% of total suspended solids, 74.70% dissolved oxygen and 48.95% fecal coliform from the water.
The Brazilian floating fern known as Salvinia molesta is now distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. This floating fern is known for its capability to take over large bodies of slow-moving fresh water. S. molesta has been naturalized in Texas and Louisiana, but has now been found and reported in Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia. It can be found where the lower Colorado River borders Arizona and California. “While S. molesta colonizes new states, current populations are too small to assess, but have been targeted for eradication.” The naturalized regions of Texas have 14 drainage basins. It reproduces by asexual reproduction only, but it is capable of growing quickly, starting from small fragments and doubling in dry weight every 2.2–2.5 days. It grows from fragments that have broken off or dormant buds that have been detached from the main plant; each node has five buds so potential for rapid spread is high. It produces spores but they are genetically defective and do not produce viable offspring.
The rapid growth rate of Salvinia molesta has resulted in its classification as an invasive weed in some parts of the world such as Australia, United Kingdom, New Zealand, parts of America. Surfaces of ponds and lakes are covered by a floating mat 10–20 cm thick; the plant's growth clogs waterways and blocks sunlight needed by other aquatic plants and algae to carry out photosynthesis, thereby deoxygenating the water. As it dies and decays, decomposers use up the oxygen in the water, it prevents the natural exchange of gases between the air and the body of water the plant has invaded, causing the waterway to stagnate. This can kill insects, or fish trapped underneath its growth, its ability to grow and cover a vast area makes it a threat to biodiversity. Large infestations covering a wide area may pose a problem to migratory birds as they may not be able to recognise an infested waterway when flying overhead, so may not stop at it. S. molesta provides ideal conditions for the breeding of mosquitoes that carry disease.
The growth habit of Salvinia is problematic to human activities including flood mitigation, conservation of endangered species and threatened environments and irrigation. Researchers at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas discovered that extracts of gian
Mount Meru is the sacred five-peaked mountain of Hindu and Buddhist cosmology and is considered to be the center of all the physical and spiritual universes. Meru to, added the approbatory prefix su-, results in the meaning "Excellent Meru", "Wonderful Meru" or "Great Meru". In languages, Khmer:ភ្នំព្រះសុមេរុ. Many famous Hindu and similar Jain as well as Buddhist temples have been built as symbolic representations of this mountain; the "Sumeru Throne" 須彌座. The highest point on the pyatthat, a Burmese-style multi-tiered roof, represents Mount Meru; the dimensions attributed to Mount Meru, all references to it being as a part of the Cosmic Ocean, with several statements that say, "The Sun along with all the planets circle the mountain," make determining its location most difficult, according to most scholars. Some researchers identify Mount Sumeru with the Pamirs, northwest of Kashmir; the Suryasiddhanta mentions that Mt. Meru lies in'the middle of the Earth' in the land of the Jambunad. Narpatijayacharyā, a ninth-century text, based on unpublished texts of Yāmal Tantr, mentions "Sumeruḥ Prithvī-madhye shrūyate drishyate na tu".
There exist several versions of cosmology in existing Hindu texts. In one of them, the Meru mountain was described as being surrounded by Mandrachala Mountain to the east, Supasarva Mountain to the west, Kumuda Mountain to the north and Kailasha to the south. Mount Meru of Hindu traditions has mythical aspects, being described as 84,000 Yojana high (about 1,082,000 km, which would be 85 times the Earth's diameter, notes that the Sun along with all the planets in the Solar System revolve around Mt. Meru as one unit. One yojana can be taken to mean about 11.5 km though its magnitude seems to differ over time periods, e.g. the Earth's circumference is 3,200 yojanas according to Vārāhamihira and less so in the Āryabhatiya, but is said to be 5,026.5 yojanas in the Suryasiddhānta. The Matsya Purana and the Bhāgvata Purāna along with some other Hindu texts give the height of 84,000 yojanas to Mount Meru which translates into 672,000 miles or 1,082,000 kilometers. Mount Meru was said to be the residence of King Padamja Brahma in antiquity.
According to Jain cosmology, Mount Meru is at the centre of the world surrounded by Jambūdvīpa, in form of a circle forming a diameter of 100,000 yojans. There are two sets of sun and stars revolving around Mount Meru; this mythical mountain of gods was mentioned in Tantu Pagelaran, an Old Javanese manuscript written in the Kawi language from the 15th century Majapahit period. The manuscript describes the mythical origin of Java island, the legend of the movement of portions of Mount Meru to Java; the manuscript explained that Batara Guru ordered the god Brahma and Vishnu to fill the Java island with human beings. However at that time Java island was floating on the ocean, always tumbling and shaking. To stop the island's movement, the gods decided to nail it to the Earth by moving the part of Mahameru in Jambudvipa and attaching it to Java; the resulting mountain is the tallest mountain on Java. Hara Berezaiti Jainism Hinduism Buddhism Wat Arun Himavanta Mount Semeru Cort, Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1.
Narpatijayacharyā, commentary by Ganeshdatta Pathak, Published by Chowkhambha Sanskrit Sansthana, India, PIN-221001. Description of Mount Meru in the Devi-bhagavata-purana 12 Painting of Mount Meru found in Buddhist cave sanctuary in Xinjiang, China Mount Meru in Encyclopedia of Buddhist Iconography 12 Sumeru in Encyclopedia of Buddhist Iconography 12 Ngari Tibetan Cosmological Models What is Mount Meru