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Semi-acoustic guitar

A semi-acoustic guitar or hollow-body electric is a type of electric guitar that originates from the 1930s. It has one or more electric pickups; this is not the same as an acoustic-electric guitar, an acoustic guitar with the addition of pickups or other means of amplification, added by either the manufacturer or the player. In the 1930s guitar players and manufacturers were attempting to increase the overall volume of the guitar, which had a hard time competing in loudness with other instruments—especially in large orchestras and jazz bands; this led makers to try a series of designs that focused on amplifying a guitar electrically through a loudspeaker. In 1936, Gibson made their first production run of electric guitars; these guitars, known as ES-150s were the first manufactured semi-acoustic guitars. Gibson based them on a standard production archtop, with f holes on the face of the guitar's soundbox; this model resembled traditional jazz guitars. The soundbox on the guitar let limited sound emit from the hollow body of the guitar.

These guitars, could be electrically amplified via a Charlie Christian pickup, a magnetic single-coil pickup that converted the energy of the vibrating strings into an electrical signal. The clear sound of the pickups made the ES series popular with jazz musicians; the first semi-acoustic guitars are thought of as an evolutionary step in the progression from acoustic guitars to full electric models. However, Gibson made the ES-150 several years after Rickenbacker made the first solid-body electric guitar; the ES series was an experiment the Gibson company used to test the potential success of electric guitars. The experiment was a successful financial venture, the ES series is referred to as the first successful electric guitar; the ES-150 was followed by the ES-250 a year in what became a long line of semi acoustics for the Gibson company. In 1949 Gibson released two new models: the ES-175 and ES-5; these guitars came standard with built-in electric pickups and are considered the first electric semi-acoustic guitars.

Prior models were not built with pickups. As the production and popularity of solid body electric guitars increased, there was still a market of guitar players who wanted to have the traditional look associated with the semi-acoustic guitars of the 1930s but wanted the versatility and comfort of new solid body guitars. Several models, including the ES-350T by Gibson, were made in the 1950s to accommodate this growing demand by including a more comfortable version of the archtop model. Gibson and other makers followed these variations with an new type of guitar that featured a block of solid wood between the front and back sections of the guitars cutaway; this guitar still functioned acoustically, but had a smaller resonant cavity inside, which makes less sound emit from the f holes. Gibson first manufactured this variant in 1958, it is referred to as a semi-hollow body guitar, because of the smaller, less open body. Rickenbacker began making semi-acoustic guitars in 1958; when the company changed ownership in 1954, they hired Roger Rossmiesl.

He developed the 300 series for Rickenbacker, a wide semi-acoustic that did not use a traditional f hole. Rather it used a sleeker dash hole on one side of the guitar, the other side had a large pickguard; this model boasted a modern design with a unique Fireglo finish. It became one of Rickenbacker's most popular series and became a strong competitor to Gibson's models. In addition to the main model variants of the guitar, Gibson made several small changes to the guitar, including a laminated top for the ES-175 model and mounted top pickups for general use on all their models, as opposed to Charlie Christian models from the 1930s. While Gibson provided many of the innovations in semi-acoustic guitars from the 1930s to the 1950s, there were various makes by other companies including a hollow archtop by Gretsch; the 6120 model by Gretsch became popular as a rockabilly model despite having no technical differences from Gibson models. Rickenbacker was a prominent maker of the semi-hollow body guitar.

Gibson, Gretsch and other companies still make semi-acoustic and semi-hollow body guitars, making slight variations on their yearly designs. The semi-acoustic and semi-hollow body guitars were praised for their clean and warm tones; this led to widespread use throughout the jazz communities in the 1930s. As new models came out with sleeker designs, the guitars began to make their way into popular circles; the guitar became used in pop and blues. The guitars sometimes produced feedback; this made the guitars unpopular for bands. As rock became more experimental in the late 60s and 70s, the guitar became more popular because players learned to use its feedback issues creatively. Semi-hollow guitars share some of the tonal characteristics of hollow guitars, such as their praised warmth and clean tone. However, the addition of the central block helps to manage feedback and allows the guitar to be played at higher gain and higher volume. Semi-hollow guitars with a central block are more durable than hollow guitars, whose sound is popular with jazz, blues and psychobilly guitarists.

Today, semi-acoustic and semi-hollow body guitars are still popular among many artists across various genres. Examples include Dan Auerbach of The Black Keys, renowned jazz guitarist George Benson, John Scofield, pop rock guitarist Paul McCartney. Famous guitarists of the past who have use

Deforestation in Costa Rica

Deforestation is a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystems in Costa Rica. The country has a rich biodiversity with some 12,000 species of plants, 1,239 species of butterflies, 838 species of birds, 440 species of reptiles and amphibians, 232 species of mammals, which have been under threat from deforestation. Deforestation in Costa Rica has a serious impact on the environment and therefore may directly or indirectly contribute to flooding, sedimentation in rivers, loss of wildlife diversity, the obvious sheer loss of timber. Since the end of World War II 80% of the forests of Costa Rica have disappeared. 20,000 acres of land are deforested annually. As the population grew, the people of Costa Rica cut down the forests to provide for pastureland for cattle ranching to produce beef for the world market to raise revenue. Since the 1950s 60% of Costa Rica has been cleared to make room for cattle ranching; the problem was worsened because during the 1960s, the United States offered Costa Rican cattle ranchers millions of dollars in loans to produce beef.

The deforestation of Costa Rica's tropical rain forests as in other countries is a threat to life worldwide with a growing rate of bananas there litte room left for the apes costa rica of with a profound effect on the global climate. Soil erosion has increased with deforestation with the topsoil washed away from the hills into the streams and out into the oceans, year after year. Over half of Costa Rica's existing forest cover today is under the protection of national parks, biological reserves, or wildlife refuges. However, the major problem in regards to deforestation is the owned plots which occupy the other half. Lenient laws on land and amendments to forestry law makes it easy to obtain logging concessions as owners exploit the land to maximise income; as logging companies enter these forests to exploit them, they require access roads to transport the timber. While cattle ranching is by far the primary cause of deforestation in Costa Rica, banana plantations have significantly contributed to the problem.

Lowland rainforest has been most affected where 130,000 acres of forested land have been removed. Such industries have been synonymous with health risks, notably the high levels of toxic pesticides which affected thousands of plantation workers throughout Central America in the 1970s. Pesticides used to grow bananas and other fruits such as mangoes and citrus fruit may enter the hydrological systems and contaminate the water; the removal of the forest to make way for these fruit plantations may disrupt the nutrient balance in the soil and through monoculture exhaust the soils and render them unsustainable. Although most of the larger plantations in Costa Rica are owned by large companies multinationals, population pressure in Costa Rica has increased the demand for land among farmers who are forced to venture out onto new land to deforest and farm and compete over scraps of land. While certain conservation laws have been passed in Costa Rica, the government lacks the resources to enforce them.

The amount of Costa Rican land deforested annually has declined since 1977: The conservation program in Costa Rica is ambitious and is one of the most developed among tropical rainforest countries. The country has a high level of biodiversity and different eco-zones within a small area. For example one of the country's protected areas is a strip of forest which runs for 40 miles through nine ecological zones from sea level to 12,500 feet. In 1995, the government introduced further protected areas, a further 13% of the country was put under protection through owned preserves those with high biodiversity; the National Bamboo Project of Costa Rica was founded in 1986 to help decrease deforestation. The scheme aims at reducing deforestation by means of replacing timber with bamboo as a primary building material and providing low cost housing for Costa Rica's rural poor. By cultivating and building with Guadua species, indigenous giant bamboos, the National Bamboo Project was able to raise thousands of new homes for the poor, benefit the environment, advance bamboo-based building technology.

In a number of parts of Costa Rica, areas that were bare ten years ago have now been reforested. Many non-government conservation organizations are working in the country to prevent deforestation and further these efforts of preservation and restoration; the country has significantly taken advantage of ecotourism, taking the initiative to raise revenue through tourism while still protecting the forests. Today, while deforestation rates have declined from the 1990s with increased conservation efforts and such schemes, the remaining forests still face threats from illegal logging in protected areas and land cleared for agriculture and cattle pasture in unprotected areas. Corruption exists in Costa Rica, but this problem is much lower than in many other Latin American countries. Decentralized decision-making is being practiced in Costa Rica to improve protected area management and biodiversity conservation. Costa Rica stands out among all developing tropical countries for its commitment toward environmental and natural resources issues.

The central government has developed a protected area system that has given some kind of protected status to 25% of its national territory. In the mid-nineties the Costa Rican government started to decentralize management and decision-making of all protected areas in the country to promote locally based biodiversity conservation governance. All protected areas were grouped in eleven regional


Radio-Activity is the fifth studio album by German electronic band Kraftwerk, released in October 1975. The band's first electronic album, it is a concept album organized around the theme of radio communication. To cater to the band's international audience, all releases of the album were bilingual with lyrics in both English and German, the only localised difference being the album and track titles; the hyphenated album title displays Kraftwerk's typical deadpan humour, being a pun on the twin themes of the songs, half being about radioactivity and the other half about activity on the radio. More word plays are evident in the track listing: "Radio Stars", which as a title could refer to pop stars, but upon listening is revealed to be about quasars and pulsars; this was the first Kraftwerk album to be self-produced by Ralf Hütter and Schneider in their Kling Klang studio, the first one to be performed by the "classic" Hütter, Florian Schneider, Karl Bartos and Wolfgang Flür line-up. All the music was written with Emil Schult collaborating on lyrics.

Schult designed the artwork – a modified illustration of a late-1930s'Deutscher Kleinempfänger' radio. It was the first Kraftwerk album to feature use of the distinctive Vako Orchestron keyboard, which the group had purchased on their recent US Autobahn tour and the Moog Micromoog, used extensively on this album. Notably, it provided the harsh sounds on the track "Antenna"; the band's custom-built electronic percussion featured in the sound, extensive use was made of the vocoder. The usual synthesizers were present, Hütter's Farfisa electronic piano made a return on "Transistor". For the first time the group did not use violin or guitars. By 1975, Hütter and Schneider's previous publishing deals with Capriccio Music and Star Musik Studio of Hamburg had expired; the compositions on Radio-Activity were published by their own newly set up Kling Klang Verlag music publishing company, giving them greater financial control over the use of songwriting output. The album was the first to bear the fruit of Kling Klang as an established vanity label under the group's new licensing deal with EMI.

The album reached No. 59 in Canada, in February 1976. The title track "Radioactivity" was released as a single, became a hit in France after it was used as the theme to a popular music show; the song was re-recorded by Kraftwerk for their 1991 album The Mix. It was further remixed, by William Orbit and François Kevorkian. "The British painter David Hockney once said:'People who understand music understand silence,' and the LP is full of moments when the music drifts to nothing, or is slowed so that the spaces between beats are exaggerated. Radio-Activity is sonically muted, at times fragile and beautiful."Radio-Activity opens with the accelerating pulse of the minute long intro "Geiger Counter", meant to simulate the sounds made by a Geiger counter as it approaches radioactive objects. "Geiger Counter" segues into the title track "Radioactivity". The song refers both to radioactivity, the process by which the nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation, the act of listening to recorded sounds and the radio.

It is followed by a song about the radio, entitled "Radioland". Hütter and Schneider share vocals on the verses. "Radioland" links into a tone that increases in pitch which kicks off the fast-tempoed "Airwaves", a song about a modern communication. "Airwaves" segues into a 38 second long "Intermission", which goes into "News". "News" features simulated radio recordings of German-language news about radioactivity. Side two opens with "The Voice of Energy", based on Werner Meyer-Eppler's "Stimme der Energie". "Antenna" is an upbeat song about antennas and transmitters, was featured on the B-side of the "Radioactivity" single. "Radio Stars" is a song about quasars. "Radio Stars" segues into "Uranium", a composition about radioactive decay. It features a choral keyboard pad in the background, sampled by British rock band New Order on their acclaimed 1983 song "Blue Monday"; the penultimate song, "Transistor", opens with the sound of someone tuning a radio before cutting to a classical sounding synth lead.

Radio-Activity closes with "Ohm Sweet Ohm", which begins with a Votrax voice singing the titular phrase. The song continues with a synth melody, it accelerates over time before fading out. The British big beat duo The Chemical Brothers sampled the intro in "Ohm Sweet Ohm" to their song "Leave Home". Radio-Activity was released to mixed reviews, with Rolling Stone criticizing the album: "... no cut on the album comes near the melodic/harmonic sense that pervaded Autobahn or the creative use of electronics on the much earlier album Ralf and Florian". In a retrospective review, Jason Ankeny from AllMusic called the album "a pivotal record in the group's continuing development" and stated that it "marked Kraftwerk's return to more obtuse territory, extensively utilizing static and Cage-like moments of silence". Chris Power from Drowned in Sound praised it for the experimental feeling in 2009: "A bridge between electronic experimentalism and the powerful, groundbreaking unification of avant-garde form and catchy, commercial function, just around the corner, Radio-Activity is the sound of Kraftwerk finding their way in a strange new landscape that they were in the process of creating".

Ralf Hütter


Allantoin is a chemical compound with formula C4H6N4O3. It is called 5-ureidohydantoin or glyoxyldiureide, it is a diureide of glyoxylic acid. Allantoin is a major metabolic intermediate in most organisms including animals and bacteria, it is produced from uric acid, which itself is a degradation product of nucleic acids, by action of urate oxidase. Allantoin was first isolated in 1800 by the Italian physician Michele Francesco Buniva and the French chemist Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, who mistakenly believed it to be present in the amniotic fluid. In 1821, the French chemist Jean Louis Lassaigne found it in the fluid of the allantois. In 1837, the German chemists Friedrich Wöhler and Justus Liebig synthesized it from uric acid and renamed it "allantoïn". Named after the allantois, it is a product of oxidation of uric acid by purine catabolism. After birth, it is the predominant means by which nitrogenous waste is excreted in the urine of these animals. In humans and other higher apes, the metabolic pathway for conversion of uric acid to allantoin is not present, so the former is excreted.

Recombinant rasburicase is sometimes used as a drug to catalyze this metabolic conversion in patients. In fish, allantoin is broken down further before excretion. Allantoin has been shown to improve insulin resistance when administered to rats and increased lifespan when administered to the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. In bacteria and their derivatives are used as secondary sources of nitrogen under nutrient-limiting conditions, their degradation yields ammonia, which can be utilized. For instance, Bacillus subtilis is able to utilize allantoin as its sole nitrogen source. Mutants in the B. subtilis pucI gene were unable to grow on allantoin, indicating that it encodes an allantoin transporter. In Streptomyces coelicolor and allantoicase are essential for allantoin metabolism. In this species the catabolism of allantoin, the subsequent release of ammonium, inhibits antibiotic production. Allantoin is present in the urine of most mammals. Chemically synthesized bulk allantoin, chemically equivalent to natural allantoin, is safe, non-toxic, compatible with cosmetic raw materials and meets CTFA and JSCI requirements.

Over 10,000 patents reference allantoin. Manufacturers cite several beneficial effects for allantoin as an active ingredient in over-the-counter cosmetics, including: a moisturizing and keratolytic effect, increasing the water content of the extracellular matrix and enhancing the desquamation of upper layers of dead skin cells, increasing the smoothness of the skin. An animal study in 2010 found that based on the results from histological analyses, a soft lotion with 5% allantoin ameliorates the wound healing process, by modulating the inflammatory response; the study suggests that quantitative analysis lends support to the idea that allantoin promotes fibroblast proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix. A study published in 2009 reported the treatment of pruritus in mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis with a topical nonsteroidal agent containing allantoin, it is present in toothpaste and other oral hygiene products, in shampoos, anti-acne products, sun care products, clarifying lotions, various cosmetic lotions and creams, other cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

Since uric acid is the end product of the purine metabolism in humans, only non-enzymatic processes with reactive oxygen species will give rise to allantoin, thus a suitable biomarker to measure oxidative stress in chronic illnesses and senescence. Imidazolidinyl urea and diazolidinyl urea, are antimicrobial condensation products of allantoin with formaldehyde. E. coli Allantoinase in Uniprot GMD MS Spectrum

Oh My Heart

"Oh My Heart" is a song by American alternative rock band R. E. M, it was released as the fourth single from the band's fifteenth studio album Collapse into Now on February 1, 2011. Its music video was directed by Jem Cohen; as a tribute to the band, who were formed in Athens, the University of Georgia features the song in several public service announcements which air during sporting events. CD single"Oh My Heart" – 3:20 "Nola-4/26/10" – 2:537-inch single"Oh My Heart" – 3:20 "Harborcoat" – 3:44Digital download"Oh My Heart" – 3:20 "Nola-4/26/10" – 2:53 "That Someone Is You" – 1:45 "It Happened Today" – 3:45 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Isaac Guillory

Isaac Guillory was an American folk guitarist. Guillory first began performing in 1965, while still attending St. John's River Junior College where he became a member of The Illusions becoming lead guitarist. While studying music at Roosevelt University in Chicago during 1965 to 1969, he recorded two albums with The Cryan' Shames as bass player. Towards the end of 1965, Guillory moved to Chicago where he studied guitar at the Chicago School of Music, he attended Wright Junior College for three years where he played with The Revelles. The group played with Chicago DJ, Art Roberts, of WLS, he played with The Cryan' Shames. During 1970 to 1976 Guillory performed at the Shakespeare's Head Folk Club in Carnaby Street, London. After active resistance to the Vietnam War, Guillory left the USA in November 1970, acquired a Martin D-35 and lived throughout Europe, he settled in the United Kingdom. Guillory came to earn a reputation as one of the best guitarists ever. Many guitarists today emulate techniques Guillory evolved in the early 70's while living in the south of Spain.

A particular signature technique that he developed was'hybrid picking', where he would sustain a bass line with a plectrum held between his thumb and first finger, whilst picking chord and melody lines with his second and third fingers. Having studied classical guitar in his younger years, Guillory would incorporate quasi-classical techniques into his playing and on occasions would throw in some pure classical guitar pieces, merging them into various songs as a medley, his soft American accent always went down well with British audiences and Guillory would exploit this with his witty on-stage banter between songs. Throughout his career, Guillory sought to encourage younger musicians at every opportunity and would allow them to play as a'floor-act' before he came on stage, he was known for insisting on carrying his own PA sound system with him from gig to gig. This allowed him to reproduce the exact sound; this was quite rare at the time with solo singer/guitarists on the folk circuit and helped him to communicate his renowned performing skills to his audiences without having to fear the usual technical blips that can occur using a venue's house PA.

He always sharing his understanding of music. After an initial recording deal with Atlantic Records published five more CDs on his own independent label, Personal Records; as a performer he was dedicated to sharing his gift with both audience and fellow musicians, as a teacher he never hesitated to share in a manner that others could understand. He performed as a guest artist for recordings and films with, among many others, Al Stewart, Mick Jagger, Elkie Brooks, Peter Sarstedt, Barbara Dickson, Nick Heyward. Guillory released Isaac Guillory, a self-titled album in 1974. For a while he recorded with Pacific Eardrum. Isaac lectured at the Guildhall School of Music in London, his music can be heard on'A' Net Station, a web radio station that he helped found, where his website continues to be available. He wrote The Guitar Hand Book with friend, Ralph Denyer, which became the foundation for the BBC series Rockschool. In his years, he performed on the folk club circuit in Great Britain, his virtuoso guitar playing made him popular with audiences and ensured a steady stream of work as a performer and teacher.

His final album, The Days of'49, recorded on tour during late 1999 and released in early 2000, included a number of solo compositions as well as arrangements of some folk standards. His tribute to the British guitarist John Renbourn, "Dear John", is one of the highlights of an outstanding album. Guillory was born at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, the son of Victoria and Easton Joseph Guillory, an American sailor, his maternal grandparents were Jewish emigrants from Turkey, who met and married by arrangement only 10 days before they sailed for Cuba. His family was Jewish, he attended the Conservatory of Music, where he studied classical piano at the age of six. Guillory's mother, a professional musician, taught him to play guitar; when he was 11, Guillory moved to Florida. At age 14, he moved again to Gainesville finally settled in Palatka, Florida. By age 14, after enrolling in University of Florida's swimming program, he became an assistant swimming instructor, he was a student at St. Johns River State College, at the time named St. Johns River Junior College, in Palatka.

There, he studied the saxophone. He married twice, first to the English model Tina Thompson, mother of Jace and British actress and model Sienna Guillory in 1993, to Victoria McMillan, mother of Jacob and Ellie. Guillory died on New Year's Eve 2000, his death was attributed to complications from cancer. Isaac Guillory was produced by Ian Samwell, Jeff Dexter, Jim Fairs, was released in 1974 by Atlantic Records SD 7307, 1974. Isaac Guillory: Guitars, Mellotron, ARP, VocalsJim Fairs: Guitar, DulcimerPeter Gavin: Drums Jim Carey: Drums Roger Pope: Drums Fred Gandy: Bass Jim Cole: Bass Sam Gopal: Tablas Cathy Hall: FluteJohnse Holt: Electric Guitar Mox: Harp Guillory created and contributed to a number of albums, including: A Scratch In The Sky – 1967 Synthesis – 1968 Al Stewart, Past and Future – 1973 Isaac Guillory Side One – 1973 Isaac Guillory – 1974 Two Days Away – 1977 "The Midas Touch" Michael Marra – 1