Semitic languages

The Semitic languages also named Syro-Arabian languages, are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East that are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa, as well as in large immigrant and expatriate communities in North America and Australasia. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History, who derived the name from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis; the most spoken Semitic languages today are Arabic, Tigrinya, Tigre and Maltese. Semitic languages occur in written form from a early historical date, with East Semitic Akkadian and Eblaite texts appearing from the 30th century BCE and the 25th century BCE in Mesopotamia and the northern Levant respectively; the only earlier attested languages are Sumerian, Elamite and unclassified Lullubi from the 30th century BCE. Most scripts used to write Semitic languages are abjads – a type of alphabetic script that omits some or all of the vowels, feasible for these languages because the consonants in the Semitic languages are the primary carriers of meaning.

Among them are the Ugaritic, Aramaic, Syriac and South Arabian alphabets. The Ge'ez script, used for writing the Semitic languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea, is technically an abugida – a modified abjad in which vowels are notated using diacritic marks added to the consonants at all times, in contrast with other Semitic languages which indicate diacritics based on need or for introductory purposes. Maltese is the only Semitic language written in the Latin script and the only Semitic language to be an official language of the European Union; the Semitic languages are notable for their nonconcatenative morphology. That is, word roots are not themselves syllables or words, but instead are isolated sets of consonants. Words are composed out of roots not so much by adding prefixes or suffixes, but rather by filling in the vowels between the root consonants. For example, in Arabic, the root meaning "write" has the form k-t-b. From this root, words are formed by filling in the vowels and sometimes adding additional consonants, e.g. كتاب kitāb "book", كتب kutub "books", كاتب kātib "writer", كتّاب kuttāb "writers", كتب kataba "he wrote", يكتب yaktubu "he writes", etc.

The similarity of the Hebrew and Aramaic languages has been accepted by all scholars since medieval times. The languages were familiar to Western European scholars due to historical contact with neighbouring Near Eastern countries and through Biblical studies, a comparative analysis of Hebrew and Aramaic was published in Latin in 1538 by Guillaume Postel. Two centuries Hiob Ludolf described the similarities between these three languages and the Ethiopian Semitic languages. However, neither scholar named this grouping as "Semitic"; the term "Semitic" was created by members of the Göttingen School of History, by August Ludwig von Schlözer. Johann Gottfried Eichhorn coined the name "Semitic" in the late 18th century to designate the languages related to Arabic and Hebrew; the choice of name was derived from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the genealogical accounts of the biblical Book of Genesis, or more from the Koine Greek rendering of the name, Σήμ. Eichhorn is credited with popularising the term via a 1795 article "Semitische Sprachen" in which he justified the terminology against criticism that Hebrew and Canaanite were the same language despite Canaan being "Hamitic" in the Table of Nations.

In the Mosaic Table of Nations, those names which are listed as Semites are purely names of tribes who speak the so-called Oriental languages and live in Southwest Asia. As far as we can trace the history of these languages back in time, they have always been written with syllabograms or with alphabetic script. In contrast, all so called Hamitic peoples used hieroglyphs, until they here and there, either through contact with the Semites, or through their settlement among them, became familiar with their syllabograms or alphabetic script, adopted them. Viewed from this aspect too, with respect to the alphabet used, the name "Semitic languages" is appropriate; these languages had been known as the "Oriental languages" in European literature. In the 19th century, "Semitic" became the conventional name. There are several locations proposed as possible sites for prehistoric origins of Semitic-speaking peoples: Mesopotamia, the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, with the most recent Bayesian studies supporting the view that Semitic originated in the Levant circa 3800 BC, was also introduced to the Horn of Africa in 800 BC.

Semitic languages were spoken across much of the Middle East and Asia Minor during the Bronze Age and Iron Age, the earliest attested being the East Semitic Akkadian of the Mesopotamian and south eastern Anatolian polities of Akkad and Babyl

Balcony House (Imperial, Nebraska)

The Balcony House is a historic building located at 1006 Court St. in Imperial, Nebraska. Constructed as a school, the building served as a hotel at a local tourist camp during the 1920s; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on July 5, 2000. The building was constructed outside of Imperial in the 1880s and served as a school. In 1921, the Nebraska Fire Marshal condemned the school, the building was moved to its current location. A two-story addition was added to the building after its move to replace a similar addition, left at the original site. At its new site, the building served as a hotel for a tourist camp along the Detroit-Lincoln-Denver Highway, a transcontinental highway which crossed Nebraska along the modern route of U. S. Route 6; the tourist camp became a prominent local business. The camp closed in 1930 after the Great Depression reduced leisure travel and deprived the business of its customers; the building is used as a bed and breakfast

Kim Hyong-jik

Kim Hyŏng-jik was a Korean independence activist. He was the father of North Korean founder Kim Il-sung, the paternal grandfather of Kim Jong-il, great-grandfather of the current leader of North Korea, Kim Jong-un. Little is known about Kim. Born on 10 July 1894, in the small village of Mangyongdae, situated atop a peak called Mungyungbong just 12 kilometers downstream on the Diadong River from Pyongyang, Kim was the son of Kim Bo-hyon. Kim attended Sungshil School, run by American missionaries, became a teacher and an herbal pharmacist, he died including third-degree frostbite. Kim and his wife attended Christian churches, Kim served as a part-time Protestant missionary, it was reported that his son, Kim Il-sung, attended church services during his teenage years before becoming an atheist in life. Kim Il-sung spoke of his father's idea of chiwŏn. Kim Jong-il's official government biography states that his grandfather was "the leader of the anti-Japanese national liberation movement and was a pioneer in shifting the direction from the nationalist movement to the communist movement in Korea".

This is disputed among foreign academics and independent sources, who claim that Kim's opposition was little more than general grievances with life under Japanese occupation. Kim Il-sung claimed his ancestors, including his grandfather Kim Bo-hyon and great-grandfather Kim Ung-u, were involved in the General Sherman incident, but this is disputed and believed to be a fabrication. Father: Kim Bo-hyon Paternal grandfather: Kim Ung-u Paternal grandmother: Lady Lee Mother: Lee Bo-ik Two brothers Kim Hyong-rok Kim Hyong-gwon Three sisters Kim Gu-il Kim Hyong-sil Kim Hyong-bok Wife: Kang Pan-sok First son: Kim Il-sung Second son: Kim Chol-ju Third son: Kim Yong-ju April 15th Writing Staff, Central Committee of Korean Writers' Union. Dawn of a New Age: A Novel. 1. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 154676863; the Party History Institute of the C. C. Of the Workers' Party of Korea. Kim Hyong Jik: Indomitable Anti-Japanese Revolutionary Fighter. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House.

OCLC 252037406. Ponghwa Revolutionary Site; the Korean Preparatory Committee for the 13th WFTYS. 1988. KPEA 2JB070