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Senegal River

The Senegal River is a 1,086 km long river in West Africa that forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania. The Senegal's headwaters are the Bafing rivers which both originate in Guinea. From there, the Senegal river flows west and north through Talari Gorges near Galougo and over the Gouina Falls flows more past Kayes, where it receives the Kolimbiné. After flowing together with the Karakoro, it prolongs the former's course along the Mali–Mauritania border for some tens of kilometers till Bakel where it flows together with the Falémé River, which has its source in Guinea, subsequently runs along a small part of the Guinea-Mali frontier to trace most of the Senegal-Mali border up to Bakel; the Senegal further flows through semi-arid land in the north of Senegal, forming the border with Mauritania and into the Atlantic. In Kaedi it accepts the Gorgol from Mauritania. Flowing through Boghé it reaches Richard Toll where it is joined by the Ferlo coming from inland Senegal's Lac de Guiers, it passes through Rosso and, approaching its mouth, around the Senegalese island on which the city of Saint-Louis is located, to turn south.

It is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a thin strip of sand called the Langue de Barbarie before it pours into the ocean itself. The river has two large dams along its course, the multi-purpose Manantali Dam in Mali and the Maka-Diama Dam downstream on the Mauritania-Senegal border, near the outlet to the sea, preventing access of salt water upstream. In between Manantali and Maka-Diama is the Félou Hydroelectric Plant, completed in 1927 and uses a weir; the power station was replaced in 2014. In 2013, construction of the Gouina Hydroelectric Plant upstream of Felou at Gouina Falls began; the Senegal River has a drainage basin of 270,000 km2, a mean flow of 680 m3/s and an annual discharge of 21.5 km3. Important tributaries are the Falémé River, Karakoro River, the Gorgol River. Downstream of Kaédi the river divides into two branches; the left branch called. After 200 km the two branches rejoin a few kilometres downstream of Pondor; the long strip of land between the two branches is called the Île á Morfil.

In 1972 Mali and Senegal founded the Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal to manage the river basin. Guinea joined in 2005. At the present time, only limited use is made of the river for the transport of goods and passengers; the OMVS have looked at the feasibility of creating a navigable channel 55 m in width between the small town of Ambidédi in Mali and Saint-Louis, a distance of 905 km. It would give landlocked Mali a direct route to the Atlantic Ocean; the aquatic fauna in the Senegal River basin is associated with that of the Gambia River basin, the two are combined under a single ecoregion known as the Senegal-Gambia Catchments. Although the species richness is moderately high, only three species of frogs and one fish are endemic to this ecoregion; the existence of the Senegal River was known to the early Mediterranean civilizations. It or some other river was called Bambotus by Pliny the Nias by Claudius Ptolemy, it was visited by Hanno the Carthaginian around 450 BCE at his navigation from Carthage through the pillars of Herakles to Theon Ochema in the Gulf of Guinea.

There was trade from here to the Mediterranean World, until the destruction of Carthage and its west African trade net in 146 BCE. In the Early Middle Ages, the Senegal River restored contact with the Mediterranean world with the establishment of the Trans-Saharan trade route between Morocco and the Ghana Empire. Arab geographers, like al-Masudi of Baghdad, al-Bakri of Spain and al-Idrisi of Sicily, provided some of the earliest descriptions of the Senegal River. Early Arab geographers believed the upper Senegal River and the upper Niger River were connected to each other, formed a single river flowing from east to west, which they called the "Western Nile", it was believed to be either a western branch of the Egyptian Nile River or drawn from the same source. Arab geographers Abd al-Hassan Ali ibn Omar, Ibn Said al-Maghribi and Abulfeda, label the Senegal as the "Nile of Ghana"; as the Senegal River reached into the heart of the gold-producing Ghana Empire and the Mali Empire, Trans-Saharan traders gave the Senegal its famous nickname as the "River of Gold".

The Trans-Saharan stories about the "River of Gold" reached the ears of Sub-Alpine European merchants that frequented the ports of Morocco and the lure proved irresistible. Arab historians report at least three separate Arab maritime expeditions - the last one organized by a group of eight mughrarin of Lisbon - that tried to sail down the Atlantic coast in an effort find the mouth of the Senegal. Drawing from Classical legend and Arab sources, the "River of Gold" found its way into European maps in the 14th century. In the Hereford Mappa Mundi, there is a river labelled "Nilus Fluvius" drawn parallel to the coast of Africa, albeit without communication with Atlantic, it depicts some giant ants digging up gold dust from its sands, with the note "Hic grandes formice auream serican arenas" ("Here great ants guard g

Restatement (Second) of Contracts

The Restatement of the Law of Contracts is a legal treatise from the second series of the Restatements of the Law, seeks to inform judges and lawyers about general principles of contract common law. It is one of the best-recognized and cited legal treatises in all of American jurisprudence; every first-year law student in the United States is exposed to it, it is a cited non-binding authority in all of U. S. common law in the areas of contracts and commercial transactions. It is a work without peer in terms of overall influence and recognition among the bar and bench, with the possible exception of the Restatement of Torts; the American Law Institute began work on the second edition in 1962 and completed it in 1979. For an explanation of the purpose of a restatement of law, see Restatement of the Law. Legal scholars and jurists have commented extensively on the Restatement, both in contrasting it with aspects of the first Restatement, in evaluating its influence and effectiveness in reaching its stated objectives.

It is in this context of direct review that one can find numerous arguments both favoring and criticizing some aspects of the Restatement as an independent source of legal scholarship. Although several sections of the Restatement contained new rules which sometimes contradicted existing law, courts citing these sections have predominantly adopted the Restatement's view, citing them as a court would cite statute or code. Far more common, however, is the practice of citing the Restatement to clarify accepted doctrine in every major area of contract and commercial law, it is in this context of legal research that one can find the Restatement used as direct substantiation and persuasive authority, to validate the arguments and interpretations of individual legal practitioners. Although the Restatement of Contracts is still an influential academic work, certain aspects have been superseded in everyday legal practice by the Uniform Commercial Code; the UCC has replaced the Restatement of Contracts in regard to the sale of goods.

The Restatement of Contracts remains the unofficial authority for aspects of contract law which find their genesis in the common law principles of the United States and England. Arthur Linton Corbin, first reporter Corpus Juris Secundum

Mingana Collection

The Mingana Collection of Middle Eastern manuscripts, comprising over 3,000 documents, is held by the University of Birmingham's Cadbury Research Library. In 1924 Alphonse Mingana, an ethnic Assyrian, made the first of three trips to the Middle East to collect ancient Syriac and Arabic manuscripts; the expedition was sponsored by John Rylands Library and Dr Edward Cadbury, the Quaker owner of the famous chocolate factory at Bournville, who Mingana had met through Rendel Harris. A number of the manuscripts he returned with formed the basis of the Mingana Collection at Woodbrooke College. Mingana added to the collection with manuscripts acquired on two further trips to the Middle East in 1925 and 1929, both financed by Edward Cadbury. In 1932 Mingana moved back to Birmingham to focus on cataloguing the collection; the first catalogue describing 606 Syriac manuscripts was published in 1933. A further volume published in 1936 describes 120 Christian Arabic manuscripts and 16 Syriac manuscripts; the third volume, cataloging 152 Christian Arabic manuscripts and 40 Syriac manuscripts was published in 1939, two years after Mingana's death.

The Mingana Collection is housed at the Special Collections at the University of Birmingham where it is available for study. The collection is designated by the Museums and Archives Council as being of "international importance". A major exhibition of manuscripts from the collection entitled Illuminating Faith was held at the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery in 2005; the Mingana Collection is made up of: 660 Syriac and Karshuni Christian manuscripts including church documents, works on liturgy, lives of saints and homilies. Among the earliest items are a number of important fragments originating from St. Catherine's Monastery, Sinai. 270 Arabic Christian manuscripts including a fragment of the oldest known text of the Acta Thomae, a early copy of the Arabic translation of some works by St. Ephrem. 2000 Arabic Islamic manuscripts on religious subjects. There are several copies of the Qur'an, besides two collections of fragments of Kufic Qur'ans, dating from the 8th and 9th centuries. Other works include Qur'an commentaries, law, literature and mysticism.

Examples of Armenian, Georgian, Hebrew, Persian and Sanskrit manuscripts. The manuscripts in the collection have proven to be a significant resource for Western scholarship in regards to the Qu'ran and other religious scriptures. In 2015, a Quranic manuscript in the collection was identified as one of the oldest to have survived, having been written between 568 and 645; the Virtual Manuscript Room project presents full digitized manuscripts from collection. As well as high-resolution images of each page, the VMR provides descriptions from the printed catalogue and from Special Collections' own records. Official website Virtual Manuscript Room

Australian Football Association of North America

The Australian Football Association of North America is a non-profit organization that formed out of the campaign to save television coverage of Australian rules football in the United States and Canada in 1996. AFANA has an emphasis on the fan, aims to help the game to develop and to improve its exposure in North America, including better TV coverage. AFANA was co-founded by three members of the 1995-1996 campaign: Richard Lipp of Kansas City, Wade Hinkle of Dallas, Rob de Santos when it was learned that the sport had no TV coverage for the 1996 season; the campaign was successful and coverage began on the new ESPN2 network in June. The network declined to cover the Grand Final in 1996; the AFL tried to find another network but in the end turned to AFANA and the Australian American Chamber of Commerce of Southern California. The two organizations put the game on the air on satellite in the USA and Canada in just 8 days; this established AFANA. The following year, coverage continued on ESPN. Again, problems with the Grand Final occurred when ESPN delayed the broadcast 95 minutes on just 36 hours notice after repeated assurances that the game would be live.

Despite an intense lobbying effort, ESPN did not budge. The relationship between the Australian Football League, AFANA, ESPN continued to be strained and after the 1997 season, the network again dropped the sport. With AFANA's help, the sport moved to the new Fox Sports World channel the following year; the organization has played a part in every effort to keep TV coverage since its founding including network changes in 1998, 2007, 2009, 2012. In 2004, Fox announced the channel was changing names to Fox Soccer Channel and would drop all non-soccer coverage. AFANA lobbied for the coverage to continue into the 2006 season; the following year resulted in a major success of the lobby group with the televising of live AFL matches beginning in 2007 by Setanta Sports. Current TV coverage is again on Fox networks including Fox Sports 2 and Fox Soccer Plus, a premium network. Coverage was lost when Setanta Sports USA went into bankruptcy in August, 2009. ESPN picked up coverage on its internet channel ESPN360 plus about 4 matches a year and the Grand Final on ESPN2.

ESPN did not renew the contract after 2011. Weekly coverage returned in 2012 to Fox Soccer Plus the successor channel to Fox Sports World. For the 2018 season, officials at the Australian Football League have told AFANA coverage will continue on Fox Soccer Plus and on through the 2020 season. A post on the AFANA website says; the network has committed to show all finals matches, leading up to and including the Grand Final. AFANA consolidates the schedules of every network in North America which carries the sport into one listing on its web site, a major convenience for fans. One of AFANA's major services is the posting of announcements of the many AFL Grand Final parties held in North America; these yearly parties are held the day of the Grand Final and feature Australian food and beverages as the staple refreshments for the event. Australian Football Association of North America Official Site Video of Aussie Rules on YouTube US Footy AFL Canada

Catrìona Lexy Chaimbeul

Catrìona Lexy Chaimbeul known as Catriona Lexy Campbell is a Scottish poet, novelist and actor, working in Scottish Gaelic. Chaimbeul was born into a well-known literary family in Lewis, her father, Tormod Caimbeul, her uncle Alasdair Caimbeul are both published writers in Gaelic, as was her grandfather Aonghas Caimbeul and her great-uncle Aonghas Caimbeul. Her mother, Mary Jane Campbell, is a Gaelic singer. Chaimbeul attended the University of Edinburgh, she worked as an actor and tutor in Gaelic drama, including two years with Eden Court Theatre in Inverness as the Gaelic Drama Artist for Skye and Lochalsh, in 2011-12 was the Gaelic Associate Artist at the National Theatre of Scotland. The family’s connection with Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, the National Centre for the Gaelic Language and Culture, now part of the University of the Highlands and Islands, has included periods as writer-in-residence for both Tormod and Alasdair Caimbeul, Mary Jane is a lecturer at the centre. In January 2013 Catrìona was appointed for a one-year term as writer-in-residence at Sabhal Mòr. 2006 Wigtown Book Festival Gaelic poetry prize Chaimbeul has described the major themes of her work as being "inter-personal relationships and lies, the supernatural".

Novels: Cleasan a’ Bhaile Mhòir. Sandstone Press. 2009. ISBN 978-1-905-20729-9. Samhraidhean Dìomhair. CLÀR. 2009. ISBN 978-1-900-90131-4. Cluicheadairean. Acair Ltd. 2013. ISBN 978-0-861-52546-1. Nigheanan Mòra. Sandstone Press. 2014. ISBN 978-1-908-73796-0. Children’s books: Balach Beag a Mhàthar. Acair/Stòrlann Nàiseanta na Gàidhlig. 2004. ISBN 978-0-861-52611-6. Sgeulachdan Eagalach Feagalach. Acair Ltd. 2008. ISBN 978-0-861-52336-8. An t-Ionnsachadh Bòidheach: Pàirt 1 - Am Fuachd Gorm. Stòrlann Nàiseanta na Gàidhlig/Acair Ltd. 2014. ISBN 978-0-861-52570-6. An t-Ionnsachadh Bòidheach: Pàirt 2 - Campa na Cloinne. Stòrlann Nàiseanta na Gàidhlig/Acair Ltd. 2015. ISBN 978-0-861-52595-9. Stage plays: Doras Dùinte. Leabhraichean Beaga. 2013. Shrapnel: An Dealbh-chluich. Leabhraichean Beaga. 2016. ISBN 978-0-946-42755-0. Educational publications: Speaking Our Language: Pasgan Luchd-oideachaidh. Sreath 1. Comunn na Gàidhlig. 1994. In December 2012 BBC Scotland broadcast a play based on her novel Samhraidhean Dìomhair

Ngauranga railway station

Ngauranga railway station is a single island platform railway station in the industrial and commercial suburb of Ngauranga on the Wairarapa Line in Wellington, New Zealand. It is on the Wellington suburban rail network and is served by Melling Line trains and some only Hutt Valley Line trains. Wairarapa Connection trains do not stop. All trains are run by Transdev as part of the Metlink network. Ngauranga handled freight traffic, but is now used by commuter passenger trains, it is next to a waste disposal facility and at the bottom of the Ngauranga Gorge, next to the major road junction where State Highway 2 joins State Highway 1. Though the rails of the Wairarapa Line reached Ngahauranga at New Year 1874, the first section of the line was not opened until 14 April 1874. Trains ran non-stop to the terminus of the line from Wellington, it would not be until a week after opening, on 20 April, that Ngahauranga was included as a stop. Ngahauranga received its first building in late 1875. About 1879, the station received a class 6 passenger shelter costing £160.

At the time, it sidings. Livestock did not become a major source of traffic until the line reached Featherston in 1878, was bolstered by the opening of the Wellington Meat Preserving and Refrigerating Company at Ngahauranga in 1884. To serve the abattoir, a siding was laid from the station yard across Hutt Road to the company's works in June of that year. About 1890 the first station was replaced by an island platform and pens for unloading stock for the meatworks; the company had become a significant customer for the railway, in 1895 150,486 head of stock were railed to Ngahauranga. By about 1900, the station had two sidings. In the days of single-line working Ngahauranga was used to cross trains and in 1887 became one of the first stations in the region to receive new signalling equipment. Instructions issued for the crossing of trains specified that Down trains were to take the loop while Up trains were to use the main line. Early in the 20th century it was decided to duplicate the line between Lower Hutt.

Preparatory work was started in 1903 with construction commencing the following year. The duplication reached Ngahauranga in 1908, but was not completed until three years when it opened to all traffic on 4 April 1911; the Wellington Meat Export Company, formed in 1881, operated an abattoir in the Ngauranga Gorge, utilised the Ngauranga Industrial Siding to transport livestock in and carcasses out from the network of sidings in its own yard. The siding crossed the Hutt Road to the works; the company operated the siding with a 20-ton Barclay 0-4-0ST until 1962, at which point it was replaced by a four-wheel diesel shunter. The siding was closed and removed in the 1980s, the tunnel under the motorway is now used for vehicular access to the waste disposal facility. In 1966 the construction of the new motorway into Wellington necessitated the realignment of the railway through Ngauranga. A new station was constructed on reclaimed land including the present-day station building, which replaced the much grander wooden structure of the old station.

The motorway was built over the siding to the abattoir by constructing a tunnel for the siding. In 1968 there was a reasonably extensive network of sidings at Ngauranga, including three lines on the western side of the station running parallel to the two main lines; the industrial siding to the abattoir connected with the station sidings at the southern end of the yard. The construction of the Ngauranga Flyover and motorway interchange in 1982 was the last major construction work in the vicinity of the station. Only the two main lines on either side of the island platform remain. Melling Line trains stop here every hour Monday to Friday, with daily half-hourly Hutt Valley Line trains supplementing at peak times, it is possible to transfer to buses to/from Johnsonville, Newlands or Churton Park at Ngauranga, to commute to the Hutt Valley without going into Wellington. Metlink bus routes 1, 19e, 52, 56, 57, 58, 83 and 60e pass close to the station. A station building on the platform provides shelter for waiting passengers.

Access to the station is by a subway under the Wellington Urban Motorway that connects via a short walkway to Hutt Road. No car parking is provided. Train timetables from Metlink and Tranz Metro