An oppidum is a large fortified Iron Age settlement. They continued in use until the Romans began conquering Europe, north of the River Danube, where the population remained independent from Rome, oppida continued to be used into the 1st century AD. Oppidum is a Latin word meaning the settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. The word is derived from the earlier Latin ob-pedum, enclosed space, possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *pedóm-, in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Julius Caesar described the larger Celtic Iron Age settlements he encountered in Gaul during the Gallic Wars in 58 to 52 BC as oppida. Although he did not explicitly define what features qualified a settlement to be called an oppidum and they were important economic sites, places where goods were produced and traded, and sometimes Roman merchants had settled and the Roman legions could obtain supplies. They were political centres, the seat of authorities taking decisions that affected large numbers of people, Most of the places that Caesar called oppida were city-sized fortified settlements.
However, for example, was referred to as an oppidum, Caesar refers to 20 oppida of the Bituriges and 12 of the Helvetii, twice the number of fortified settlements of these groups known today. That implies that Caesar likely counted some unfortified settlements as oppida, a similar ambiguity is in evidence in writing by the Roman historian Livy, who used the word for both fortified and unfortified settlements. In his work Geographia, Ptolemy listed the coordinates of many Celtic settlements, research has shown many of the localisations of Ptolemy to be erroneous, making the identification of any modern location with the names he listed highly uncertain and speculative. An exception to that is the oppidum of Brenodurum at Bern, in particular, Dehn suggested defining an oppidum by four criteria, The settlement has to have a minimum size, defined by Dehn as 30 hectares. Topography, Most oppida are situated on heights, but some are located on areas of land. Fortification, The settlement is surrounded by a wall, usually consisting of three elements, a facade of stone, a construction and an earthen rampart at the back.
Chronology, The settlement dates from the late Iron Age, the last two centuries BC and they could be referred to as the first cities north of the Alps. The period of 2nd and 1st centuries BC places them in the known as La Tène. A notional minimum size of 15 to 25 hectares has often been suggested, the term is not always rigorously used, and it has been used to refer to any hill fort or circular rampart dating from the La Tène period. One of the effects of the inconsistency in definitions is that it is uncertain how many oppida were built, in European archaeology, the term oppida is used more widely to characterize any fortified prehistoric settlement. For example, significantly older hill-top structures like the one at Glauberg have been called oppida, the Spanish word castro, used in English, means a walled settlement or hill fort, and this word is often used interchangeably with oppidum by archaeologists. According to prehistorian John Collis oppida extend as far east as the Hungarian plain where other settlement types take over, central Spain has sites similar to oppida, but while they share features such as size and defensive ramparts the interior was arranged differently
Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France. It is located 96 km southwest of Paris and this city is well known for its cathedral. Chartres was in Gaul one of the towns of the Carnutes. In the Gallo-Roman period, it was called Autricum, name derived from the river Autura, the city was burned by the Normans in 858, and unsuccessfully besieged by them in 911. During the Middle Ages, it was the most important town of the Beauce. It gave its name to a county which was held by the counts of Blois, and the counts of Champagne, and afterwards by the House of Châtillon, a member of which sold it to the Crown in 1286. In 1417, during the Hundred Years War, Chartres fell into the hands of the English, in 1528, it was raised to the rank of a duchy by Francis I. In 1568, during the Wars of Religion, Chartres was unsuccessfully besieged by the Huguenot leader and it was finally taken by the royal troops of Henry IV on 19 April 1591. In 1674, Louis XIV raised Chartres from a duchy to a peerage in favor of his nephew.
The title of Duke of Chartres was hereditary in the House of Orléans, in the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War, Chartres was seized by the Germans on 2 October 1870, and continued during the rest of the war to be an important centre of operations. With his driver, Griffith proceeded to the cathedral and, after searching it all the way up its bell tower, the order to destroy the cathedral was withdrawn. Colonel Griffith was killed in on that day in the town of Lèves,3.5 kilometres north of Chartres. For his heroic action both at Chartres and Lèves, Colonel Griffith received, several decorations awarded by the President of the United States, 5th Infantry and 7th Armored Divisions belonging to the XX Corps of the U. S. Third Army commanded by General George S. Patton, Chartres is built on a hill on the left bank of the Eure River. Its renowned medieval cathedral is at the top of the hill, to the southeast stretches the fertile plain of Beauce, the granary of France, of which the town is the commercial centre.
Chartres is best known for its cathedral, the Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres and its historical and cultural importance has been recognized by its inclusion on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. It was built on the site of the former Chartres cathedral of Romanesque architecture, begun in 1205, the construction of Notre-Dame de Chartres was completed 66 years later. The stained glass windows of the cathedral were financed by guilds of merchants and craftsmen and it is not known how the famous and unique blue, bleu de Chartres, of the glass was created, and it has been impossible to replicate it
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Uppsala is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm and Malmö. It had 149,245 inhabitants in 2015, located 71 km north of the capital Stockholm, it is the seat of Uppsala Municipality. Since 1164, Uppsala has been the centre of Sweden. Uppsala is home to Scandinavias largest cathedral – Uppsala Cathedral, founded in 1477, Uppsala University is the oldest centre of higher education in Scandinavia. Among many achievements, the Celsius scale for temperature was invented there, Uppsala was originally located a few kilometres north of its current location at a place now known as Gamla Uppsala. Todays Uppsala was called Östra Aros, Uppsala was, according to medieval writer Adam of Bremen, the main pagan centre of Sweden, and the Temple at Uppsala contained magnificent idols of the Norse gods. The Fyrisvellir plains along the south of Old Uppsala, in the area where the modern city is situated today, was the site of the Battle of Fyrisvellir in the 980s. The present-day Uppsala was at that time known as Östra Aros and was a town of Gamla Uppsala.
In 1160, King Eric Jedvardsson was attacked and killed outside the church of Östra Aros, the cathedral is built in the Gothic style and is one of the largest in northern Europe, with towers reaching 118.70 metres. Uppsala is the site of the 16th century Uppsala Castle, the city was severely damaged by a fire in 1702. The arms bearing the lion can be traced to 1737 and have been modernised several times, the meaning of the lion is uncertain but is likely connected to the royal lion, depicted on the Coat of Arms of Sweden. Situated on the fertile Uppsala flatlands of muddy soil, the city features the small Fyris River flowing through the landscape surrounded by lush vegetation. Parallel to the runs the glacial ridge of Uppsalaåsen at an elevation of circa 30 metres. The central park Stadsskogen stretches from the south far into town, only some 70 kilometres or 40 minutes by train from the capital, many Uppsala residents work in Stockholm. The train to Stockholm-Arlanda Airport takes only 17 minutes, rendering the city accessible by air.
The commercial centre of Uppsala is quite compact, during recent decades, a significant part of retail commercial activity has shifted to shopping malls and stores situated in the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, the areas have expanded greatly, and some suburbanization has taken place. Uppsala lies on the 59th parallel north and has a continental climate, with cold winters
Margaret of Provence
Margaret of Provence was Queen of France as the wife of King Louis IX. Margaret was born in the spring of 1221 in Forcalquier and she was the eldest of four daughters of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence, and Beatrice of Savoy. Her younger sisters were Queen Eleanor of England, Queen Sanchia of Germany and she was especially close to Eleanor, to whom she was close in age, and with whom she sustained friendly relationships until they grew old. Margaret and her father entertained the knight well, and soon Blanche was negotiating with the count of Provence, Margaret was chosen as a good match for the king more for her religious devotion and courtly manner than her beauty. She was escorted to Lyon by her parents for the treaty to be signed. From there, she was escorted to her wedding in Sens by her uncles from Savoy, William, on 27 May 1234 at the age of thirteen, Margaret became wife of Louis IX of France and queen consort of France. She was crowned the following day, the wedding and her coronation as queen were celebrated at the cathedral of Sens.
The marriage was a one in numerous aspects. Blanche still wielded strong influence over her son, and would throughout her life, as a sign of her authority, shortly after the wedding Blanche dismissed Margarets uncles and all of the servants she had brought with her from her childhood. Margaret resented Blanche and vice versa from the beginning, like her sisters, was noted for her beauty, she was said to be pretty with dark hair and fine eyes, and in the early years of their marriage she and Louis enjoyed a warm relationship. Her Franciscan confessor, William de St. Pathus, related that on cold nights Margaret would place a robe around Louis shoulders and they enjoyed riding together and listening to music. The attentions of the king and court being drawn to the new queen only made Blanche more jealous, Margaret accompanied Louis on Seventh Crusade. Though initially the crusade met with success, like the capture of Damietta in 1249, it became a disaster after the kings brother was killed. Queen Margaret was responsible for negotiations and gathering enough silver for his ransom and she was thus for a brief time the only woman ever to lead a crusade.
In 1250, while in Damietta, where she earlier in the year successfully maintained order. She convinced some of those who had been about to leave to remain in Damietta, when she realized her mistake, she burst into laughter and ordered the messenger, Tell your master evil days await him, for he has made me kneel to his camelines. However, Joinville remarked with noticeable disapproval that Louis rarely asked after his wife, Margaret could only reply that she dared not make such a vow without the kings permission, because when he discovered that she had done so, he would never let her make the pilgrimage. In the end, Joinville promised her that if she made the vow he would make the pilgrimage for her, and her leadership during the crusade had brought her international prestige and after she returned to France, Margaret was often asked to mediate disputes
Auxerre is the capital of the Yonne department and the fourth-largest city in Burgundy. Auxerres population today is about 39,000, the area comprises roughly 92,000 inhabitants. Residents of Auxerre are referred to as Auxerrois, Auxerre is a commercial and industrial centre, with industries including food production and batteries. It is noted for its production of Burgundy wine, including world-famous Chablis, in 1995 Auxerre was named Town of Art and History. Auxerre was a flourishing Gallo-Roman centre, called Autissiodorum, through which passed one of the roads of the area. In the third century it became the seat of a bishop, in the 5th century it received a Cathedral. In the late 11th-early 12th century the existing communities were included inside a new line of walls built by the counts of Auxerre. Bourgeois activities accompanied the land and wine cultivations starting from the twelfth century. The Burgundian city, which part of France under King Louis XI, suffered during the Hundred Years War.
In 1567 it was captured by the Huguenots, and many of the Catholic edifices were damaged, the medieval ramparts were demolished in the 18th century. In the 19th century numerous heavy infrastructures were built, including a station, a psychiatric hospital and the courts. Up until recently, Auxerre was one of the most prosperous cities in the country, in Gothic style, it is renowned for its three doorways with remarkable bas-reliefs. The stained glass windows in the choir and the chapel are among the finest in France. The 11th century crypt houses the remains of the former Romanesque cathedral, abbey of Saint-Germain, existing from the ninth century. The crypt has some of the most ancient mural paintings in France, interesting are the chapter room, the cellar and the cloister. The Clock tower, located in the Old Town The church of St. Pierre en Vallée, in the style of late Gothic architecture, it has a tower similar to that of the cathedral. Portions of the decorations and inner chapels were financed by local winegrowers, church of St.
Eusèbe, founded in the 7th century. The nave was rebuilt in the 13th century, while the tower is in Romanesque style, Saint Helladius, bishop of Auxerre Saint Patrick, Apostle to the Irish, visited Bishop Germanus of Auxerre here
Julian, known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek. A member of the Constantinian dynasty, Julian became Caesar over the provinces by order of Constantius II in 355 and in this role campaigned successfully against the Alamanni. Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 357 at the Battle of Argentoratum. In 360 in Lutetia he was proclaimed Augustus by his soldiers, before the two could face each other in battle, Constantius died, after naming Julian as his rightful successor. In 363, Julian embarked on an campaign against the Sassanid Empire. Though initially successful, Julian was mortally wounded in battle and died shortly thereafter, Julian was a man of unusually complex character, he was the military commander, the theosophist, the social reformer, and the man of letters. He was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire, and it was his desire to bring the Empire back to its ancient Roman values in order to, as he saw it, save it from dissolution.
He purged the state bureaucracy and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the expense of Christianity. His anti-Christian sentiment and promotion of Neoplatonic paganism caused him to be remembered as Julian the Apostate by the church and he was the last emperor of the Constantinian dynasty, the empires first Christian dynasty. Both of his parents were Christians and his paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. His maternal grandfather was Julius Julianus, praetorian prefect of the East under emperor Licinius from 315 to 324, the name of Julians maternal grandmother is unknown. Constantius II, Constans I, and Constantine II were proclaimed joint emperors and Gallus were excluded from public life, were strictly guarded in their youth, and given a Christian education. They were likely saved by their youth and at the urging of the Empress Eusebia, if Julians writings are to be believed, Constantius would be tormented with guilt at the massacre of 337.
After Eusebius died in 342, both Julian and Gallus were exiled to the estate of Macellum in Cappadocia. Here Julian met the Christian bishop George of Cappadocia, who lent him books from the classical tradition, at the age of 18, the exile was lifted and he dwelt briefly in Constantinople and Nicomedia. He became a lector, an office in the Christian church. Julian studied Neoplatonism in Asia Minor in 351, at first under Aedesius, the philosopher and he was summoned to Constantius court in Mediolanum in 354 and kept there for a year, in the summer and fall of 355, he was permitted to study in Athens. While there, Julian became acquainted with two men who became both bishops and saints, Gregory of Nazianzus and Basil the Great
Nevers is the prefecture of the Nièvre department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in central France. It was the city of the former province of Nivernais. It is 260 km south-southeast of Paris, Nevers first enters written history as Noviodunum, a town held by the Aedui at Roman contact. After his failure before Gergovia, the Aedui at Noviodunum massacred those who were there to look after stores, the negotiatores, and the travellers who were in the place. They divided the money and the horses themselves, carried off in boats all the corn that they could. Thinking they could not hold the town, they burnt it and this was a great loss to Caesar, and it may seem that he was imprudent in leaving such great stores in the power of treacherous allies. But he was in straits during this year, and probably he could not do otherwise than he did, dio Cassius tells the story out of Caesar of the affair of Noviodunum. He states incorrectly what Caesar did on the occasion, and he shows that he understood his original nor knew what he was writing about.
The city was called Nevirnum, as the name appears in the Antonine Itinerary, in the Tabula Peutingeriana, it is corrupted into Ebrinum. In still other sources the name appears as Nebirnum and it became the seat of a bishopric at the end of the 5th century. The county dates at least from the beginning of the 10th century, the citizens of Nevers obtained charters in 1194 and in 1231. For a short time in the 14th century the town was the seat of a university, transferred from Orléans, Nevers is situated on the slope of a hill on the right bank of the Loire River. Narrow winding streets lead from the quay through the town there are numerous old houses dating from the 14th to the 17th century. The apse and transept at the west end are the remains of a Romanesque church, while the nave and eastern apse are in the Gothic style, there is no transept at the eastern end. The lateral portal on the south belongs to the late 15th century. The church of Saint Etienne is a specimen of the Romanesque style of Auvergne of which the disposition of the apse with its three radiating chapels is characteristic and it was consecrated at the close of the 9th century, and belonged to a priory affiliated to Cluny.
The Ducal Palace was built in the 15th and 16th centuries and is one of the principal feudal edifices in central France, the façade is flanked at each end by a turret and a round tower. A middle tower containing the staircase has its windows adorned by sculptures relating to the history of the House of La Marck by the members of which the greater part of the palace was built
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. There are 96 departments in metropolitan France and 5 overseas departments, each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, they were called general councils, the departments were created in 1791 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity, the title department is used to mean a part of a larger whole. Almost all of them were named after geographical features rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of dArgenson and they have inspired similar divisions in many countries, some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a number, the Official Geographical Code. Some overseas departments have a three-digit number, the number is used, for example, in the postal code, and was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as the 45 and this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René dArgenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration, before the French Revolution, France gained territory gradually through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces, during the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved, partly in order to weaken old loyalties. Their boundaries served two purposes, Boundaries were chosen to break up Frances historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences, Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a days ride of the capital of the department. This was a security measure, intended to keep the national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of rural areas far from any centre of government.
The old nomenclature was carefully avoided in naming the new departments, most were named after an areas principal river or other physical features. Even Paris was in the department of Seine, the number of departments, initially 83, was increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleons defeats in 1814-1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size, in 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice, the 89 departments were given numbers based on their alphabetical order. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following Frances defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
Meaux is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 41.1 km east-northeast from the center of Paris, Meaux is a subprefecture of the Seine-et-Marne department. In France, a subprefecture is the chef-lieu of an arrondissement and it is the chef-lieu of two other smaller administrative land divisions, the cantons of Meaux-Nord and Meaux-Sud. Finally, since its creation in 2003, Meaux has been the center and the town of an agglomeration community. With a population of 51,398 inhabitants, Meaux is the second most populated city in the Seine-et-Marne department after Chelles, inhabitants of Meaux are called Meldois. Both names Meaux and Meldois originated with the Meldi, the Latin name of the original Gaulish tribe who occupied this area of the valley of the Marne river. Although during the Roman period the city was called Iantinum by the Romans, a meander of the Marne river divides the old city into the North Quarter and the South Quarter.
The South Quarter of the old city includes the historic covered market. Centuries later, in 1806, during the Napoleonic era, was built the Canal de lOurcq, Meaux is nowadays mainly known for Brie de Meaux and the local variety of mustard. Following the official administrative French AOC there are two designations of Brie de Meaux, Brie de Meaux fermier and Brie de Meaux laitier, several festivals and concerts are celebrated in Meaux, venues for live music like the Music Festival Musikelles. Theres a local concert band in Meaux, LHarmonie du Pays de Meaux. It is constituted by three different ensembles, following different ages, Les Minimes, Les Juniors and LHarmonie de Meaux, the band is one of the two official music academies of the town. The other one is the conservatory of the city, the show represents the history of Meaux all along the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, and also, more recently, during World War I. There is only one cinema in Meaux, The Majestic, a stage theatre. In modern days there are three theatres in the city.
One is the Théâtre Gérard Philippe, a theatre, situated close to the covered market. In an eastern area of Meaux, the Beauval quarter, there is the stage theatre of the town, the Salle Champagne, located in the Espace Caravelle. Private theatre companies and community arts associations play in all three theatres, two museums can be found in Meaux, the Musée Bossuet and the Musée de la Grande Guerre du pays de Meaux
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching. He is a figure in landscape painting and his vast output simultaneously references the Neo-Classical tradition. Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was born in Paris on July 16,1796, in a house at 125 Rue du Bac, now demolished. After his parents married, they bought the shop where his mother had worked. The store was a destination for fashionable Parisians and earned the family an excellent income. Corot was the second of three born to the family, who lived above their shop during those years. Corot received a scholarship to study at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen and he was not a brilliant student, and throughout his entire school career he did not get a single nomination for a prize, not even for the drawing classes. Unlike many masters who demonstrated early talent and inclinations toward art, during those years he lived with the Sennegon family, whose patriarch was a friend of Corots father and who spent much time with young Corot on nature walks.
It was in this region that Corot made his first paintings after nature, at nineteen, Corot was a big child and awkward. Before the beautiful ladies who frequented his mothers salon, he was embarrassed and fled like a wild thing, emotionally, he was an affectionate and well-behaved son, who adored his mother and trembled when his father spoke. When Corots parents moved into a new residence in 1817, the 21-year-old Corot moved into the room on the third floor. Later Corot stated, I told my father that business and I were simply incompatible, the business experience proved beneficial, however, by helping him develop an aesthetic sense through his exposure to the colors and textures of the fabrics. Perhaps out of boredom, he turned to oil painting around 1821 and he immediately rented a studio on quai Voltaire. In both approaches, landscape artists would typically begin with outdoor sketching and preliminary painting, with finishing work done indoors, michallon had a great influence on Corots career.
Though this school was on the decline, it held sway in the Salon. Corot stated, I made my first landscape from nature. under the eye of this painter, the lesson worked, since I have always treasured precision. Though holding Neoclassicists in the highest regard, Corot did not limit his training to their tradition of allegory set in imagined nature and his notebooks reveal precise renderings of tree trunks and plants which show the influence of Northern realism. Throughout his career, Corot demonstrated an inclination to apply both traditions in his work, sometimes combining the two, a condition by his parents before leaving was that he paint a self-portrait for them, his first
313, when internecine conflict eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine in control of the western half of the empire, and Licinius in control of the eastern half. Although the term tetrarch was current in antiquity, it was never used of the college under Diocletian. Instead, the term was used to describe independent portions of a kingdom that were ruled under separate leaders, the tetrarchy of Judaea, established after the death of Herod the Great, is the most famous example of the antique tetrarchy. The term was understood in the Latin world as well, where Pliny the Elder glossed it as follows, each is the equivalent of a kingdom, and part of one. As used by the ancients, the term not only different governments. Only Lactantius, a contemporary of Diocletian and an ideological opponent of the Diocletianic state. Much modern scholarship was written without the term, although Edward Gibbon pioneered the description of the Diocletianic government as a New Empire, he never used the term tetrarchy, neither did Theodor Mommsen.
It did not appear in the literature until used in 1887 by schoolmaster Hermann Schiller in a handbook on the Roman Empire, to wit. Even so, the term did not catch on in the literature until Otto Seeck used it in 1897. The first phase, sometimes referred to as the Diarchy, involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor—firstly as Caesar in 285, Diocletian took care of matters in the eastern regions of the empire while Maximian similarly took charge of the western regions. In 305, the senior emperors jointly abdicated and retired, allowing Constantius and Galerius to be elevated in rank to Augustus. They in turn appointed two new Caesars — Severus II in the west under Constantius, and Maximinus in the east under Galerius — thereby creating the second Tetrarchy and these centres are known as the tetrarchic capitals. Sirmium was the capital of Galerius, the eastern Caesar, this was to become the Balkans-Danube prefecture Illyricum, mediolanum was the capital of Maximian, the western Augustus, his domain became Italia et Africa, with only a short exterior border.
Augusta Treverorum was the capital of Constantius Chlorus, the western Caesar, near the strategic Rhine border and this quarter became the prefecture Galliae. Aquileia, a port on the Adriatic coast, and Eboracum, were significant centres for Maximian. In terms of jurisdiction there was no precise division between the four tetrarchs, and this period did not see the Roman state actually split up into four distinct sub-empires. Each emperor had his zone of influence within the Roman Empire, for a listing of the provinces, now known as eparchy, within each quarter, see Roman province. In the West, the Augustus Maximian controlled the provinces west of the Adriatic Sea and the Syrtis, in the East, the arrangements between the Augustus Diocletian and his Caesar, were much more flexible