Seoul Subway Line 9

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Line 9
South Korea subway logo.svg Seoul Metro Line 9.svg
Metro 9 Class 9000 EMU.jpg
Overview
Native name 9호선(九號線)
Gu Hoseon
Type Rapid transit
System Seoul Metropolitan Subway
Status Operational
Termini Gaehwa
Sports Complex
Stations 30
Operation
Opened July 24, 2009
Owner Seoul Metro Line 9 Corporation & Seoulmetro 9 Corp.
Operator(s) Seoul Line9 Operation
(80% Hyundai Rotem, 20% RATP Dev Transdev Asia)
Technical
Line length 31.7 km (19.7 mi)[1]
Number of tracks 2 (4 at express service stations)
Route map
Gaehwa 901
Line 5, AREX
Gimpo Airport 902
Airport Market 903
Sinbanghwa 904
AREX
Magongnaru 905
Yangcheonhyanggyo 906
Gayang 907
Jeungmi 908
Deungchon 909
Yeomchang 910
Sinmokdong 911
Anyangcheon
Seonyudo 912
Line 2
Dangsan 913
National Assembly 914
Line 5
Yeouido 915
Saetgang 916
Line 1
Noryangjin 917
Nodeul 918
Heukseok 919
Line 4
Dongjak 920
Gubanpo 921
Sinbanpo 922
Line 3, 7
Express Bus Terminal 923
Sapyeong 924
Sinbundang
Sinnonhyeon 925
Eonju 926
Bundang
Seonjeongneung 927
Samseong Jungang 928
Bongeunsa 929
Tancheon
Line 2
Sports Complex 930
Samjeonsageori 931
Samjeon 932
Line 8
Seokchon 933
Bangisageori 934
Sinbangi 935
Line 5
Olympic Park 936
Oryun 937
Veterans Hospital 938

Seoul Subway Line 9, operated by Seoul Metro Line9 Corporation, is a subway line in Seoul. The line runs east from Gaehwa Station (local train terminal) or Gimpo Airport Station (express train terminal, connecting to Line 5 and Airport Railroad) along the south bank of the Han River towards Sports Complex in Gangnam.

Line 9 was constructed as a double track subway, but several stations feature quadruple tracking enable express trains to overtake local trains. Express trains run around five times per hour in each direction. All stations are equipped with elevators, escalators, and platform screen doors.

Phase 1 (Gaewha to Sinnonhyeon) was the first privately run subway line in Korea. The franchisee of phase 1 is Seoul Metro Line 9 Corporation (SML9), who oversaw the construction of the phase 1. SML9 contracted the operation to Seoul Line9 Operation (SL9), a joint venture of Hyundai Rotem (20%) and RATP Dev Transdev Asia (80%, formerly Veolia Transport Korea).[2] Collectively, SLM9 and SL9 are known as Metro9. However, phase 2 (Sinnonhyeon to Sports Complex) and further phases are operated by Seoul Metro.

History[edit]

Line 9 was one of the lines first discussed as part of Seoul's 3rd phase of subway construction in 1991. In 1993, Seoul announced a plan for new construction of subway lines 9~12 and the extension of subway line 3. Construction of the 3rd phase was delayed by the 1995 Daegu explosions, funding issues, the 1997 financial crisis and a 1998 review of the plan that reduced the scope of the 3rd phase. In 2001, the city passed the feasibility study and execution designs for line 9 and confirmed the commencement of construction.[3]

Construction of Phase 1 between Gaehwa and Sinnonhyeon began in April 2002. Originally scheduled to open on June 12, 2009, the line opened on July 24, 2009, to ensure that the line was fully ready to begin service.[4] Line 9 opened with 24 four-car trains numbered 9-01~9-24; the express service ran every 20 minutes and the local service every 6.7 minutes.

Due to increasing ridership (numbers soon exceeded 250,000 per day), 12 additional four-car trains were ordered to alleviate capacity constraints.[5] These trains, numbered 9-25~9-36, entered service on October 15, 2011. This allowed for the express service headway to be shortened to 10 minutes and the local service headway to 5 minutes. On September 30, 2013, additional express trains were added during commuting times of 7 to 9 AM (from 22 to 36), further reducing the headway.[6]

Phase 2 extended the line from Sinnonhyeon in Gangnam to Sports Complex Station on Line 2 on March 28, 2015. Phase 3 will further extend the line to Veterans Hospital Station in eastern Seoul on December 1, 2018.[7]

Due to capacity issues on the express service due to increasing ridership, some express trains were lengthened to six cars starting on December 30, 2017.[8]

Future[edit]

The Korean government initially proposed a one-seat ride from Incheon International Airport to Gangnam via Gimpo International Airport using either Line 9 or Airport Railroad trains sharing their rights of way by the year 2020.[7] This proposal so far has not been implemented thus making it necessary to transfer trains at Gimpo International Airport.

Ticket price debate[edit]

Negotiations in 2005 between the operator and the Seoul city government resulted in an agreement of a basic fare rate set at 1,264 won upon opening of the line in 2009 with a further increase to 1,398 won by 2012 to allow for inflation. Prior to opening of the line, the operator requested a base rate of 1,300 won. The city government decided against this by citing a domestic financial crisis and potential complaints from riders if the price was set at a higher rate than the rest of the subway system. The city therefore set the initial ticket fare at 900 won, the standard fare for entrance to the rest of the Seoul subway system in 2009. The rate was locked for a period of 12 months and was later locked for three years despite multiple requests from the operator for a higher starting fare.[9]

In February 2012, the price increased to 1,050 won across all metro lines, including Line 9. Within two months, Metro9, the operator of Line 9, announced the price would further increase another 500 won starting from June 16, 2012 on only Line 9. The Seoul city government disagreed with this and threatened to fine Metro9 10 million won per day if the 500 won price increase occurred.[10][11][12] The planned rate increase was withdrawn on May 9, and Metro9 issued an apology. Seoul City will be in negotiations again with the help of legal counsel to determine the differences of opinions in the original agreement.[13] Currently, an additional scan of a metro card transfers in between Line 9 and other Seoul subway lines does not accrue additional fees.

Construction costs and deficit[edit]

The construction of Phase 1 cost 900 billion won (roughly equivalent to 827 million US dollars),[14] 480 billion of which was pooled between 12 firms with the remaining borne by Seoul city and the national government. By 2012, the line was operating at a loss with 90% of losses being covered by the city.[15] The accumulated deficit has passed 180 billion won.[10]

While Phase 2 was always planned to go ahead as scheduled, a Seoul Metropolitan Government website at one point described construction of Phase 3 as being suspended in consideration of transport demand and financial considerations.[16] On November 20, 2008, the Seoul Metropolitan government announced plans to build Phase 3 between October 2010 and December 2015.[17]

Stations[edit]

Express trains stop at stations marked "●" and pass stations marked "|".

Station
Number
Station name
EX
Transfer
Station
distance
Total
distance
Location
Romanized Hangul Hanja in km
901
Gaehwa 개화 No service
0.0
0.0
Seoul
Gangseo-gu
902
Gimpo International Airport 김포공항
Seoul Metro Line 5.svg Seoul Metro Arex Line.png
Gimpo Goldline (July 2019)
 Seohae  (2021)
3.6
3.6
903
Airport Market 공항시장
|
0.8
4.4
904
Sinbanghwa 신방화
|
0.8
5.2
905
Magongnaru 마곡나루 나루
|
Seoul Metro Arex Line.png
0.9
6.1
906
Yangcheon Hyanggyo 양천향교
|
1.4
7.5
907
Gayang 가양
1.3
8.8
908
Jeungmi 증미
|
0.7
9.5
909
Deungchon 등촌
|
1.0
10.5
910
Yeomchang 염창
0.9
11.4
911
Sinmokdong 신목동
|
0.9
12.3
Yangcheon-gu
912
Seonyudo 선유도
|
1.2
13.5
Yeongdeungpo-gu
913
Dangsan 당산
Seoul Metro Line 2.svg
1.0
14.5
914
National Assembly 국회의사당
|
1.5
16.0
915
Yeouido 여의도
Seoul Metro Line 5.svg
0.9
16.9
916
Saetgang 샛강 샛강
|
0.8
17.7
917
Noryangjin 노량진
Seoul Metro Line 1.svg
1.2
18.9
Dongjak-gu
918
Nodeul 노들 노들
|
1.1
20.0
919
Heukseok
(Chung-Ang University)
흑석
(중앙대입구)

()
|
1.1
21.1
920
Dongjak
(Seoul National Cemetery)
동작
(현충원)

()
Seoul Metro Line 4.svg
1.4
22.5
921
Gubanpo 구반포
|
1.0
23.5
Seocho-gu
922
Sinbanpo 신반포
|
0.7
24.2
923
Express Bus Terminal 고속터미널 터미널
Seoul Metro Line 3.svg Seoul Metro Line 7.svg
0.8
25.0
924
Sapyeong 사평
|
1.1
26.1
925
Sinnonhyeon 신논현
 Shinbundang  (2022)
0.9
27.0
Gangnam-gu
926
Eonju 언주
|
0.8
27.8
927
Seonjeongneung 선정릉
 Bundang 
0.9
28.7
928
Samseongjungang 삼성중앙
|
0.8
29.5
929
Bongeunsa 봉은사
0.8
30.3
930
Sports Complex 종합운동장
Seoul Metro Line 2.svg
1.4
31.7
Songpa-gu
931
Samjeon (Dec. 2018) 삼전
|
932
Seokchon Gobun (Dec. 2018) 석촌고분
|
933
Seokchon (Dec. 2018) 석촌
Seoul Metro Line 8.svg
934
Songpanaru (Dec. 2018) 송파나루
|
935
Hanseong Baekje (Dec. 2018) 한성백제
|
936
Olympic Park (Dec. 2018) 올림픽공원 올림픽
Seoul Metro Line 5.svg
937
Dunchon–Oryun (Dec. 2018) 둔촌오륜
|
938
VHS Medical Center (Dec. 2018) 중앙보훈병원
1.6
Gangdong-gu

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 서울메트로 노선도 [Subway Linemap provided by Seoul Metro] (in Korean). Seoul Metro. Archived from the original on 2015-03-27. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
  2. ^ "Veolia Transport to operate Line 9 of the Seoul subway system, starting July 2009". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. March 7, 2007. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
  3. ^ Kim, Dr. Seung-Jun; Ko, Dr. Joon-Ho. "Introduction of Rapid Urban Railway System - Construction of Subway Line 9" (PDF). Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Subway Line 9 to Open Friday". Korea Times. July 20, 2009. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
  5. ^ "9호선 전동차 추가 도입" (in Korean). Munhwa. Retrieved 2011-05-19.
  6. ^ 이, 광철 (11 September 2013). "'출근 지옥철' 9호선 급행열차 운행 늘려". Daum 뉴스 (in Korean).
  7. ^ a b Lee, Hyun-jeong (2015-05-26). "Incheon airport subway links to be extended". Korea Herald. Retrieved 2016-05-30.
  8. ^ "9호선 '6량열차' 운행시작…하루 총 52회" (in Korean). Seoul Metropolitan Government. 29 December 2017.
  9. ^ PARK, Jinyoung; MUN, Jinsu (2014). "Chapter 3: Issues and Improvement Efforts of Railway PPP Projects in Korea". In KIM, Gunyoung; MOORE, Richard. Korea's Railway PPP (Public-Private Partnership) Projects. KOTI Knowledge Sharing Report book series. Volume 11. South Korea: The Korea Transport Institute. p. 52-54. ISBN 978-89-5503-658-9.
  10. ^ a b Kim, Rahn (April 15, 2012). "Seoul City in feud with subway operator over fare hike". Korea Times. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  11. ^ Bae, Ji-sook (April 16, 2012). "Seoul City, subway operator feud over fares". Korea Herald. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  12. ^ "Fare Hike Planned for Seoul's Subway Line No 9". Arirang. April 16, 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  13. ^ Rahn, Kim (May 9, 2012). "Subway line 9 operator drops fare hike plan". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
  14. ^ "The Currency Converter". Coinmill.com. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
  15. ^ "[Editorial] Subway Line No. 9". The Korea Herald. April 16, 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  16. ^ "Vision Seoul 2016". Seoul Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on December 24, 2004. Retrieved September 10, 2005.
  17. ^ Han, Woojin. "서울도시철도 9호선 (2, 3단계)". 미래철도 (in Korean).

External links[edit]