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Serbian Despotate

The Serbian Despotate was a medieval Serbian state in the first half of the 15th century. Although the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 is considered the end of medieval Serbia, the Despotate, a successor of the Serbian Empire and Moravian Serbia, survived for another 60 years, experiencing a cultural and political renaissance before it was conquered by the Ottomans in 1459. Before its conquest the Despotate nominally had a suzerain status to the Ottoman Empire, Byzantine Empire and Kingdom of Hungary. After being subjugated to the Ottoman Empire in 1459, it continued to exist in exile in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary until the mid-16th century. Pavle Bakić was the last Despot of Serbia to be recognized by both the Ottoman and the Habsburg Monarchy. After Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović was killed in the Battle of Kosovo on June 28, 1389, his son Stefan Lazarević succeeded him. Being a minor, his mother Princess Milica ruled as his regent. A wise and diplomatic woman, she managed to balance the Ottoman threat as the Ottoman Empire was in a turmoil after the Battle of Kosovo and the killing of Sultan Murad I.

She married her daughter, Olivera, to his successor, Sultan Bayezid I. After the battle, in 1390 or 1391 depending on source, Serbia became a vassal Ottoman state, Stefan Lazarević was obliged to participate in battles if ordered by the Ottoman sultan, he did so in the Battle of Rovine in May 1395 against the Wallachian prince Mircea I and the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 against the Hungarian king Sigismund. After that, Sultan Bayezid awarded Stefan with the majority of the Vuk Branković's land on Kosovo, as Branković sided with the Hungarian king at Nicopolis; when Timur's army entered the Ottoman realm, Stefan Lazarević participated in the Battle of Ankara in 1402, in which the Ottomans were defeated and their leader Bayezid was captured. Returning to Serbia, Stefan visited Constantinople where the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos granted him the title of despot. In previous years, this title would mean. In Constantinople, Stefan had a dispute with his nephew Đurađ Branković, son of Vuk Branković, accompanying him and was arrested by the Byzantine authorities.

Đurađ would succeed Stefan. Stefan's brother Vuk Lazarević was in his escort and as they were returning over the Kosovo, they were attacked by the Branković army at Tripolje, near the Gračanica monastery. Vuk headed the Lazarević army, victorious, but reaching Novo Brdo, the brothers had a quarrel and Vuk went to the Ottoman side, to the new sultan Suleyman Çelebi. Counting on unrest within the Ottoman Empire, in early 1404 Stefan accepted vassalage to the Hungarian king Sigismund, who awarded him with Belgrade, the Mačva region, the fort of Golubac, until in possession of the Kingdom of Hungary, so Belgrade became a capital of Serbia for the second time in history after King Dragutin; the next few years are marked by events in Stefan's personal life. He managed to liberate Bayezid's widow Olivera. In 1404 he made peace with his brother Vuk, in 1405 he married Caterina Gattilusio, daughter of Francesco II Gattilusio, ruler of the island of Lesbos. In 1405 his mother Milica died. In 1408 brothers disputed again and Vuk, together with sultan Suleyman and the Branković family, attacked Stefan in early 1409.

Being besieged at Belgrade, Stefan agreed to give southern part of Serbia to his brother and to accept again Ottoman vassalage. Suleyman's brother Musa rebelled against him and Stefan took Musa's side in the battle of Kosmidion in 1410, near Constantinople. Musa's army was defeated and Suleiman sent Vuk and Đurađ Branković's brother Lazar to come to Serbia before Stefan returned, but they both were captured by Musa's sympathizers and were executed in July 1410. Through Constantinople, where Emperor Manuel II confirmed his despotic rights, Stefan returned to Belgrade and annexed Vuk's lands. In 1410 King Sigismund of Hungary seized several territories in north-eastern Bosnia; as a reward for Stefan Lazarević's help and loyalty, he transferred Srebrenica with its surroundings to the Serbian Despotate in 1411 or 1412. When Musa became self-proclaimed sultan in European part of the Ottoman Empire, he attacked Serbia in early 1412 but was defeated by Stefan near Novo Brdo in Kosovo. Stefan invited the ruler of the Anatolian part of the empire, sultan Mehmed Çelebi to attack Musa together.

Securing Hungarian help, they attacked Musa on 5 July 1413 at the Battle of Çamurlu, near the Vitosha mountain and defeated him, with Musa being killed in the battle. As a reward, Stefan received the town of Koprijan near Niš and the Serbian-Bulgarian area of Znepolje. For next twelve years, Stefan remained in good relations with Mehmed, which made the recovery of medieval Serbia possible. On 28 April 1421, Stefan's nephew and ruler of Zeta, Balša III died without an heir, bequeathing before death his lands to his uncle. With this and territorial gains from the Kingdom of Hungary, Serbia restored majority of its ethnic territories it occupied before the Battle of Kosovo. In 1425, the Ottoman Empire invaded Serbia and pillaging across the Southern Morava valley. At the same time, the King of Bosnia attempted to conquer Srebrenica back from the Serbs, but failed. Despot Stefan fought back the invasion and initiated negotiations with the Sultan, after which the Ottoman troops left Serbia. Still, this attack was an ominous sign of things to come.

The rule of the poe

Ark Putney Academy

Ark Putney Academy is a co-educational secondary school and sixth form with academy status, located in the Putney Heath area of the London Borough of Wandsworth, England. It was first established as Southfields School in 1904 on Merton Road; the school was renamed Elliott School in 1911, in 1956 it amalgamated with Huntingfield Secondary Modern School on a new site in Pullman Gardens, to become Elliott Comprehensive School. Many famous icons such as Pierce Brosnan went to this school and the school appears in the film Love Actually. In 2012 the school was renamed ARK Putney Academy; the main part of school is a Grade II listed building designed in the early 1950s by G A Trevett of the London County Council architects' department. It was among the early work of John Bancroft. English Heritage have described it as "perhaps the finest of the large comprehensive schools built by the London County Council architects". However, in 2012, much of the school's open space was under threat of sale to pay for refurbishment of the main school buildings which had fallen into disrepair.

Ark Putney Academy official website Elliott School official website

Sandwich degree

A sandwich degree is a course specific to the United Kingdom. A thick sandwich degree is either a four-year undergraduate course as part of a bachelor's degree, or a five-year postgraduate course as part of a master's degree, involves a placement year or internship in industry after the second year at university. A thin sandwich degree involves multiple shorter placement or internship periods rather than an unbroken year; the concept was first articulated in a 1945 report by the Ministry of Education which advocated those attending courses at technical colleges would receive a new kind of education in which theoretical studies and industrial training would be interwoven. The term "sandwich" was used in a 1950 National Advisory Council on Education for Industry and Commerce report on possible developments within the further education sector. During the early 1950s, sandwich course proposals were formulated involving the close association of industry and colleges, encouraging movement of students and researchers between academia and industry.

Growth of sandwich courses was encouraged by a Ministry of Education white paper on Technical Education 1956. The Newcastle Polytechnic Bachelor of Arts degree in "Design for Industry" starting in 1953 was an early example of this kind a three-year "Industrial Design" degree; the new course with two additional terms for industrial placements, extended the degree to four years and popularised the term "sandwich course". Alumni include Jony Ive of Apple. Alumni of sandwich courses at other universities include: Nicola Pellow of Leicester Polytechnic, involved in work on the World Wide Web in the early 1990s. During 1989 in the United Kingdom, about 20% of the students in higher education were on sandwich courses. By 2002 this had dropped by 2010 7.2 percent. Enrollments were growing again by 2014/15. Industry-oriented education Polytechnic Universities in the United Kingdom

Pedro I Coloma, Baron of Bornhem

Don Pedro Coloma, Baron of Bornhem and Lord of Bobadilla was a Flemish noble Lord and member of the famous House of Coloma. He was born as son of Lady of Bodabilla, he was baptisez in the cathedral of Brussels: his godfather of the Count of Mansfeld. He did mary to Viscountess of Dourlens, he had three sons and was succeeded by his son Pedro II Coloma, 3rd Baron of Bornhem, Viscount of Dourlens, the grandfather of Jean Alphonse, 1st Count de Coloma. He inherited the Lordship of Bodabilla of his grandfather Pedro Fernandez, he became Escrivano - Mayor of the Kingdom of Cordoba and War council of the Spanish Netherlands in service of the King of Spain. In 1586 he bought the Heerlijkheid of Bornhem in Flanders, owned by the Marquess of Pescara, rebuilt Bornem Castle after the war, he was of great importance for Bornem and had a monastery constructed, that became Bornem Abbey. He had in 1592 important and historical water works constructed to control the river Schelde, today one of the oldest water works of Belgium.

He sold the Heerlijkheid of Bobadilla to his nephew Juan de Bustamante

Lexicon (Isyana Sarasvati album)

LEXICON is the third studio album by Isyana Sarasvati, released on November 29, 2019, by Sony Music Entertainment Indonesia. The main songs are "untuk hati yang terluka.", "ragu Semesta", "Sikap Duniawi". This album is sold in the form of a box set, sold through on @belialbumfisik site and other digital store sites. LEXICON became Isyana Sarasvati's third album after releasing the album Explore!, released in November 2015 and Paradox in September 2017. Different from the previous 2 albums in the Pop and R&B genres, LEXICON album carries a theatrical theme, the classic or opera genre is Isyana's true identity. All the songs on the LEXICON album are neo classic and one song with a progressive rock genre entitled "Lexicon". On this album, Isyana tries to show her idealism side. LEXICON contains eight song numbers that have been prepared since the end of 2018, but were not given to the Sony Music Entertainment label; the album's introduction was made since releasing the single "untuk hati yang terluka.", "ragu Semesta", as well as the most recent "Sikap Duniawi", released in conjunction with LEXICON.

On the day of the release of the album, Isyana held an intimate showcase for 100 lucky fans and other invited guests."I likened LEXICON to a dictionary. I want friends who want to know Isyana Sarasvati more to enter an episode of Isyana's journey that has never been revealed anywhere. I like giving a dictionary of my life wrapped in melody, instrumentation with lyrics", said Isyana Sarasvati at Shoemaker, Central Jakarta, November 29, 2019. LEXICON summarizes several episodes of Isyana Sarasvati's journey. What's different, this time Isyana freed herself from the production, the selection of producers involved, to the concept of a special box set; the album is produced by Isyana Sarasvati with Gerald Situmorang, Kenan Loui, Tohpati. The work of the LEXICON album was done for one month until it was released to close this November. Isyana played a full role in the arrangement of songs in the album. Detail Album on iTunes Detail of music streaming Detail Album on Spotify Detail Album on deezer


Cristalina is a municipality located in the southeast of the state of Goiás, Brazil. Cristalina is located directly south of the federal capital, Brasília, is connected to that city by BR-040, it lies on a plateau between the basins of two rivers: the São Marcos. Cristalina is 125 kilometers from Brasília. Cristalina belongs to the micro-region called Entorno do Distrito Federal, which consists of several cities in Goiás state located outside the boundaries of the Federal District. Cristalina has municipal boundaries with: North: Federal District South: Ipameri East: Mundo Novo West: Luziânia and Cidade OcidentalCristalina is located at the junction of two important highways—the BR 040, which links Brasília to Belo Horizonte, the BR 050, which links Brasília to São Paulo; this location alone has been responsible for much of the growth of the city, which had an increase in population with the foundation and continuous growth of Brasília, located at a distance of 125 km. As the name indicates the town is famous for being one of the largest centers of production and commerce of precious and semi-precious stones and crystals in Brazil.

The immense variety of stones and of crystals are responsible for the large number of tourists that visit the city. Because of the altitude the climate is mild, with temperatures between 28 degrees Celsius. Today Cristalina is known for its large production of grains seeds, it produces soybeans, beans and rice. The cattle herd is large with 125,000 head in 2006. In 2007 there were 03 financial institutions and 01 meat-packing house—Cooperativa Agrícola Três Barras Ltda. Agricultural data 2006 Farms: 1,136 Total area: 330,663 ha. Area of permanent crops: 7,837 ha. Area of perennial crops: 143,532 ha. Area of natural pasture: 101,157 ha. Area of woodland and forests: 72,679 ha. Persons dependent on farming: 4,800 Number of tractors: 967 Cattle herd: 125,000Cristalina was the state's largest producer of garlic, onions, beans and wheat. Literacy rate in 2000: 82.3 Infant mortality rate in 2000: 16.88 in 1,000 live births Schools: 36 with 13,555 students Hospitals: 02 with 30 beds Higher education was represented by two schools: Faculdade Central de Cristalina and Pólo Universitário da UEG.

MHDI: 0.760 State ranking: 53 National ranking: 1.571 The history of Cristalina began in the eighteenth century with gold exploration. An abundance of rock crystal and in 1879 two Frenchmen, Etienne Lopes and Leon Laboissière, residents of Paracatu, bought some of the crystal and exported it to Paris, they settled in a place called Serra Velha where they set up their operations. After the failure of the first miners, another Frenchman, Emílio Levy, arrived trading cloth for crystal and built his house, stimulating others to arrive. In 1901 the district of Serra dos Cristais was created belonging to the municipality of Santa Luzia, now Luziânia. In 1916 it was emancipated as São Sebastião dos Cristais changed to Cristalina. List of municipalities in Goiás City Hall of Cristalina website Frigoletto Sepin