Northeast Region, Brazil
The Northeast Region of Brazil is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. For the socio-geographic area see Nordeste, of Brazils twenty-six states, it comprises nine, Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas and Bahia, along with the Fernando de Noronha archipelago. Chiefly known as Nordeste in Brazil, this region was the first to be discovered and colonized by the Portuguese and other European peoples, Nordestes dialects and rich culture, including its folklore, cuisines and literature, became the most easily distinguishable across the country. To this day, Nordeste is widely recognized for its history and culture, Nordeste stretches from the Atlantic seaboard in the northeast and southeast and west to the Amazon Basin and south through the Espinhaço highlands in southern Bahia. It encloses the São Francisco River and drainage basin, which were instrumental in the exploration, the region lies entirely within the earths tropical zone and encompasses Caatinga, Atlantic Forest and part of the Cerrado ecoregions.
The climate is hot and semi-arid, varying from xeric in Caatinga, to mesic in Cerrado and hydric in the Atlantic Forest. The Northeast Region represents 18% of Brazilian territory, has a population of 53.6 million people, 28% of the population of the country. Nearly three quarters of the live in urban areas clustered along the Atlantic coast and about 15 million people live in the hinterland. It is a region, 58% of the population lives in poverty. Nordeste has nine international airports, and the region has the second largest number of passengers in Brazil, the Zona da Mata comprises the rainsforest zones of Nordeste in the humid eastern coast, where the regions largest capital cities are located. The forest area was larger before suffering from centuries of deforestation and exploration. For many years, sugar cultivation in this region was the mainstay of Brazils economy. The sugar cane is cultivated on large estates and the owners of these had, since the escarpment does not generate any further rainfall on its slopes from the lifting of the trade winds, annual rainfall decreases steadily inland.
After a relatively short distance, there is no longer enough rainfall to tropical rainforest. This transitional zone is known as the agreste and because it is located on the escarpment, was not generally used whilst flatter land was abundant. In Portuguese, the word sertão first referred to the vast hinterlands of Asia, in Brazil, the geographical term referred to backlands away from the Atlantic coastal regions where the Portuguese first settled in South America in the early sixteenth century. Geographically, the Sertão consists mainly of low uplands that form part of the Brazilian Highlands, in the north, the Sertão extends to the northern coastal plains of Rio Grande do Norte state, whilst in the south it fades out in the northern fringe of Minas Gerais. Because the Sertão lies close to the equator, temperatures remain nearly uniform throughout the year and are typically tropical, the sertão is distinctive in its low rainfall compared to other areas of Brazil
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
The Rocas Atoll is the only atoll in the South Atlantic Ocean, belonging to the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Norte. It is located approximately 260 km northeast of Natal and 145 km west of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, the atoll is of volcanic origin and coralline formation. The oval atoll is 3.7 kilometres long and 2.5 kilometres wide, the lagoon is up to 6 metres deep and has an area of 7.1 square kilometres. The land area of the two islets is 0.36 square kilometres, Farol Cay accounts for almost two thirds of the aggregate area. The highest point is a dune in the south of larger Farol Cay. Both islets are overgrown with grasses, bushes and a few palm trees, the population consists of crabs, scorpions, sand fleas, large roaches, and many species of birds. There is a lighthouse of the Brazilian Navy that has been in operation and maintained since the 1960s, in its vicinity is a derelict lighthouse from 1933. The atoll is a sanctuary, and in 2001 was designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
Numerous turtles, sharks and birds live in the area, the atoll consists mainly of coral and red algae. The coral ring is almost closed, with a 200 metres wide channel on the North side, the atoll and surrounding waters are contained in the Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve. The reserve it is used solely for scientific research. Due to their location, the islands remain largely undisturbed by human activities. On the other hand, the remoteness limits researchers access to the islands, the entomological fauna from Atol das Rocas was already recorded. The atoll was the site of an attack on a Cobra satellite communications tracking station and robotics storage center. Joe comic title from Marvel Comics, Atoll Sigep - Brazilian Commission of Geological and Palaeobiological Sites Description with maps and pictures - UNESCO - World Heritage Further information Atol das Rocas on Globo. com
The Americas, collectively called America, encompass the totality of the continents of North America and South America. Together they make up most of the land in Earths western hemisphere, along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earths total surface area and 28. 4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, Mississippi. Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago, a second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Ericson, the colonization never became permanent and was abandoned.
The voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European powers, diseases introduced from Europe and Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonized the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including numbers of indentured servants. Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in 1776, the population is over 1 billion, with over 65% of them living in one of the three most populous countries. As of the beginning of the 2010s, the most populous urban agglomerations are Mexico City, New York, Sao Paulo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro, all of them megacities. The name America was first recorded in 1507 in the Cosmographiae Introductio, apparently written by Matthias Ringmann and it first applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. Amerigen means land of Amerigo and derives from Amerigo and gen, America accorded with the feminine names of Asia and Europa. When conceived as a continent, the form is generally the continent of America in the singular.
However, without a context, singular America in English commonly refers to the United States of America. In some countries of the world, America is considered a continent encompassing the North America and South America subcontinents, the first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred during the glacial maximum
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
The Atlantic Forest is characterized by a high species diversity and endemism. Restinga Forests are generally closed canopy short forests with tree density, open Restinga is an open, savanna-like formation with scattered clumps of small trees and shrubs and an extensive layer of herbs and sedges. Seasonal tropical moist forests may receive more than 2000 mm of rain a year and these include Tropical Moist, Lowland Forests, Submontane Forest, and Montane Forests. Tabuleiro forests are found over very moist clay soils and Tabuleiro Savannas occur over faster-draining sand soils and these are humid areas that rely on water vapor from the ocean. Further inland are the Atlantic dry forests, which form a transition between the arid Caatinga to the northeast and the Cerrado savannas to the east. These forests are lower in stature, more open, with abundance of deciduous trees. These forests have between 700–1600 mm of precipitation annually with a dry season. This includes Deciduous and Semideciduous Seasonal Forest each with their own lowland, Montane forests are higher altitude wet forests across mountains and plateaus of southern Brazil.
The Mussununga forests occur in southern Bahia and northern Espirito Santo states, the Mussununga ecosystem ranges from grasslands to woodlands associated with sandy spodosols. The word Mussununga is Amerindian Tupi-Guarani meaning soft and wet white sand, shrubby montane savannas occur at the highest elevations, called Campo rupestre. The Atlantic Forest is unusual in that it extends as a tropical forest to latitudes as far as 24°S. This is because the trade winds produce precipitation throughout the southern winter, in fact, the northern Zona da Mata of northeastern Brazil receives much more rainfall between May and August than during the southern summer. The Atlantic forest is a rain forest, some maps even suggest the forest actually survived in moist pockets well away from the coastline where its endemic rainforest species mixed with much cooler-climate species. Unlike refugia for equatorial rainforests, the refuges for the Atlantic Forest have never been the product of detailed identification, despite so little forest remaining, the Atlantic Forest remains extraordinarily lush in biodiversity and endemic species, many of which are threatened with extinction.
Approximately 40 percent of its plants and up 60 percent of its vertebrates are endemic species. The official threatened species list of Brazil contains over 140 terrestrial mammal species found in Atlantic Forest, in Paraguay there are 35 species listed as threatened, and 22 species are listed as threatened in the interior portion of the Atlantic Forest of Argentina. Nearly 250 species of amphibians and mammals have become extinct due to the result of activity in the past 400 years. Over 11,000 species of plants and animals are considered threatened today in the Atlantic Forest, over 52% of the tree species and 92% of the amphibians are endemic to this area
Ouro Preto is located in one of the main areas of the Brazilian Gold Rush. Officially,800 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the XVIII century, other gold circulated illegally, and still other gold remained in the colony to adorn churches and for other uses. In the 18th century, Ouro Preto became for a time the most populous city in the New World, at that time, the population of New York was half that number, and the population of São Paulo did not reach 8,000. Population, Data from the 2010 Census Resident population,70,227 Urban area,56,293 Rural area,9,985 Area of the municipality,1,245 km² Temperature, in June and July the temperature can reach -2 degrees Celsius. The highest point is Pico de Itacolomi with 1,722 meters, sources for the Velhas, Gualaxo do Norte, Gualaxo do Sul, Mainart e Ribeirão Funil. Per Capita Income, R$23,622 HDI,0, founded at the end of the 17th century, Ouro Preto was originally called Vila Rica, or rich village, the focal point of the gold rush and Brazils golden age in the 18th century under Portuguese rule.
The city centre contains well-preserved Portuguese colonial architecture, with few signs of urban development. New construction must keep with the citys historical aesthetic, 18th- and 19th-century churches decorated with gold and the sculptured works of Aleijadinho make Ouro Preto a tourist destination. The tremendous wealth from mining in the 18th century created a city which attracted the intelligentsia of Europe. At that time, Vila Rica was the largest city in Brazil, in 1789, Ouro Preto became the birthplace of the Inconfidência Mineira, a failed attempt to gain independence from Portugal. The leading figure, was hanged as a threat to any future revolutionaries, in 1876, the Escola de Minas was created. This school established the foundation for several of the mineral discoveries in Brazil. Ouro Preto was capital of Minas Gerais from 1720 until 1897, the state government was moved to the new, planned city of Belo Horizonte. Main economic activities are tourism, transformation industries, and mineral riches such as deposits of iron, manganese, minerals of note are, hematite, tourmaline, muscovite and imperial topaz.
The imperial topaz is a stone found in Ouro Preto. Soapstone handicraft items are a popular souvenir among tourists, and can be found in shops in the town centre. Jewelry made of precious and semi-precious gemstones can be found in abundance for sale. Ouro Preto is a university town with a student life