A set-top box colloquially known as a cable box is an information appliance device that contains a TV-tuner input and displays output to a television set and an external source of signal, turning the source signal into content in a form that can be displayed on the television screen or other display device. They are used in cable television, satellite television, over-the-air television systems, as well as other uses. According to the Los Angeles Times, the cost to a cable provider in the United States for a set-top box is between $150 for a basic box to $250 for a more sophisticated box. In 2016, the average pay-TV subscriber paid $231 per year to lease their set-top box from a cable service provider; the signal source might be an Ethernet cable, a satellite dish, a coaxial cable, a telephone line, broadband over power lines, or an ordinary VHF or UHF antenna. Content, in this context, could mean any or all of video, Internet web pages, interactive video games, or other possibilities. Satellite and microwave-based services require specific external receiver hardware, so the use of set-top boxes of various formats has never disappeared.
Set-top boxes can enhance source signal quality. Before the All-Channel Receiver Act of 1962 required US television receivers to be able to tune the entire VHF and UHF range, a set-top box known as a UHF converter would be installed at the receiver to shift a portion of the UHF-TV spectrum onto low-VHF channels for viewing; as some 1960s-era 12-channel TV sets remained in use for many years, Canada and Mexico were slower than the US to require UHF tuners to be factory-installed in new TVs, a market for these converters continued to exist for much of the 1970s. Cable television represented a possible alternative to deployment of UHF converters as broadcasts could be frequency-shifted to VHF channels at the cable head-end instead of the final viewing location. However, most cable systems could not accommodate the full 54-890 MHz VHF/UHF frequency range and the twelve channels of VHF space were exhausted on most systems. Adding any additional channels therefore needed to be done by inserting the extra signals into cable systems on nonstandard frequencies either below VHF channel 7 or directly above VHF channel 13.
These frequencies corresponded to non-television services over-the-air and were therefore not on standard TV receivers. Before cable-ready TV sets became common in the late 1980s, an electronic tuning device called a cable converter box was needed to receive the additional analog cable TV channels and transpose or convert the selected channel to analog radio frequency for viewing on a regular TV set on a single channel VHF channel 3 or 4; the box allowed an analog non-cable-ready television set to receive analog encrypted cable channels and was a prototype topology for date digital encryption devices. Newer televisions were converted to be analog cypher cable-ready, with the standard converter built-in for selling premium television. Several years and marketed, the advent of digital cable continued and increased the need for various forms of these devices. Block conversion of the entire affected frequency band onto UHF, while less common, was used by some models to provide full VCR compatibility and the ability to drive multiple TV sets, albeit with a somewhat nonstandard channel numbering scheme.
Newer television receivers reduced the need for external set-top boxes, although cable converter boxes continue to be used to descramble premium cable channels according to carrier-controlled access restrictions, to receive digital cable channels, along with using interactive services like video on demand, pay per view, home shopping through television. Set-top boxes were made to enable closed captioning on older sets in North America, before this became a mandated inclusion in new TV sets; some have been produced to mute the audio when profanity is detected in the captioning, where the offensive word is blocked. Some include a V-chip that allows only programs of some television content ratings. A function that limits children's time watching TV or playing video games may be built in, though some of these work on main electricity rather than the video signal; the transition to digital terrestrial television after the turn of the millennium left many existing television receivers unable to tune and display the new signal directly.
In the United States, where analog shutdown was completed in 2009 for full-service broadcasters, a federal subsidy was offered for coupon-eligible converter boxes with deliberately limited capability which would restore signals lost to digital transition. Professional set-top boxes are referred to as IRDs or integrated receiver/decoders in the professional broadcast audio/video industry, they are designed for rack mounting environments. IRDs are capable of outputting uncompressed serial digital interface signals, unlike consumer STBs which don't because of copyright reasons. Hybrid set-top boxes, such as those used for Smart TV programming, enable viewers to access multiple TV delivery methods. By integrating varying delivery streams, hybrids enable pay-TV operators more flexible application deployment, which decreases the
Ab Ruk Online is a Thai drama series that aired on Channel 3 that stars Ann Thongprasom, Peter Corp Dyrendal, Prin Suparat, Kimberly Ann Voltemas under Thong Entertainment. Ratings for the drama was considered solid, although the numbers spanning between only 4 and 6 percent; the drama proved to be a massive success in the mainland with social media coverage. With the highest ratings rate on the last week aired. Awatsaya is a tough boss who secretly falls in love with her new subordinate. In order to maintain her image as a "boss" she uses an online chat program to secretly investigate and court Pranont using the alias "Khun Ab Ruk" meaning'Miss Secret Love.' As their love begins to bloom she accidentally reveals her secret to Lipda the handsome yet insidious Managing Director of the company. After learning Awatsaya's secret he helps her move on with Pranont, but on falls in love with her himself. Meanwhile, Pribprao pretends to be the real "Khun Ab Ruk," which further complicates the web of love.
Ann Thongprasom as Awasaya Peter Corp Dyrendal as Lipda Mark Prin Suparat as Pranon Kimberly Ann Voltemas as Pribprao Angie Hastings as Jarawee/Jan Pokchat Tiemchai as Roonglada Tuk Boriboon Junreung as Ruj Sumonthip Leungutai|Kubkib Sumonthip Leungutai as Lilly Sriphan Cheuanchomboon as Sandy Ekkachai Euasangkomsret as Saranyu Em Apinun Prasertwattanakul as Ongsa Sarocha Watitapun|Tao Sarocha Watitapun as Poom Pratthana Sutchukorn as Prim Daraneenuch Pho-thi-piti as Preaw Arnant Boonnark as Peera Yodmanu Pamornmontri as Pod Pimonwan Hoonthongkham as Waew Sineenart Pho-thiwase as Yai Aroon Napat Choomchittree as Hoon Kheun Chanathip Pisutsereewong as Phoom Peter Thanasuth as Matt Corner Warithnant as James Junya Thanasawarngkul as Phen Chalermpol Thi-khampornteerawong as Sahus
The Robichaux House is a historic house located at 322 East 2nd Street in Thibodaux, Louisiana. Built in 1898, the house is a two-story frame residence in Queen Anne Revival style with Eastlake gallery details, three polygonal bays and two chimneys; the roof features a square turret with two oculi. The style of the building reflects the "second wave of prosperity" in Thibodaux, where houses were first designed in the Greek Revival style; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 5, 1986. It is one of 14 individually NRHP-listed properties in the "Thibodaux Multiple Resource Area", which includes: Bank of Lafourche Building Breaux House Building at 108 Green Street Chanticleer Gift Shop Citizens Bank of Lafourche Grand Theatre Lamartina Building McCulla House Peltier House Percy-Lobdell Building Riviere Building Riviere House St. Joseph Co-Cathedral and Rectory