Works of mercy
Works of mercy are practices which Christians perform. The practice is common in the Catholic Church as an act of penance and charity. In addition, the Methodist church teaches that the works of mercy are a means of grace which lead to holiness, the works of mercy have been traditionally divided into two categories, each with seven elements, Corporal works of mercy which concern the material needs of others. Spiritual works of mercy which concern the spiritual needs of others, another notable devotion associated with the works of mercy is the Divine Mercy, which are reputed to be apparitions of Jesus Christ to Saint Faustina Kowalska. Based on Jesus doctrine of the sheep and the goats, the corporal and spiritual works of mercy are a means of grace as good deeds and these works may require a definitely superior level of authority or knowledge or an extraordinary amount of tact. The other works of mercy, are considered to be an obligation of all faithful to practise unconditionally, in an address on the 2016 World Day of Prayer for Creation, Pope Francis suggested care for creation as a new work of mercy.
Corporally, it means simple daily gestures of peace and love, Corporal works of mercy are those that tend to the bodily needs of other creatures. They come from Isaiah 58 and the mitzvah of hospitality, the seventh work of mercy comes from the Book of Tobit and from the mitzvah of burial, although it was not added to the list until the Middle Ages. The works include, To feed the hungry, to give water to the thirsty. To visit the imprisoned, or ransom the captive, just as the corporal works of mercy are directed towards relieving corporeal suffering, the aim of the spiritual works of mercy is to relieve spiritual suffering. The works include, To instruct the ignorant, to bear patiently those who wrong us. To pray for the living and the dead, in Methodist teaching, doing merciful acts is a prudential means of grace. Along with works of piety, they are necessary for the believer to move on to Christian perfection, in this sense, the Methodist concern for people at the margins is closely related to its worship.
As such, these beliefs have helped create the emphasis of the gospel in the Methodist Church
Cornell University Press
The Cornell University Press, is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage. It was first established in 1869 but inactive from 1884 to 1930, the press was established in the College of the Mechanic Arts because engineers knew more about running steam-powered printing presses than literature professors. Today, the press is one of the countrys largest university presses, although the press has been subsidized by the university for most of its history, it is now largely dependent on book sales to finance its operations. With this grant, a series was published titled Signale, Modern German Letters, Cultures. Only 500 hard copies of book in the series will be printed. Category, Cornell University Press books Cornell University Press Online
The Summa Theologiæ is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas. Although unfinished, the Summa is one of the classics of the history of philosophy and it was intended as an instructional guide for theology students, including seminarians and the literate laity. It was a compendium of all of the theological teachings of the Catholic Church. It presents the reasoning for almost all points of Christian theology in the West, the Summas topics follow a cycle, the existence of God, Man, Mans purpose, the Sacraments, and back to God. The Summa is Aquinas most perfect work, the fruit of his mature years, among non-scholars, the Summa is perhaps most famous for its five arguments for the existence of God, which are known as the five ways. The five ways, occupy under two pages of the Summas approximately 3,500 pages and he completed the Prima Pars in its entirety and circulated it in Italy before departing to take up his second regency as professor at the University of Paris. The Summa is composed of three parts, each of which deals with a major subsection of Christian theology.
Each part contains several questions, each of which revolves around a more specific subtopic, each question contains several articles phrased as interrogative statements dealing with specific issues, such as Whether Christ should have led a life of poverty in this world. The Summa has a format for each article. A series of objections to the conclusion are given, one such objection, a short counter-statement, beginning with the phrase sed contra, is given, this statement almost always references authoritative literature, such as the Bible, Aristotle, or the Church Fathers. The actual argument is made, this is generally a clarification of the issue. For example, Aquinas states that it was fitting for Christ to lead a life of poverty in this world for four distinct reasons, individual replies to the preceding objections are given, if necessary. These replies range from one sentence to several paragraphs in length and this method of exposition is derived from Averroes, to whom Aquinas refers respectfully as the Commentator.
The Summa makes many references to certain thinkers held in respect in Aquinass time. The arguments from authority, or sed contra arguments, are almost entirely based on citations from these authors, some were called by special names, The Apostle, Paul the Apostle. He wrote the majority of the New Testament canon after his conversion and he was considered the most astute philosopher – the one who had expressed the most truth up to that time. The main aim of the Scholastic theologians was to use his precise technical terms and he was among the foremost commentators on Aristotles works in Arabic, and his commentaries were often translated into Latin. Writer of the dominant theological text for the time, The Sentences The Theologian, considered the greatest theologian who had ever lived up to that time, Augustines works are frequently quoted by Aquinas
Saint John Cassian, John the Ascetic, or John Cassian the Roman, was a Christian monk and theologian celebrated in both the Western and Eastern Churches for his mystical writings. Cassian is noted for his role in bringing the ideas and practices of Christian monasticism to the early medieval West, Cassian was born around 360, most likely in the region of Scythia Minor, although some scholars assume a Gallic origin. The son of parents, he received a good education, his writings show the influence of Cicero. He was bilingual in Latin and Greek, Cassian mentions having a sister in his first work, the Institutes, with whom he corresponded in his monastic life, she may have ended up with him in Marseilles. As a young adult he traveled to Palestine with an older friend Germanus, there they entered a hermitage near Bethlehem. After remaining in that community for three years, they journeyed to the desert of Scete in Egypt, which was rent by Christian struggles. There they visited a number of monastic foundations, approximately fifteen years later, about 399, Cassian and Germanus faced the Anthropomorphic controversy provoked in letter form by Theophilus, Archbishop of Alexandria.
Cassian noted that the majority of the received the message of their patriarch with bitterness. Following an unsuccessful journey to Alexandria to protest the matter, Cassian and Germanus went to Constantinople, where they appealed to the Patriarch of Constantinople, Saint John Chrysostom, for protection. Cassian was ordained a deacon and was made a member of the attached to the Patriarch while the struggles with the imperial family ensued. When the Patriarch was forced into exile from Constantinople in 404, while he was in Rome, Cassian accepted the invitation to found an Egyptian-style monastery in southern Gaul, near Marseilles. He may have spent time as a priest in Antioch between 404 and 415, in any case, he arrived in Marseilles around 415. His foundation, the Abbey of St Victor, was a complex of monasteries for men and women, one of the first such institutes in the West, and served as a model for monastic development. Cassians achievements and writings influenced Saint Benedict, who incorporated many of the principles into his monastic rule, Cassian died in 435 at Marseille.
Cassian came very late into writing and did so only when a request was made by one or more important persons and his sources were the same as those of Evagrius Ponticus, but he added his own ideas, which were arranged in extensive collections. Evagrius was, the single most important influence on Cassians ideas, due to his reverence for the Origenist monks of Nitria, Kellia, in these, he codified and transmitted the wisdom of the Desert Fathers of Egypt. The Institutes deal with the organization of monastic communities, while the Conferences deal with the training of the inner man. According to Hugh Feiss OSB the Institutes are a counterweight to Sulpicius Severus’ Life of Martin and Dialogues, who insists on manual work, had a higher opinion of and close ties with the monastery on the Island of Lerins, founded by Honoratus
The practice of charity means the voluntary giving of help to those in need, as a humanitarian act. The word charity entered the English language through the Old French word charité, originally in Latin the word caritas meant preciousness, high price. From this, in Christian theology, caritas became the standard Latin translation for the Greek word agape, the English word more generally used for this concept, both before and since, is the more direct love. D. While the methods of giving may vary, there are three kinds of charity, pure and foreign. Public charity is charity that benefits the whole rather than the individual, foreign charity is when the beneficiary lives in a country different from where the funds or services are being sent from. Charitable giving is the act of giving money, goods or time to the unfortunate, Charitable giving as a religious act or duty is referred to as almsgiving or alms. The name stems from the most obvious expression of the virtue of charity, the impoverished, particularly those widowed or orphaned, and the ailing or injured, are generally regarded as the proper recipients of charity.
The people who support themselves and lack outside means of support sometimes become beggars. Some groups regard charity as being distributed towards other members from within their particular group, donations to causes that benefit the unfortunate indirectly, such as donations to fund cancer research, are charity. With regards to religious aspects, the recipient of charity may offer to pray for the benefactor, in medieval Europe, it was customary to feast the poor at the funeral in return for their prayers for the deceased. Institutions may commemorate benefactors by displaying their names, up to naming buildings or even the institution itself after the benefactors, if the recipient makes material return of more than a token value, the transaction is normally not called charity. In the past century, many organizations have created a charitable model in which donators give to conglomerates give to recipients. Examples of this include the Make a Wish Foundation and the World Wildlife Fund, today some charities have modernized, and allow people to donate online, through websites such as JustGiving.
Originally charity entailed the benefactor directly giving the goods to the receiver and this practice was continued by some individuals, for example, CNN Hero Sal Dimiceli, and service organizations, such as the Jaycees. With the rise of more social peer-to-peer processes, many charities are moving away from the charitable model, examples of this include Global Giving, DonorsChoose, PureCharity and Zidisha. Institutions evolved to carry out the labor of assisting the poor, and these include orphanages, food banks, religious institutes dedicated to care of the poor, organizations that visit the homebound and imprisoned, and many others. Institutions can attempt to more effectively sort out the needy from those who fraudulently claim charity. Early Christians particularly recommended the care of the unfortunate to the charge of the local bishop, there have been examinations of who gives more to charity
Hilary of Poitiers
Hilary of Poitiers was Bishop of Poitiers and is a Doctor of the Church. He was sometimes referred to as the Hammer of the Arians and his name comes from the Latin word for happy or cheerful. His optional memorial in the General Roman Calendar is 13 January, in the past, when this date was occupied by the Octave Day of the Epiphany, his feast day was moved to 14 January. Hilary was born at Poitiers either at the end of the 3rd or beginning of the 4th century A. D and his parents were pagans of distinction. He received a good education, which included a high level of Greek. The Christians of Poitiers so respected Hilary that about 350 or 353, at that time Arianism threatened to overrun the Western Church, Hilary undertook to repel the disruption. About the same time, Hilary wrote to Emperor Constantius II a remonstrance against the persecutions by which the Arians had sought to crush their opponents, other Historians refer to this first book to Constantius as Book Against Valens, of which only fragments are extant.
Hilary spent nearly four years in exile, although the reasons for this banishment remain obscure, the traditional explanation is that Hilary was exiled for refusing to subscribe to the condemnation of Athanasius and the Nicene faith. More recently several scholars have suggested that opposition to Constantius. The De trinitate libri XII, composed in 359 and 360, was the first successful expression in Latin of that Councils theological subtleties originally elaborated in Greek. Hence they who deny that Christ is the Son of God must have Antichrist for their Christ, was the way he stated it, in his classic introduction to the works of Hilary, Watson summarizes Hilary’s points, “They were the forerunners of Antichrist. They bear themselves not as bishops of Christ but as priests of Antichrist and this is not random abuse, but sober recognition of the fact, stated by St. John, that there are many Antichrists. For these men assume the cloak of piety, and pretend to preach the Gospel and it was the misery and folly of the day that men endeavoured to promote the cause of God by human means and the favour of the world.
Hilary asks bishops, who believe in their office, whether the Apostles had secular support when by their preaching they converted the greater part of mankind, “The Church seeks for secular support, and in so doing insults Christ by the implication that His support is insufficient. She in her turn holds out the threat of exile and prison and it was her endurance of these that drew men to her, now she imposes her faith by violence. She craves for favours at the hand of her communicants, once it was her consecration that she braved the threatenings of persecutors, bishops in exile spread the Faith, now it is she that exiles bishops. She boasts that the world loves her, the hatred was the evidence that she was Christs. The time of Antichrist, disguised as an angel of light, has come, the true Christ is hidden from almost every mind and heart
Book of Isaiah
The Book of Isaiah is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament. While virtually no one today attributes the entire book, or even most of it, to one person, Isaiah 1–33 promises judgment and restoration for Judah and the nations, and chapters 34–66 presume that judgment has been pronounced and restoration follows soon. It can thus be read as a meditation on the destiny of Jerusalem into. Isaiah speaks out against corrupt leaders and for the disadvantaged, Isaiah 44,6 contains the first clear statement of monotheism, I am the first and I am the last, besides me there is no god. This model of monotheism became the characteristic of post-Exilic Judaism. Isaiah was one of the most popular works among Jews in the Second Temple period, the scholarly consensus which held sway through most of the 20th century saw three separate collections of oracles in the book of Isaiah. God has a plan which will be realised on the Day of Yahweh, on that day all the nations of the world will come to Zion for instruction, but first the city must be punished and cleansed of evil.
Israel is invited to join in this plan, chapters 5–12 explain the significance of the Assyrian judgment against Israel, righteous rule by the Davidic king will follow after the arrogant Assyrian monarch is brought down. The oppressor is about to fall, chapters 34–35 tell how Yahweh will return the redeemed exiles to Jerusalem. Chapters 36–39 tell of the faithfulness of king Hezekiah to Yahweh during the Assyrian siege as a model for the restored community, chapters 55–66 are an exhortation to Israel to keep the covenant. Gods eternal promise to David is now made to the people of Israel/Judah at large, the book ends by enjoining righteousness as the final stages of Gods plan come to pass, including the pilgrimage of the nations to Zion and the realisation of Yahwehs kingship. Chapters 56–66 assume an even situation, in which the people are returned to Jerusalem. Anonymity → Isaiahs name suddenly stops being used after chapter 39, style → There is a sudden change in style and theology after chapter 40, numerous key words and phrases found in one section are not found in the other.
These observations led scholars to the conclusion that the book can be divided into three sections, labeled Proto-Isaiah, Deutero-Isaiah, and Trito-Isaiah. Early modern-period scholars treated Isaiah as independent collections of sayings by three individual prophets, brought together at a period, about 70 BCE, to form the present book. The second half of the 20th century saw a change in approach. The conquest of Jerusalem by Babylon and the exile of its elite in 586 BCE ushered in the stage in the formation of the book. Deutero-Isaiah addresses himself to the Jews in exile, offering them the hope of return, deutero-Isaiahs predictions of the imminent fall of Babylon and his glorification of Cyrus as the deliverer of Israel date his prophecies to 550–539 BCE, and probably towards the end of this period
The Beatitudes are eight blessings recounted in the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew. Each is a proclamation, without narrative, precise. Each one includes a topic that forms a major biblical theme, four of the blessings appear in the Sermon on the Plain in the Gospel of Luke, followed by four woes which mirror the blessings. The term beatitude comes from the Latin noun beātitūdō which means happiness, in the Vulgate, the book of Matthew titles this section Beatitudines, and Beatitudes was anglicized from that term. Each Beatitude consists of two phrases, the condition and the result, in almost every case the condition is from familiar Old Testament context, but Jesus teaches a new interpretation. Together, the Beatitudes present a new set of Christian ideals that focus on a spirit of love and humility different in orientation than the usual force and they echo the ideals of the teachings of Jesus on mercy and compassion. While opinions may vary as to exactly how many distinct statements into which the Beatitudes should be divided and these eight of Matthew follow a simple pattern, Jesus names a group of people normally thought to be unfortunate and pronounces them blessed.
The nine Beatitudes in Matthew 5, 3–12 during the Sermon on the Mount, Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven. Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted, Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled, Blessed are the merciful, for they will be shown mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God, Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God. Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven, Blessed are you when others revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely on my account. The other four have similar entries in Luke, but are followed almost immediately by four woes, the four Beatitudes in Luke 6, 20–22 are set within the Sermon on the Plain. Verse 20 introduces them by saying, and he lifted up his eyes on his disciples, Blessed are ye that hunger now, for ye shall be filled.
Blessed are ye that weep now, for ye shall laugh, Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of mans sake. Luke 6,23 appears to parallel the text in Matthew 5, 11-12, rejoice and be glad, because great is your reward in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you. The four woes that follow in Luke 6, 24–26 Woe to you who are rich, Woe to you who are well fed now, for you will go hungry. Woe to you who laugh now, for you will mourn, Woe to you when everyone speaks well of you, for that is how their ancestors treated the false prophets
Saint Thomas Aquinas O. P. was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He was an influential philosopher and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is known as the Doctor Angelicus. The name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio and he was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism, of which he argued that reason is found in God. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, the works for which he is best known are the Summa Theologiae and the Summa contra Gentiles. His commentaries on Scripture and on Aristotle form an important part of his body of work, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Churchs liturgy. Thomas Aquinas is considered one of the Catholic Churchs greatest theologians, Pope Benedict XV declared, This Order.
Acquired new luster when the Church declared the teaching of Thomas to be her own and that Doctor, honored with the praises of the Pontiffs. The English philosopher Anthony Kenny considers Aquinas to be one of the dozen greatest philosophers of the western world, Thomas was most probably born in the castle of Roccasecca, located in Aquino, old county of the Kingdom of Sicily, c.1225. According to some authors, he was born in the castle of his father, though he did not belong to the most powerful branch of the family, Landulf of Aquino was a man of means. As a knight in the service of King Roger II, he held the title miles, Thomass mother, belonged to the Rossi branch of the Neapolitan Caracciolo family. Landulfs brother Sinibald was abbot of the first Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino and it was here that Thomas was probably introduced to Aristotle and Maimonides, all of whom would influence his theological philosophy. There his teacher in arithmetic, geometry and music was Petrus de Ibernia, at the age of nineteen Thomas resolved to join the recently founded Dominican Order.
Thomass change of heart did not please his family, in an attempt to prevent Theodoras interference in Thomass choice, the Dominicans arranged to move Thomas to Rome, and from Rome, to Paris. Political concerns prevented the Pope from ordering Thomass release, which had the effect of extending Thomass detention, Thomas passed this time of trial tutoring his sisters and communicating with members of the Dominican Order. Family members became desperate to dissuade Thomas, who remained determined to join the Dominicans, at one point, two of his brothers resorted to the measure of hiring a prostitute to seduce him. According to legend Thomas drove her away wielding a fire iron and that night two angels appeared to him as he slept and strengthened his determination to remain celibate. By 1244, seeing all of her attempts to dissuade Thomas had failed, Theodora sought to save the familys dignity. In her mind, an escape from detention was less damaging than an open surrender to the Dominicans
Baptism is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church generally. The canonical Gospels report that Jesus was baptized—a historical event to which a degree of certainty can be assigned. Baptism has been called a sacrament and an ordinance of Jesus Christ. In some denominations, baptism is called christening, but for others the word christening is reserved for the baptism of infants, Baptism has given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations. The usual form of baptism among the earliest Christians was for the candidate to be immersed, in v.16, Matthew will speak of Jesus coming up out of the water. The traditional depiction in Christian art of John the Baptist pouring water over Jesus head may therefore be based on Christian practice, other common forms of baptism now in use include pouring water three times on the forehead, a method called affusion. Martyrdom was identified early in Church history as baptism by blood, the Catholic Church identified a baptism of desire, by which those preparing for baptism who die before actually receiving the sacrament are considered saved.
Today, some Christians, particularly Christian Scientists, The Salvation Army, and Unitarians, do not see baptism as necessary, among those that do, differences can be found in the manner and mode of baptizing and in the understanding of the significance of the rite. Most Christians baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, much more than half of all Christians baptize infants, many others hold that only believers baptism is true baptism. Some insist on submersion or at least partial immersion of the person who is baptized, others consider that any form of washing by water, as long as the water flows on the head, is sufficient. The term baptism has used to refer to any ceremony, trial, or experience by which a person is initiated, purified. The Greek verb baptō, from which the verb baptizo is derived, is in turn hypothetically traced to a reconstructed Indo-European root *gʷabh-, the Greek words are used in a great variety of meanings. John the Baptist, who is considered a forerunner to Christianity, the apostle Paul distinguished between the baptism of John, and baptism in the name of Jesus, and it is questionable whether Christian baptism was in some way linked with that of John.
Christians consider Jesus to have instituted the sacrament of baptism, though whether Jesus intended to institute a continuing, the earliest Christian baptisms were probably normally by immersion, complete or partial. Though other modes may have been used, at the hour in which the cock crows, they shall first pray over the water. When they come to the water, the water shall be pure and flowing, that is, they shall take off all their clothes. The children shall be baptized first, all of the children who can answer for themselves, let them answer. If there are any children who cannot answer for themselves, let their parents answer for them, after this, the men will be baptized
Sayings of Jesus on the cross
The Sayings of Jesus on the cross are seven expressions biblically attributed to Jesus during his crucifixion. Traditionally, the brief sayings have been called words and they are gathered from the four Canonical Gospels. Three of the sayings appear only in the Gospel of Luke, the other saying appears both in the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Mark. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus cries out to God, in Luke, he forgives his killers, reassures the penitent thief, and commends his spirit to the Father. In John, he speaks to his mother, says he thirsts, a persons final articulated words said prior to death or as death approaches generally are taken to have particular significance in meaning. These seven sayings, being last words, may provide a way to understand what was important to this man who was dying on the cross. The sparsity of sayings recorded in the biblical accounts suggests that Jesus remained relatively silent for the hours he hung there, since the 16th century they have been widely used in sermons on Good Friday, and entire books have been written on theological analysis of them.
The Seven Last Words from the Cross are a part of the liturgy in the Anglican, Protestant. Several composers have set the Seven Last Words to music, the seven sayings form part of a Christian meditation that is often used during Lent, Holy Week and Good Friday. The traditional order of the sayings are, Luke 23,34, forgive them, Luke 23,43, Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise. John 19, 26–27, behold your son, Matthew 27,46 & Mark 15,34 My God, My God, why have you forsaken me. Luke 23,46, into your hands I commend my spirit, these seven sayings are called words of 1. As can be seen from the above list, not all seven sayings can be found in any one account of Jesus crucifixion, the ordering is a harmonisation of the texts from each of the four canonical gospels. In the gospels of Matthew and Mark, Jesus is quoted in Aramaic, shouting the phrase only. In Lukes Gospel, the first and seventh sayings occur, the third and sixth sayings can only be found in Johns Gospel. In other words, In Matthew and Mark, My God, My God and this first saying of Jesus on the cross is traditionally called The Word of Forgiveness.
It is theologically interpreted as Jesus prayer for forgiveness for those who were crucifying him, the Roman soldiers, some early manuscripts do not include this sentence in Luke 23,34. Luke 23,43 And he said to him, Truly, I say to you and this saying is traditionally called The Word of Salvation
Holy Spirit in Christianity
For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person of the Trinity, the Triune God manifested as Father and Holy Spirit, each person itself being God. The New Testament details a relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus during his earthly life and ministry. The Gospels of Matthew and Luke and the Nicene Creed state that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary. The Holy Spirit descended on Jesus like a dove during his baptism, the theology of the Holy Spirit is called pneumatology. The Holy Spirit is referred to as the Lord, the Giver of Life in the Nicene Creed, since the first century, Christians have called upon God with the trinitarian formula Father and Holy Spirit in prayer and benediction. The Koine Greek word pneûma is found around 385 times in the New Testament, Pneuma appears 105 times in the four canonical gospels,69 times in the Acts of the Apostles,161 times in the Pauline epistles, and 50 times elsewhere. These usages vary, in 133 cases, it refers to spirit in a general sense, around 93 times, the reference to the Holy Spirit, sometimes under the name pneuma and sometimes explicitly as the pneûma tò Hagion.
It was generally translated into the Vulgate as Spiritus and Spiritus Sanctus, the English terms Holy Ghost and Holy Spirit are complete synonyms, one derives from the Old English gast and the other from the Latin loanword spiritus. Like pneuma, they refer to the breath, to its animating power, and to the soul. In particular, Another Stoic concept which offered inspiration to the Church was that of divine Spirit, wishing to give more explicit meaning to Zenos creative fire, had been the first to hit upon the term pneuma, or spirit, to describe it. The sacredness of the Holy Spirit is affirmed in all three Synoptic Gospels which proclaim blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is the unforgivable sin. What the Hebrew Bible calls Spirit of God and Spirit of Elohim is called in the Talmud, although the expression Holy Spirit occurs in Ps.51,11 and in Isa. 63, 10–11, it had not yet acquired quite the same meaning which was attached to it in rabbinical literature, in Gen.1,2 Gods spirit hovered over the form of lifeless matter, thereby making the Creation possible.
The most characteristic sign of the presence of the ruach ha-kodesh is the gift of prophecy, the use of the word ruach in the phrase ruach ha-kodesh seems to suggest that Judaic authorities believed the Holy Spirit was a kind of communication medium like the wind. The spirit talks sometimes with a masculine and sometimes with a feminine voice, the Holy Spirit does not simply appear for the first time at Pentecost after the resurrection of Jesus, but is present in the Gospel of Luke prior to the birth of Jesus. In Luke 1,15, John the Baptist was said to be filled with the Holy Spirit prior to birth, and the Holy Spirit came upon the Virgin Mary in Luke 1,35. In Luke 3,16 John the Baptist stated that Jesus baptized not with water but with the Holy Spirit, in Luke 11,13 Jesus provided assurances that God the Father would give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him. Matthew 10,20 refers to the act of speaking through the disciples