Rhode Island the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest state in area, the seventh least populous, the second most densely populated, it has the longest official name of any state. Rhode Island is bordered by Connecticut to the west, Massachusetts to the north and east, the Atlantic Ocean to the south via Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound, it shares a small maritime border with New York. Providence is most populous city in Rhode Island. On May 4, 1776, the Colony of Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown, it was the fourth among the newly independent states to ratify the Articles of Confederation on February 9, 1778; the state boycotted the 1787 convention which drew up the United States Constitution and refused to ratify it. Rhode Island's official nickname is "The Ocean State", a reference to the large bays and inlets that amount to about 14 percent of its total area.
Despite its name, most of Rhode Island is located on the mainland of the United States. Its official name is State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, derived from the merger of four Colonial settlements; the settlements of Newport and Portsmouth were situated on what is called Aquidneck Island today, but it was called Rhode Island in Colonial times. Providence Plantation was the name of the colony founded by Roger Williams in the area now known as the city of Providence; this was adjoined by the settlement of Warwick. It is unclear how the island came to be named Rhode Island, but two historical events may have been of influence: Explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano noted the presence of an island near the mouth of Narragansett Bay in 1524 which he likened to the island of Rhodes. Subsequent European explorers were unable to identify the island that Verrazzano had named, but the Pilgrims who colonized the area assumed that it was this island. Adriaen Block passed by the island during his expeditions in the 1610s, he described it in a 1625 account of his travels as "an island of reddish appearance,", "een rodlich Eylande" in 17th-century Dutch, one popular notion is that this Dutch phrase might have influenced the name Rhode Island.
The earliest documented use of the name "Rhode Island" for Aquidneck was in 1637 by Roger Williams. The name was applied to the island in 1644 with these words: "Aquethneck shall be henceforth called the Isle of Rodes or Rhode-Island." The name "Isle of Rodes" is used in a legal document as late as 1646. Dutch maps as early as 1659 call the island "Red Island". Roger Williams was a theologian, forced out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, seeking religious and political tolerance, he and others founded Providence Plantation as a free proprietary colony. "Providence" referred to the concept of divine providence, "plantation" was an English term for a colony. "State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations" is the longest official name of any state in the Union. In recent years, the word plantation in the state's name became a contested issue, the Rhode Island General Assembly voted on June 25, 2009 to hold a general referendum determining whether "and Providence Plantations" would be dropped from the official name.
Advocates for excising plantation claimed that the word symbolized an alleged legacy of disenfranchisement for many Rhode Islanders, as well as the proliferation of slavery in the colonies and in the post-colonial United States. Rhode Island abolished slavery in 1652, but the law was not enforced and, by the early 18th century, it was "the epicenter of the North American slave trade", according to the Brown Daily Herald. Advocates for retaining the name argued that plantation was an archaic synonym for colony and bore no relation to slavery; the referendum election was held on November 2, 2010, the people voted overwhelmingly to retain the entire original name. In 1636, Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious views, he settled at the top of Narragansett Bay on land sold or given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus, he named the site Providence Plantations, "having a sense of God's merciful providence unto me in my distress", it became a place of religious freedom where all were welcome.
In 1638, Anne Hutchinson, William Coddington, John Clarke, Philip Sherman, other religious dissenters settled on Aquidneck Island, purchased from the local tribes who called it Pocasset. This settlement was governed by the Portsmouth Compact; the southern part of the island became the separate settlement of Newport after disagreements among the founders. Samuel Gorton purchased lands at Shawomet in 1642 from the Narragansetts, precipitating a dispute with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1644, Providence and Newport united for their common independence as the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, governed by an elected council and "president". Gorton received a separate charter for his settlement in 1648 which he named Warwick after his patron. Brown University was founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it was one of nine Colonial colleges granted charters before the American Revolution, but was the first college in America to accept students regardless of religious affilia
Ephrata is a borough in Lancaster County, United States, 38 miles south east of Harrisburg and about 57 miles west by north of Philadelphia. It is named after a biblical town in what is now Israel. Ephrata's sister city is Eberbach, the city where its founders originated. In its early history, Ephrata was an agricultural community. Ephrata's population has grown over the last century. In 1900, 2,452 people lived there, in 1910, 3,192, by 1940, the population had increased to 6,199; the population was 13,394 at the 2010 census. Ephrata is the most populous borough in Lancaster County. Ephrata is noteworthy for having been the former seat of the Mystic Order of the Solitary, a semimonastic order of Seventh-Day Dunkers; the community, which contained both men and women, was founded by Johann Conrad Beissel in 1732. Many of the members were well-educated. At the period of its greatest prosperity the community contained nearly 300 persons; the Ephrata Commercial Historic District, Ephrata Cloister, Eby Shoe Corporation buildings, Connell Mansion, Mentzer Building, Mountain Springs Hotel are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Ephrata is located at 40°10′51″N 76°10′57″W. Like the rest of the county, it is flat land suitable for farming. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 3.6 square miles, of which, 3.6 square miles of it is land and 0.28% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,213 people, 5,477 households, 3,565 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,672.7 people per square mile. There were 5,672 housing units at an average density of 1,576.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.10% White, 0.64% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.06% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 0.82% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races. 2.75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,477 households, out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.94. In the borough the population was spread out, with 24.0% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $41,550, the median income for a family was $48,213. Males had a median income of $35,095 versus $22,782 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $19,659. About 3.7% of families and 6.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.5% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. The Borough of Ephrata operates the Ephrata Community Pool at 418 Vine Street; the pool is the oldest continuously operated swimming pool in Lancaster County, finishing its 84th year of operation in September 2015. A newly remodeled pool opened on May 26, 2012.
It contains zero-depth entries, flume slides, climbing walls, among other things. Schools in Ephrata are part of the Ephrata Area School District. Akron Elementary School Highland Elementary School Clay Elementary School Fulton Elementary School Ephrata Middle School Ephrata High School In August 2011 a luxury rehab opened adding over 175 new jobs Ephrata has a mix of large and small businesses of many types. Ephrata has a diverse mix of churches and faith groups Christian; the countryside surrounding Ephrata is home to a large number of Amish and Old Order Mennonite families. The Ephrata Public Library, on South Reading Road, is a member of the Library System of Lancaster County; the U. S. Route 222 freeway passes to the east of Ephrata, heading southwest to Lancaster and northeast to Reading and Allentown. US 222 meets the Pennsylvania Turnpike at the Reading interchange to the northeast of Ephrata. U. S. Route 322 passes northwest-southeast through Ephrata along Main Street, with an interchange at US 222 east of the borough.
Pennsylvania Route 272 passes southwest-northeast through Ephrata along Reading Road, heading through the western part of the borough. The Red Rose Transit Authority provides bus service to Ephrata along Route 11, which operates from the Walmart in Ephrata through the downtown area and south to downtown Lancaster. There is a park and ride lot at the Kmart in Ephrata, served by RRTA; the Borough of Ephrata Electric Division provides electricity to most of Ephrata, with PPL Electric Utilities providing electricity to part of the borough. The Borough of Ephrata Electric Division dates back to 1902, when the borough purchased it from the Lancaster Valley Electric Company for $7,000; the borough operated a small generating plant on South State Street before the Ephrata Borough Electric Plant was built on Church Avenue in 1924. The electric plant operated until 1965 when increased demand for electricity led the borough to purchase power from outside sources; the Borough of Ephrata Electric Division provides 140 million kilowatt-hours of electricity annually and has $18.6 million in sales.
The Ephrata Area Joint Authority provides water to Ephrata along with Ephrata Township and Clay Township, serving 8,222 customers
William Franklin Graham Jr. was an American evangelist, a prominent evangelical Christian figure, an ordained Southern Baptist minister who became well-known internationally in the late 1940s. One of his biographers has placed him "among the most influential Christian leaders" of the 20th century; as a preacher, he held large indoor and outdoor rallies with sermons broadcast on radio and television. In his six decades of television, Graham hosted annual "Crusades", evangelistic campaigns, which ran from 1947 until his retirement in 2005, he hosted the radio show Hour of Decision from 1950 to 1954. He repudiated racial segregation and insisted on racial integration for his revivals and crusades, starting in 1953. In addition to his religious aims, he helped shape the worldview of a huge number of people who came from different backgrounds, leading them to find a relationship between the Bible and contemporary secular viewpoints. According to his website, Graham preached to live audiences of 210 million people in more than 185 countries and territories through various meetings, including BMS World Mission and Global Mission.
Graham was a spiritual adviser to U. S. presidents and provided spiritual counsel for every president from the 33rd, Harry S. Truman, to the 44th, Barack Obama, he was close to Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, he was lifelong friends with another televangelist, the founding pastor of the Crystal Cathedral, Robert Schuller, whom Graham talked into starting his own television ministry. Graham operated a variety of media and publishing outlets. According to his staff, more than 3.2 million people have responded to the invitation at Billy Graham Crusades to "accept Jesus Christ as their personal savior". Graham's evangelism was appreciated by mainline Protestant and Roman Catholic denominations as he encouraged new converts to become members of these Churches; as of 2008, Graham's estimated lifetime audience, including radio and television broadcasts, topped 2.2 billion. One special televised broadcast in 1996 alone may have reached a television audience of as many as 2.5 billion people worldwide.
Because of his crusades, Graham preached the gospel to more people in person than anyone in the history of Christianity. Graham was on Gallup's list of most admired men and women 61 times, more than any man or woman in history. Grant Wacker writes that by the mid-1960s, he had become the "Great Legitimator": "By his presence conferred status on presidents, acceptability on wars, shame on racial prejudice, desirability on decency, dishonor on indecency, prestige on civic events". William Franklin Graham Jr. was born on November 7, 1918, in the downstairs bedroom of a farmhouse near Charlotte, North Carolina. He was of Scots-Irish descent and was the eldest of four children born to Morrow and William Franklin Graham Sr. a dairy farmer. Graham was raised on a family dairy farm with his two younger sisters, Catherine Morrow and Jean and a younger brother, Melvin Thomas; when he was eight years old in 1927, the family moved about 75 yards from their white frame house to a newly built red brick home.
He was raised by his parents in the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church. Graham attended the Sharon Grammar School, he started to read books from an early age and loved to read novels for boys Tarzan. Like Tarzan, he would hang on the trees and gave the popular Tarzan yell, scaring both horses and drivers. According to his father, that yelling had led him to become a minister; when he was fourteen in 1933, Prohibition ended in December, Graham's father forced him and his sister, Katherine, to drink beer until they got sick. This created such an aversion that Graham and his sister avoided alcohol and drugs for the rest of their lives. Graham had been turned down for membership in a local youth group for being "too worldly" when Albert McMakin, who worked on the Graham farm, persuaded him to go and see the evangelist Mordecai Ham. According to his autobiography, Graham was converted in 1934, at age 16 during a series of revival meetings in Charlotte led by Ham. After graduating from Sharon High School in May 1936, Graham attended Bob Jones College located in Cleveland, Tennessee.
After one semester, he found it too legalistic in rules. At this time he was inspired by Pastor Charley Young from Eastport Bible Church, he was expelled, but Bob Jones Sr. warned him not to throw his life away: "At best, all you could amount to would be a poor country Baptist preacher somewhere out in the sticks... You have a voice. God can use that voice of yours, he can use it mightily."In 1937 Graham transferred to the Florida Bible Institute in Temple Terrace, near Tampa. He preached his first sermon that year at Bostwick Baptist Church near Palatka, while still a student. In his autobiography, Graham wrote of receiving his "calling on the 18th green of the Temple Terrace Golf and Country Club", adjacent to the Institute campus. Reverend Billy Graham Memorial Park was established on the Hillsborough River, directly east of the 18th green and across from where Graham paddled a canoe to a small island in the river, where he would practice preaching to the birds and cypress stumps. In 1939, Graham was ordained by a group of Southern Baptist clergymen at Peniel Baptist Church in Palatka, Florida.
In 1943, Graham graduated from Wheaton College in Wheaton, with a degree in anthropology. During his time at Wheaton, Graham decided to accept the Bible as the infallible word of God
Sola Scriptura is a theological doctrine held by some Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith and practice. While the scriptures' meaning is mediated through many kinds of secondary authority, such as the ordinary teaching offices of a denominated church, the ecumenical creeds, the councils of the catholic church, so on - sola scriptura, on the other hand, rejects any original infallible authority other than the Bible. In this view, all secondary authority is derived from the authority of the scriptures and is therefore subject to reform when compared to the teaching of the Bible. Church councils, Bible commentators, private revelation, or a message from an angel or an apostle are not an original authority alongside the Bible in the sola scriptura approach. Sola scriptura is a formal principle of many Protestant Christian denominations, one of the five solae, it was a foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation held by many of the Reformers, who taught that authentication of scripture is governed by the discernible excellence of the text as well as the personal witness of the Holy Spirit to the heart of each man.
Some evangelical and Baptist denominations state the doctrine of sola scriptura more strongly: scripture is self-authenticating, clear to the rational reader, its own interpreter, sufficient of itself to be the final authority of Christian doctrine. By contrast and Methodism considered forms of Protestantism, uphold the doctrine of prima scriptura, with scripture being illumined by tradition, in Methodism, experience as well, thus completing the four sides of the Wesleyan Quadrilateral; the Eastern Orthodox Church holds that to "accept the books of the canon is to accept the ongoing Spirit-led authority of the church's tradition, which recognizes, interprets and corrects itself by the witness of Holy Scripture". The Catholic Church regards the apostolic preaching and writing as equal since they believe that many of their traditions came from the Apostles; the Catholic Church describes this as "one common source... with two distinct modes of transmission", while some Protestant authors call it "a dual source of revelation".
Sola scriptura is one of the five solae, considered by some Protestant groups to be the theological pillars of the Reformation. The key implication of the principle is that interpretations and applications of the scriptures do not have the same authority as the scriptures themselves. Martin Luther said, "a simple layman armed with Scripture is greater than the mightiest pope without it"; the intention of the Reformation was to correct what he asserted to be the errors of the Catholic Church by appeal to the uniqueness of the Bible's textual authority. Catholic doctrine is based in sacred tradition, as well as scripture. Sola scriptura meant rejecting the infallible authority given to the magisterium to interpret both scripture and tradition. Sola scriptura, does not ignore Christian history, tradition, or the church when seeking to understand the Bible. Rather, it sees the church as the Bible's interpreter, the regula fidei as the interpretive context, scripture as the only final authority in matters of faith and practice.
As Luther said, "The true rule is this: God's Word shall establish articles of faith, no one else, not an angel can do so." Lutheranism teaches that the Bible of the Old and New Testaments is the only divinely inspired book and the only source of divinely revealed knowledge. Scripture alone is the formal principle of the faith in Lutheranism, the final authority for all matters of faith and morals because of its inspiration, clarity and sufficiency. Lutheranism teaches that the Bible does not contain the Word of God, but every word of it is, because of verbal inspiration, the word of God. Most Lutheran traditions acknowledge that understanding scriptures is complex given that the Bible contains a collection of manuscripts and manuscript fragments that were written and collected over thousands of years. For example, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America teaches that "Lutheran Christians believe that the story of God’s steadfast love and mercy in Jesus is the heart and center of what the Scriptures have to say."As Lutherans confess in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit "spoke through the prophets".
The Apology of the Augsburg Confession identifies "Holy Scripture" with the Word of God and calls the Holy Spirit the author of the Bible. Because of this, Lutherans confess in the Formula of Concord, "we receive and embrace with our whole heart the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the pure, clear fountain of Israel"; the apocryphal books were not written by inspiration. The prophetic and apostolic scriptures are said by the Lutheran church to be authentic as written by the prophets and apostles, that a correct translation of their writings is God's Word because it has the same meaning as the original Biblical Hebrew and Koine Greek. A mistranslation is not God's word, no human authority can invest it with divine authority. Scripture, regarded as the word of God, carries the full authority of God in Lutheranism: every single statement of the Bible calls for instant and unrestricted acceptance; every doctrine of the Bible is the teaching of God and
Charles Haddon Spurgeon was an English Particular Baptist preacher. Spurgeon remains influential among Christians of various denominations, among whom he is known as the "Prince of Preachers", he was a strong figure in the Reformed Baptist tradition, defending the Church in agreement with the 1689 London Baptist Confession of Faith understanding, opposing the liberal and pragmatic theological tendencies in the Church of his day. Spurgeon was the pastor of the congregation of the New Park Street Chapel in London for 38 years, he was part of several controversies with the Baptist Union of Great Britain and he left the denomination over doctrinal convictions. In 1867, he started a charity organisation, now called Spurgeon's and works globally, he founded Spurgeon's College, named after him posthumously. Spurgeon was a great author of many types of works including sermons, one autobiography, books on prayer, magazines, poetry and more. Many sermons were transcribed as he spoke and were translated into many languages during his lifetime.
Spurgeon produced powerful sermons of penetrating precise exposition. His oratory skills held his listeners spellbound in the Metropolitan Tabernacle and many Christians hold his writings in exceptionally high regard among devotional literature. Born in Kelvedon, Essex, he moved to Colchester at 10 months old. Spurgeon's conversion from nominal Anglicanism came on 6 January 1850, at age 15. On his way to a scheduled appointment, a snow storm forced him to cut short his intended journey and to turn into a Primitive Methodist chapel in Artillery Street, Colchester where, he claimed, God opened his heart to the salvation message; the text that moved him was Isaiah 45:22 – "Look unto me, be ye saved, all the ends of the earth, for I am God, there is none else." That year on 4 April 1850, he was admitted to the church at Newmarket. His baptism followed at Isleham; that same year he moved to Cambridge, where he became a Sunday school teacher. He preached his first sermon in the winter of 1850–51 in a cottage at Teversham while filling in for a friend.
From the beginning of his ministry his style and ability were considered to be far above average. In the same year, he was installed as pastor of the small Baptist church at Waterbeach, where he published his first literary work, a Gospel tract written in 1853. In April 1854, after preaching three months on probation and just four years after his conversion, Spurgeon only 19, was called to the pastorate of London's famed New Park Street Chapel, Southwark; this was the largest Baptist congregation in London at the time, although it had dwindled in numbers for several years. Spurgeon found friends in London among his fellow pastors, such as William Garrett Lewis of Westbourne Grove Church, an older man who along with Spurgeon went on to found the London Baptist Association. Within a few months of Spurgeon's arrival at Park Street, his ability as a preacher made him famous; the following year the first of his sermons in the "New Park Street Pulpit" was published. Spurgeon's sermons had a high circulation.
By the time of his death in 1892, he had preached nearly 3,600 sermons and published 49 volumes of commentaries, anecdotes and devotions. Following his fame was criticism; the first attack in the press appeared in the Earthen Vessel in January 1855. His preaching, although not revolutionary in substance, was a plain-spoken and direct appeal to the people, using the Bible to provoke them to consider the teachings of Jesus Christ. Critical attacks from the media persisted throughout his life; the congregation outgrew their building, moved to Exeter Hall to Surrey Music Hall. In these venues Spurgeon preached to audiences numbering more than 10,000. At 22, Spurgeon was the most popular preacher of the day. On 8 January 1856, Spurgeon married Susannah, daughter of Robert Thompson of Falcon Square, London, by whom he had twin sons and Thomas born on 20 September 1856. At the end of that year, tragedy struck on 19 October 1856, as Spurgeon was preaching at the Surrey Gardens Music Hall for the first time.
Someone in the crowd yelled, "Fire!" The ensuing panic and stampede left several dead. Spurgeon was devastated by the event and it had a sobering influence on his life. For many years he spoke of being moved to tears for no reason known to himself. Walter Thornbury wrote in "Old and New London" describing a subsequent meeting at Surrey: a congregation consisting of 10,000 souls, streaming into the hall, mounting the galleries, humming and swarming – a mighty hive of bees – eager to secure at first the best places, and, at last, any place at all. After waiting more than half an hour – for if you wish to have a seat you must be there at least that space of time in advance... Mr. Spurgeon ascended his tribune. To the hum, rush, trampling of men, succeeded a low, concentrated thrill and murmur of devotion, which seemed to run at once, like an electric current, through the breast of everyone present, by this magnetic chain the preacher held us fast bound for about two hours, it is not my purpose to give a summary of his discourse.
It is enough to say of his voice, that its power and volume are sufficient to reach every one in that vast assembly.
Roger Williams was a Puritan minister and author who founded the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. He was a staunch advocate for religious freedom, separation of church and state, fair dealings with American Indians, he was one of the first abolitionists. Williams was expelled by the Puritan leaders from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for spreading "new and dangerous ideas", he established the Providence Plantations in 1636 as a refuge offering what he called "liberty of conscience". In 1638, he founded the First Baptist Church in America known as the First Baptist Church of Providence, he studied the Indian languages and wrote the first book on the Narragansett language, he organized the first attempt to prohibit slavery in any of the American colonies. Roger Williams was born in London around 1603, though the exact date is unknown because his birth records were destroyed when St. Sepulchre's Church was burned during the Great Fire of London in 1666, his father James Williams was a merchant tailor in Smithfield and his mother was Alice Pemberton.
Williams had a spiritual conversion at an early age. He was apprenticed as a teen under Sir Edward Coke the famous jurist, he was educated at Charterhouse School under Coke's patronage, at Pembroke College, Cambridge, he seemed to have a gift for languages and early acquired familiarity with Latin, Greek and French. Years he tutored John Milton in Dutch and American Indian languages in exchange for refresher lessons in Hebrew. Williams took holy orders in the Church of England in connection with his studies, but he became a Puritan at Cambridge and thus ruined his chance for preferment in the Anglican church. After graduating from Cambridge, he became the chaplain to Sir William Masham. In April, 1629, he proposed marriage to Jane Whalley, the niece of Lady Joan Barrington, but she declined; that year, he married Mary Bernard, the daughter of Rev. Richard Bernard, a notable Puritan preacher and author, at the Church of High Laver, England, they had six children, all born in America: Mary, Providence, Mercy and Joseph.
Williams knew. He did not join the first wave, but he decided before the year ended that he could not remain in England under Archbishop William Laud's rigorous administration, he regarded the Church of England as corrupt and false, he had arrived at the Separatist position by the time that he and his wife boarded the Lyon in early December, 1630. The Boston church offered Williams a post in 1631 filling in for Rev. John Wilson while Wilson returned to England to fetch his wife. However, Williams declined the position on grounds that it was "an unseparated church". In addition, he asserted that civil magistrates must not punish any sort of "breach of the first table" of the Ten Commandments such as idolatry, Sabbath-breaking, false worship, blasphemy, that individuals should be free to follow their own convictions in religious matters; these three principles became central to his teachings and writings: separatism, liberty of conscience, separation of church and state. As a Separatist, Williams considered the Church of England irredeemably corrupt and believed that one must separate from it to establish a new church for the true and pure worship of God.
The Salem church was inclined to Separatism, they invited him to become their teacher. The leaders in Boston vigorously protested, Salem withdrew its offer; as the summer of 1631 ended, Williams moved to Plymouth Colony where he was welcomed, he informally assisted the minister there. He preached and, according to Governor William Bradford, "his teachings were well approved". After a time, Williams decided that the Plymouth church was not sufficiently separated from the Church of England. Furthermore, his contact with the Narragansett Indians had caused him to question the validity of the colonial charters that did not include legitimate purchase of Indian land. Governor Bradford wrote that Williams fell "into some strange opinions which caused some controversy between the church and him". In December 1632, Williams wrote a lengthy tract that condemned the King's charters and questioned the right of Plymouth to the land without first buying it from the Indians, he charged that King James had uttered a "solemn lie" in claiming that he was the first Christian monarch to have discovered the land.
Williams moved back to Salem by the fall of 1633 and was welcomed by Rev. Samuel Skelton as an unofficial assistant; the Massachusetts Bay authorities were not pleased at Williams' return. In December 1633, they summoned him to appear before the General Court in Boston to defend his tract attacking the King and the charter; the issue was smoothed out, the tract disappeared forever burned. In August 1634, Williams became the Rev. Skelton having died. In March 1635, he was again ordered to appear before the General Court, he was summoned yet again for the Court's July term to answer for "erroneous" and "dangerous opinions"; the Court ordered that he be removed from his church position. This latest controversy welled up as the town of Salem petitioned the General Court to annex some land on Marblehead Neck; the Court refused to consider the request. The church felt that this order violated their independence, sent a letter of protest to the other churches. However, the letter was not read publicly in those churches, the General Court refused to seat the delegates
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating