Gloucester and Sharpness Canal
The Gloucester and Sharpness Canal is a canal in the west of England, between Gloucester and Sharpness. It was once the deepest canal in the world; the canal is 26.5 km long. Conceived in the canal mania period of the late 18th century, the Gloucester and Berkeley Ship Canal scheme was started by architect and civil engineer Robert Mylne. In 1793 an Act of Parliament was obtained authorising the raising of a total of £200,000; the project encountered financial difficulties – to such an extent that Mylne left the project in 1798. By mid-1799 costs had reached £112,000 but only 5 1⁄2 miles of the canal had been completed. Robert Mylne's role was taken over by James Dadford, engaged as resident engineer on the project in 1795. Lack of funds resulted in the company ceasing to employ Dadford in 1800. Between 1800 and 1810 various attempts were made to raise money to allow further building but they came to nothing. Moneys from tolls and rents allowed for some improvements to be made to the basin at Gloucester in 1813.
From 1817 onwards the Poor Employment Act meant it was possible for the company to borrow money from the Exchequer Bill Loan Commission. This along with further share issues provided enough money to bring the scheme to completion. After these significant delays, the canal opened in April 1827. In the course of its construction the canal had cost £440,000; as opened the canal could take craft of up to 600 long tons. The longer of the two locks onto the canal proper was 115 feet long. By the middle of the 19th century it proved possible to pay a small dividend, the debt to the Exchequer Bill Loan Commission having been repaid with the help of a loan of £60,000 from the Pelican Life Assurance Company. In 1871 the last of the debts incurred in the course of funding the canal including the Pelican loan were paid off. Where the Severn Railway Bridge passed over the canal, a swing section was constructed to avoid restricting headroom. In 1905 traffic exceeded 1 million tons for the first time. Oil was added to the list of cargoes carried by the canal, with bulk oil carriers taking fuel to storage tanks sited to the south of Gloucester.
In 1937 the canal was navigated by the submarines HMS H33 and HMS H49. The canal was nationalized in 1948. At the same time the Sharpness Dock Police which had policed the dock since 1874 were absorbed into the British Transport Police. In 1955 the Board of Survey of Canals and Inland Waterways released a report that, among other things, described the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal as carrying substantial traffic and offering scope for commercial development. In 1909, following a collapse in the bank of the river, the canal company's chief engineer A. J. Cullis called for old vessels to be run aground along the bank of the Severn, near Purton, to create a makeshift tidal erosion barrier to reinforce the narrow strip of land between the river and canal. Barges and schooners were "hulked" at high tide, have since filled with silt. More boats have been added, including the schooner Katherine Ellen, impounded in 1921 for running guns to the IRA, the Kennet Canal barge Harriett, ferrocement barges built in World War II.
In 1999 Paul Barnett started a privately-funded research project to record the 81 vessels at the site, recognised as the largest ships' graveyard in mainland Britain. In 2010 British Waterways took control of the site in an attempt to protect it. Strangely,the River Cam, subject to accretion due to industrial and agricultural runoff is an important feeder for Gloucester and Stroud Canal. Today, the canal can be used by 9.6 m in beam and 32 m in height. The maximum draft is 3.5 m. By the mid-1980s commercial traffic had come to a halt with the canal being given over to pleasure cruisers with the exception of a few passages by grain barges; the oil trade ceased in 1985 with the closure of the petroleum depot at Quedgeley. In order to allow the A430 Gloucester southwestern bypass to be built the canal had to be diverted; the new section of channel was opened on 6 May 2006. In January 2009 a project began to replace the Patch Bridge swing bridge with a motor powered design instead of the former hand-cranked system.
The canal links directly to the Stroudwater Navigation at Saul Junction. Canals of the United Kingdom History of the British canal system Gloucester Docks and the Sharpness Canal Past and Future
The basket-hilted sword is a sword type of the early modern era characterised by a basket-shaped guard that protects the hand. The basket hilt is a development of the quillons added to swords' crossguards since the Late Middle Ages. In modern times, this variety of sword is sometimes referred to as the broadsword; the basket-hilted sword was in use as a military sword, in contrast with the rapier, the slim duelling sword worn with civilian dress during the same period, although each did find some use in both military and civilian contexts. A further distinction applied by arms historians and collectors is that a true broadsword possesses a double-edged blade, while similar wide-bladed swords with a single sharpened edge and a thickened back are called backswords. Various forms of basket-hilt were mounted on both backsword blades. One of the weapon types in the modern German dueling sport of Mensur is the basket-hilted Korbschläger; the basket-hilted sword is a development of the 16th century, rising to popularity in the 17th century and remaining in widespread use throughout the 18th century, used by heavy cavalry up to the Napoleonic era.
One of the earliest basket-hilted swords was recovered from the wreck of the Mary Rose, an English warship lost in 1545. Before the find, the earliest positive dating had been two swords from around the time of the English Civil War. At first the wire guard was a simple design but as time passed it became sculpted and ornate; the basket-hilted sword was a cut and thrust sword which found the most use in a military context, contrasting with the rapier, the heavy, thrust-oriented sword most worn with civilian dress which evolved from the espada ropera or spada da lato type during the same period. The term "broadsword" was not used in the 17th and 18th centuries and is of Victorian invention, referring to double-edged basket-hilted swords; the term was introduced to distinguish these cut and thrust swords from the narrower rapier and smallsword. By the 17th century there were regional variations of basket-hilts: the Walloon hilt, the Sinclair hilt, mortuary sword, Scottish broadsword, some types of eastern European pallasches.
The mortuary and claybeg variants were used in the British isles, whether domestically produced or acquired through trade with Italy and Germany. They influenced the 18th-century cavalry sabre. During the 18th century, the fashion of duelling in Europe focused on the lighter smallsword, fencing with the broadsword came to be seen as a speciality of Scotland. A number of fencing manuals teaching fencing with the Scottish broadsword were published throughout the 18th century. Descendants of the basket-hilted sword, albeit in the form of backswords with reduced "half" or "three-quarter" baskets, remained in use in cavalry during the Napoleonic era and throughout the 19th century as the 1796 Heavy Cavalry Sword, the Gothic Hilted British Infantry Swords of the 1820s to 1890s, the 1897 Pattern British Infantry Officer's Sword and as the Pattern 1908 and 1912 cavalry swords down to the eve of World War I; the Schiavona was a Renaissance sword that became popular in Italy during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Stemming from the 16th-century sword of the Balkan mercenaries who formed the bodyguard of the Doge of Venice, the name came from the fact that the guard consisted of the Schiavoni and Dalmatian Slavs. It was recognisable for its "cat's-head pommel" and distinctive handguard made up of many leaf-shaped brass or iron bars, attached to the cross-bar and knucklebow rather than the pommel. Classified as a true broadsword, this war sword had a wider blade than its contemporary civilian rapiers, it was basket hilted and its blade was double edged. A surviving blade measures 93.2 cm × 3.4 cm × 0.45 cm and bears two fullers or grooves running about 1/4 the length of the blade. Weighing in at around 1.1 kg, this blade was useful for both thrust. The schiavona became popular among the armies of those who traded with Italy during the 17th century and was the weapon of choice for many heavy cavalry, it was popular among wealthy civilians alike. A similar weapon was the cut-and-thrust mortuary sword, used after 1625 by cavalry during the English Civil War.
This two-edged sword sported a half-basket hilt with a straight blade some 90–105 cm long. These hilts were of intricate sculpting and design. After the execution of King Charles I, basket-hilted swords were made which depicted the face or death mask of the "martyred" king on the hilt; these swords came to be known as "mortuary swords", the term has been extended to refer to the entire type of Civil War–era broadswords by some 20th-century authors. This sword was Oliver Cromwell's weapon of choice. Mortuary swords remained in use until around 1670 when they fell out of favor among civilians and began to be replaced with the smallsword. A common weapon among the clansmen during the Jacobite rebellions of the late 17th and early 18th centuries was the Scottish basket hilted broadsword known as claidheamh beag or claybeg meaning "small sword" in Scottish Gaelic. In close quarters, the claybeg was the ideal weapon of choice for combating British soldiers armed with long, muskets with plu
Newnham on Severn
Newnham on Severn is a village in west Gloucestershire, England. It lies in the Royal Forest of Dean, on the west bank of the River Severn 10 miles south-west of Gloucester and three miles southeast of Cinderford, it is on the A48 road between Gloucester and Chepstow, Wales. The village has a parish council. A parish church was established in the 14th century, in 1366 a new church building was built on the high ground of the village as the old one faced erosion from the river; the new building has itself been damaged by a gunpowder explosion in 1644 during the English Civil War and a fire in 1881, but is still in use. Because of Newnham's location on the Severn, the Ancient Romans built three roads through the location, where they forded the river; the Anglo-Saxons established a permanent settlement, the Normans built a motte-and-bailey fortification for defence, in medieval times it became a major port with links around Great Britain and Ireland. In 1171, Henry II of England staged an invasion of Ireland from Newnham.
One account claimed that he set sail with 400 ships and 5,000 men, which suggests its importance as a port. For a time Newnham was the most successful Gloucestershire town west of the Severn, its role as a port and trading hub declined, however with the 1827 opening of the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal. In 1810, an early attempt at a Severn tunnel began construction just south of Newnham. Work was abandoned after flooding in 1812. Matron Eva Luckes of The London Hospital lived in Newnham; the scenic Gloucester to Newport Line goes through the tunnel here. Newnham railway station opened in 1851 and closed in 1964; the civil parish is part of ` Westbury' electoral ward. This ward starts in the north at Westbury-on-Severn and follows the River Severn to Newnham; the total population of the ward taken at the 2011 census was 3,088. Photographs of St Peter's Church Local information from the Royal Forest of Dean website. Parish council BBC archive film of Newnham from 1984 Photos of Newnham on Severn and surrounding area on geograph.org.uk Newnham on Severn Village Web site Aerial pictures of Newnham
Sir Charles Brian Blagden FRS was a British physician and scientist. He served as a medical officer in the Army and held the position of Secretary of the Royal Society. Blagden won the Copley Medal in 1788 and was knighted in 1792, he died in Arcueil, France in 1820, was buried at Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. In June 1783, Blagden assistant to Henry Cavendish, visited Antoine Lavoisier in Paris and described how Cavendish had created water by burning "inflammable air". Lavoisier's dissatisfaction with the Cavendish's "dephlogistinization" theory led him to the concept of a chemical reaction, which he reported to the Royal Academy of Sciences on 24 June 1783 founding modern chemistry, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1789. Blagden experimented on human ability to withstand high temperatures. In his report to the Royal Society in 1775, he was first to recognise the role of perspiration in thermoregulation. Blagden's experiments on how dissolved substances like salt affected the freezing point of water led to the discovery that the freezing point of a solution decreases in direct proportion to the concentration of the solution, now called Blagden's Law.
Blagden, Charles. "On the Heat of the Water in the Gulf-Stream". Philosophical Transactions. 71: 334–344. Doi:10.1098/rstl.1781.0042. JSTOR 106528. Blagden, Charles. "Letters from Sir Charles Blagden to Sir Joseph Banks on American Natural History and Politics, 1776 – 1786". Bulletin of the New York Public Library. 7. Fauque, Danielle M. E.. "An Englishman Abroad: Charles Blagden's Visit to Paris in 1783". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. England. 62: 373–90. Doi:10.1098/rsnr.2008.0041. ISSN 0035-9149. PMID 19244920. Heberden, E.. "Correspondence of William Heberden, F. R. S. with the Reverend Stephen Hales and Sir Charles Blagden". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. England. 39: 179–89. Doi:10.1098/rsnr.1985.0008. ISSN 0035-9149. PMID 11611813. Hill, B.. "In War and Peace Sir Charles Blagden, M. D. Ed. F. R. S.". The Practitioner. England. 217: 126–31. ISSN 0032-6518. PMID 792860. De Beer, G.. "Sir Charles Blagden's First Visit to Switzerland". Gesnerus. 11: 17–35. ISSN 0016-9161. PMID 13232299. Blagden Papers at the Royal Society National Public Radio story about Blagden
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The River Severn is the longest river in Great Britain at a length of 220 miles, the second longest in the British Isles after the River Shannon in Ireland. It rises at an altitude of 2,001 feet on Plynlimon, close to the Ceredigion/Powys border near Llanidloes, in the Cambrian Mountains of mid Wales, it flows through Shropshire and Gloucestershire, with the county towns of Shrewsbury and Gloucester on its banks. With an average discharge of 107 m3/s at Apperley, the Severn is by far the greatest river in terms of water flow in England and Wales; the river is considered to become the Severn Estuary after the Second Severn Crossing between Severn Beach, South Gloucestershire and Sudbrook, Monmouthshire. The river discharges into the Bristol Channel which in turn discharges into the Celtic Sea and the wider Atlantic Ocean; the Severn's drainage basin area is 4,409 square miles, excluding the River Wye and Bristol Avon which flow into the Severn Estuary. The major tributaries to the Severn are the Vyrnwy, Teme and Stour.
The name Severn is thought to derive from a Celtic original name *sabrinnā, of uncertain meaning. That name developed in different languages to become Sabrina to the Romans, Hafren in Welsh, Severn in English. A folk etymology developed, deriving the name from a mythical story of a nymph, who drowned in the river. Sabrina is the goddess of the River Severn in Celtic mythology; the story of Sabrina is featured in Milton's 1634 masque Comus. There is a statue of Sabrina in the Dingle Gardens at the Quarry, Shrewsbury, as well as a metal sculpture erected in 2013 in the town; as the Severn becomes tidal the associated deity changed to Nodens, represented mounted on a seahorse, riding on the crest of the Severn bore. The River Stour rises in the north of Worcestershire in the Clent Hills, near St Kenelm's Church at Romsley, it flows north into the adjacent West Midlands at Halesowen. It flows westwards through Cradley Heath and Stourbridge where it leaves the Black Country, it is joined by the Smestow Brook at Prestwood before it winds around southwards to Kinver, flows back into Worcestershire.
It passes through Wolverley and Wilden to its confluence with the Severn at Stourport-on-Severn. The River Vyrnwy, which begins at Lake Vyrnwy, flows eastwards through Powys before forming part of the border between England and Wales, joining the Severn near Melverley, Shropshire; the Rea Brook joins the Severn at Shrewsbury. The River Tern, after flowing south from Market Drayton and being joined by the River Meese and the River Roden, meets the Severn at Attingham Park; the River Worfe joins the Severn, just above Bridgnorth. The River Stour rising on the Clent Hills and flowing through Halesowen and Kidderminster, joins the Severn at Stourport. On the opposite bank, the tributaries are only brooks, Borle Brook, Dowles Brook draining the Wyre Forest, Dick Brook and Shrawley Brook; the River Teme flows eastwards from its source in Mid Wales, straddling the border between Shropshire and Herefordshire, it is joined by the River Onny, River Corve and River Rea before it joins the Severn downstream of Worcester.
Shit Brook near Much Wenlock was culverted to flow into the Severn. One of the several rivers named Avon, in this case the Warwickshire Avon, flows west through Rugby and Stratford-upon-Avon, it is joined by its tributary the River Arrow, before joining the Severn at Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire. The port of Bristol is on the Severn Estuary, where another River Avon flows into it through the Avon Gorge; the River Wye, from its source in Plynlimon in Wales, flows south east through the Welsh towns of Rhayader and Builth Wells. It enters Herefordshire, flows through Hereford, is shortly afterwards joined by the River Lugg, before flowing through Ross-on-Wye and Monmouth, southwards where it forms part of the boundary between England and Wales, it flows into the Severn near the town of Chepstow upstream of the Bristol Avon on the opposite bank. The River Usk flows into the Severn Estuary just south of Newport; the Rad Brook is a small river in England. It enters the River Severn there. Below is a list of major towns and cities that the Severn flows through: Through Powys: Llanidloes Newtown WelshpoolThrough Shropshire: Shrewsbury Ironbridge BridgnorthThrough Worcestershire: Bewdley Stourport-on-Severn Worcester Upton-upon-SevernThrough Gloucestershire: Tewkesbury Gloucester The Severn is bridged at many places, many of these bridges are notable in their own right, with several designed and built by the engineer Thomas Telford.
There is the famous Iron Bridge at Ironbridge, the world's first iron arch bridge. The two major road bridges of the Severn crossing link south eastern Wales with the southern counties of England. Severn Bridge — opened in 1966 carrying what is now the M48 Second Severn Crossing — opened in 1996 carrying the M4 motorwayPrior to the construction of the first bridge in 1966, the channel was crossed by the Aust Ferry. Other notable bridges include: Buttington Bridge — built in 1872 Montford Bridge — Thomas Telford's first bridge design, built between 1790 and 1792 Welsh Bridge — in the centre of Shrewsbury, built in 1795 at a cost of £8,000 English Bridge — in Shrewsbury and completed in 1774 by John Gwynn Atcham Bridges — the old one built in 1774, while the newer one in 1929 carries th
Avonmouth is a port and outer suburb of Bristol, England facing two rivers: the reinforced north bank of the final stage of the Avon which rises at sources in Wiltshire and Somerset. Strategically the area has been and remains an important part of the region's maritime economy for larger vessels for the unloading and exporting of heavier goods as well as in industry including warehousing, light industry, electrical power and sanitation; the geographically compact settlement was established as a parish independent from Shirehampton in 1893 and its first church, completed in 1934, was bombed in World War II by bombers of the Luftwaffe in one of latter of the six major raids which formed the Bristol Blitz, in 1941. The area contains a junction of and is connected to the south by the M5 motorway and other roads, railway tracks and paths to the north, south-east and east; the council ward of Avonmouth and Lawrence Weston is as drawn a simplified name as it includes Shirehampton and the western end of Lawrence Weston.
In Gloucestershire, Avonmouth is rectangular, its length favouring the Severn shore and sits on the same bank as the city centre from which it lies west-north-west — at the mouth of the River Avon and on the eastern shore of the dredged, at this point saline Severn Estuary. Both rivers in shallow valleys by this stage have been defensively embanked to allow the construction of the large port Avonmouth Docks which occupies most of the western part; the related Royal Portbury Dock is across the Avon. Avonmouth is home to chemical manufacturing plants, north of the Avonmouth Docks is the gas-fired Seabank Power Station, its light industrial and warehouse companies include Nisbets. Its long-established residential area in Avonmouth is between the industrialised zone and the M5 motorway, uniquely for Bristol west of the M5 motorway. Avonmouth Bridge of the M5 motorway forms the connection with Somerset with Easton-in-Gordano; the Wales-connecting M49 motorway runs between the M5 near Avonmouth and the M4 motorway at the Second Severn Crossing.
The old Severn Bridge and the M48 motorway are linked to Avonmouth by the A403. The Welsh cities of Newport and Cardiff are both visible from Avonmouth's coastline; the Portway, part of the A4, connects Avonmouth to the centre of Bristol. Avonmouth is served by a hourly train service to central Bristol from Avonmouth railway station on the Severn Beach Line. A new deepsea container terminal is planned in Avonmouth; the 10-hectare Avonmouth Sewage Treatment Works is managed as a nature reserve by Wessex Water. The man-made lagoons and a pool provide a feeding and resting area for many birds including ducks such as pochard, tufted duck and shoveller; the rough grassland provides a refuge for voles, Northern crested newt and other small mammals, which are preyed upon by kestrels and barn owls. Avonmouth is home to the largest single footprint warehouse in the United Kingdom, a 1,250,000 sq ft portal frame building operated by The Range as a distribution centre; the enormous building occupies 55 acres of land and is part of the Central Park project located close to the Severn estuary shoreline.
The largest single footprint warehouse in the United Kingdom was a building operated by Amazon in Dunfermline, Scotland which covers 1,000,000 sq ft. Avonmouth is part of the Bristol North West constituency, which elects a member of Parliament; as a ward of Bristol City Council which has local elections in three of every four years and Lawrence Weston June 2016 to May 2018 three councillors: Donald Alexander, Lab Jo Sargeant, Lab Matthew Melias, ConApart from Avonmouth itself, the ward includes Shirehampton and part of Lawrence Weston. Shirehampton is a part of Bristol which has a medieval-founded village nucleus and contains buildings dating more than a century earlier than the earliest examples in Avonmouth. Today the pre-1893 mother parish of Shirehampton c. 6,867 inhabitants. Shirehampton railway station provides travel to the city centre; the western end of the Lawrence Weston area crosses the boundary into the Avonmouth ward, however the majority of the area falls within the Kingsweston ward.
The combined area is separated from the rest of Bristol by a small amount of green land, see buffer zones. Map of Avonmouth circa 1900