The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
Cook Inlet stretches 180 miles from the Gulf of Alaska to Anchorage in south-central Alaska. Cook Inlet branches into the Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm at its northern end surrounding Anchorage. On its south end merges with Shelikof Strait, Stevenson Entrance, Kennedy Entrance and Chugach Passage; the watershed covers about 100,000 km² of southern Alaska, east of the Aleutian Range and east of the Alaska Range, receiving water from its tributaries the Knik River, the Little Susitna River, the Susitna and Matanuska rivers. The watershed includes the drainage areas of Denali. Within the watershed there are several national parks and the active volcano Mount Redoubt, along with three other active volcanoes. Cook Inlet provides navigable access to the port of Anchorage at the northern end, to the smaller Homer port further south. Before the growth of Anchorage, Knik was the destination for most marine traffic in upper Cook Inlet. 400,000 people live within the Cook Inlet watershed. The Cook Inlet region contains active volcanoes, including Mount Redoubt.
Volcanic eruptions in the region have been associated with earthquakes and tsunamis, debris avalanches have resulted in tsunamis also. There was an earthquake of the magnitude of 7.1 on December 31, 1901 generated by an eruption that caused several tsunamis. In 2009 a lahar from Mt. Redoubt threatened the Drift River oil terminal; the inlet was first settled by Dena'ina people. In the 18th century, Russian fur hunters were among the first European visitors; the Lebedev Lastochkin Company leader Stepan Zaikov established a post at the mouth of the Kenai River, Fort Nikolaev, in 1786. These fur trappers used Siberian Native and Alaska Native people Aleuts from the Aleutian Islands and Koniag natives from Kodiak, to hunt for sea otters and other marine mammal species for trade with China via Russia's then-exclusive inland port of trade at Kiakhta. Other Europeans to visit Cook Inlet include the 1778 expedition of James Cook, its namesake, who sailed into it while searching for the Northwest Passage.
Cook received maps of Alaska, the Aleutians, Kamchatka during a visit with Russian fur trader Gerasim Izmailov in Unalaska, combined these maps with those of his expedition to create the first Mercator projection of the North Pacific. The inlet was named after Cook in 1794 by George Vancouver, who had served under Cook in 1778. Turnagain Arm was named by William Bligh of HMS Bounty fame. Bligh served as Cook's Sailing Master on his 3rd and final voyage, the aim of, discovery of the Northwest Passage. Upon reaching the head of Cook Inlet, Bligh was of the opinion that both Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm were the mouths of rivers and not the opening to the Northwest Passage. Under Cook's orders Bligh organized a party to travel up Knik Arm, which returned to report Knik Arm indeed led only to a river. Afterwards a second party was dispatched up Turnagain Arm and it too returned to report only a river lay ahead; as a result of this frustration the second body of water was given the disingenuous name "Turn Again".
Early maps label Turnagain Arm as the "Turnagain River". The S. S. Farallon was a wooden Alaskan Steamship Company liner that struck Black Reef in the Cook Inlet on January 5, 1910. All thirty-eight men on board survived, were rescued twenty-nine days later. Few white people visited upper Cook Inlet until construction of the Alaska Railroad along the eastern shores of Turnagain Arm and Knik Arm of Cook Inlet around 1915; the natives of the Eklutna village are the descendants of the residents of eight native villages around upper Cook Inlet. During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, areas around the head of Turnagain Arm near Girdwood and Portage dropped as much as 8 feet by subsidence and subsequent tidal action. Both hamlets were destroyed. Girdwood was relocated inland and Portage was abandoned. About 20 miles of the Seward Highway sank below the high-water mark of Turnagain Arm. Most of Alaska's population surrounds Cook Inlet, concentrated in the Anchorage, Alaska area and in communities on the Kenai Peninsula.
The more remote west side of the inlet is not connected to the road system, is home to the village of Tyonek, a number of oil camps. The Cook Inlet Basin contains large gas deposits including several offshore fields; as of 2005 there were 16 platforms in Cook Inlet, the oldest of, the XTO A platform first installed by Shell in 1964, newest of, the Osprey platform installed by Forest Oil in 2000. Most of the platforms are operated by Union Oil, acquired by Chevron in 2005. There are numerous oil and gas pipelines running around and under the Cook Inlet; the main destinations of the gas pipelines are to Kenai where the gas is used to fuel commercial fertilizer production and a liquified natural gas plant and to Anchorage where the gas is consumed for domestic uses. Alaska has half the known coal reserves in the U. S. For decades, there has been a proposal to build a large coal mine on the west side of Cook Inlet near the Chuitna River, the native village of Tyonek, Alaska. American Rivers has placed the Chuitna River on its list of the 10 most endangered rivers for 2007, based on the threat of this mine.
Turnagain Arm is one of only about 60 bodies of water worldwide to exhibit a tidal bore. The bore may be more than six feet high and travel at 15 miles per hour on high spring tides and opposing winds. Turnagain Arm sees the largest tidal range in United States, with a mean of 30 feet, the fourth highest in th
A hydraulic jump is a phenomenon in the science of hydraulics, observed in open channel flow such as rivers and spillways. When liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower velocity, a rather abrupt rise occurs in the liquid surface; the flowing liquid is abruptly slowed and increases in height, converting some of the flow's initial kinetic energy into an increase in potential energy, with some energy irreversibly lost through turbulence to heat. In an open channel flow, this manifests as the fast flow slowing and piling up on top of itself similar to how a shockwave forms, it was first documented by Leonardo da Vinci in 1500s. The mathematics were first described by Giorgio Bidone when he published a paper called Experiences sur le remou et sur la propagation des ondes; the phenomenon is dependent upon the initial fluid speed. If the initial speed of the fluid is below the critical speed no jump is possible. For initial flow speeds which are not above the critical speed, the transition appears as an undulating wave.
As the initial flow speed increases further, the transition becomes more abrupt, until at high enough speeds, the transition front will break and curl back upon itself. When this happens, the jump can be accompanied by violent turbulence, air entrainment, surface undulations, or waves. There are two main manifestations of hydraulic jumps and different terminology has been used for each. However, the mechanisms behind them are similar because they are variations of each other seen from different frames of reference, so the physics and analysis techniques can be used for both types; the different manifestations are: The stationary hydraulic jump – flowing water transitions in a stationary jump to moving water as shown in Figures 1 and 2. The tidal bore – a wall or undulating wave of water moves upstream against water flowing downstream as shown in Figures 3 and 4. If considered from a frame of reference which moves with the wave front, you can see that this case is physically similar to a stationary jump.
A related case is a cascade – a wall or undulating wave of water moves downstream overtaking a shallower downstream flow of water as shown in Figure 5. If considered from a frame of reference which moves with the wave front, this is amenable to the same analysis as a stationary jump; these phenomena are addressed in an extensive literature from a number of technical viewpoints. Hydraulic jumps can be seen in both a stationary form, known as a "hydraulic jump", a dynamic or moving form, known as a positive surge or "hydraulic jump in translation", they can be described using the same analytic approaches and are variants of a single phenomenon. A tidal bore is a hydraulic jump which occurs when the incoming tide forms a wave of water that travel up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the current; as is true for hydraulic jumps in general, bores take on various forms depending upon the difference in the waterlevel upstream and down, ranging from an undular wavefront to a shock-wave-like wall of water.
Figure 3 shows a tidal bore with the characteristics common to shallow upstream water – a large elevation difference is observed. Figure 4 shows a tidal bore with the characteristics common to deep upstream water – a small elevation difference is observed and the wavefront undulates. In both cases the tidal wave moves at the speed characteristic of waves in water of the depth found behind the wave front. A key feature of tidal bores and positive surges is the intense turbulent mixing induced by the passage of the bore front and by the following wave motion. Another variation of the moving hydraulic jump is the cascade. In the cascade, a series of roll waves or undulating waves of water moves downstream overtaking a shallower downstream flow of water. A moving hydraulic jump is called a surge; the travel of wave is faster in the upper portion than in the lower portion in case of positive surges A stationary hydraulic jump is the type most seen on rivers and on engineered features such as outfalls of dams and irrigation works.
They occur when a flow of liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of the river or engineered structure which can only sustain a lower velocity. When this occurs, the water slows in a rather abrupt rise on the liquid surface. Comparing the characteristics before and after, one finds: The other stationary hydraulic jump occurs when a rapid flow encounters a submerged object which throws the water upwards; the mathematics behind this form is more complex and will need to take into account the shape of the object and the flow characteristics of the fluid around it. In spite of the apparent complexity of the flow transition, application of simple analytic tools to a two dimensional analysis is effective in providing analytic results which parallel both field and laboratory results. Analysis shows: Height of the jump: the relationship between the depths before and after the jump as a function of flow rate Energy loss in the jump Location of the jump on a natural or an engineered structure Character of the jump: undular or abrupt The height of the jump is derived from the application of the equations of conservation of mass and momentum.
There are several methods of predicting the height of a hydraulic jump. They all reach common conclusions that: The ratio of the water depth before and after the jump depend on the ratio of velocity of the water entering the jump to the speed of the wave over-running the moving water; the height of the jump can be many times the initial depth of the water. For a known flow rate q, as shown by the figure below, the approximation that the momentum
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine, 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre, it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Over 60 percent of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats, nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating. There are 37 bridges within dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, which links Le Havre to Honfleur; the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864. A number of associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source.
The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, a dog, a dragon. On the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple. Small statues of the dea Sequana "Seine goddess" and other ex voti found at the same place are now exhibited in the Dijon archaeological museum; the Seine can artificially be divided into five parts: the Petite Seine "Small Seine" from the sources to Montereau-Fault-Yonne the Haute Seine "Upper Seine" from Montereau-Fault-Yonne to Paris the Traversée de Paris "the Paris waterway" the Basse Seine "Lower Seine" from Paris to Rouen the Seine maritime "Maritime Seine" from Rouen to the English channel. The Seine is dredged and ocean-going vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Commercial craft can use the river from 516 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges; the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus navigable. The Seine Maritime, 123 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft.
The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a canalized section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Smaller locks at Bougival and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, where the junction with the Canal Saint-Martin is located; the distance from the mouth of the Oise is 72 km. The Haute Seine, from Paris to Montereau-Fault-Yonne, has 8 locks. At Charenton-le-Pont is the mouth of the Marne. Upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne. From the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine. From there on, the river is navigable only by small craft to Marcilly-sur-Seine. At Marcilly-sur-Seine the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes; this canal has been abandoned since 1957. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres.
Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, consisted of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks. Today the depth is controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is filled with water; the average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second, but much higher flows are possible during periods of heavy runoff. Special reservoirs upstream help to maintain a constant level for the river through the city, but during periods of extreme runoff significant increases in river level may occur. A severe period of high water in January 1910 resulted in extensive flooding throughout the city; the Seine again rose to threatening levels in 1924, 1955, 1982, 1999–2000, June 2016, January 2018. After a first-level flood alert in 2003, about 100,000 works of art were moved out of Paris, the largest relocation of art since World War II. Much of the art in Paris is kept in underground storage rooms.
A 2002 report by the French government stated the worst-case Seine flood scenario would cost 10 billion euros and cut telephone service for a million Parisians, leaving 200,000 without electricity and 100,000 without gas. In January 2018 the Seine again flooded. An official warning was issued on January 24 that heavy rainfall was to cause the river to flood. By January 27, the river was rising; the Deputy Mayor of Paris, Colombe Brossel, warned that the heavy rain was caused by climate change, that "We have to understand that climatic change is not a word, it's a reality." The basin area is 78,910 square kilometres, 2 percent of, forest and 78 percent cultivated land. In addition to Paris, three other cities with a population over 100,000 are in the Seine watershed: Le Havre at the estuary, Rouen in the Seine valley and Reims at the northern limit—with an annual urban growth rate of 0.2 percent. The population density is 201 per square kilometer. Periodically
Morecambe Bay is a large estuary in northwest England, just to the south of the Lake District National Park. It is the largest expanse of intertidal mudflats and sand in the United Kingdom, covering a total area of 310 km2. In 1974, the second largest gas field in the UK was discovered 25 miles west of Blackpool, with original reserves of over 7 trillion cubic feet. At its peak, 15 % of Britain's gas supply came from the bay, it one of the homes of the high brown fritillary butterfly. The rivers Leven, Keer and Wyre drain into the Bay, with their various estuaries making a number of peninsulas within the bay. Much of the land around the bay is reclaimed. Morecambe Bay is an important wildlife site, with abundant birdlife and varied marine habitats, there is a bird observatory at Walney Island; the bay has rich cockle beds. There are seven main islands in all to the north. Walney is larger than the others, with its southern tip marking the north-western corner of the Bay. Sheep, Piel and Foulney Islands are tidal and can be walked to at low tide with appropriate care.
Local guidance should be sought if walking to Chapel or Piel islands as fast tides and quicksand can be dangerous. Roa Island is linked to the mainland by a causeway, while Barrow Island has been connected to the mainland as part of the docks system at Barrow-in-Furness; the extensive sandflats are the remains of a vast sandur or outwash plain established by meltwaters as the last ice age waned. Sea-level was still some 3m below present day levels at the start of the Holocene some 11,000 years ago; the Greek geographer and astronomer Claudius Ptolemy referred in his writings to Morikambe eischusis as a location on Britain's west coast, lying between the Ribble and the Solway. Sixteenth century scholar William Camden identified the locality as being near Silloth, hence the similar name of that bay but the eighteenth century antiquarian John Horsley who translated Ptolemy into English in 1732 favoured it being the bay on the Lancashire/Cumberland border. In 1771 historian John Whitaker took up this latter suggestion and the name appeared on maps subsequently.
The first recorded to do so being one associated with Father Thomas West's Antiquities of Furness of 1774. Camden believed the name originated with two words meaning crooked sea whilst West offered up white/beautiful haven though current thought is that it refers to a curve of the sea. There have been royally appointed local guides for crossing the bay for centuries; this difficulty of crossing the bay added to the isolation of the land to its north which, due to the presence of the mountains of the Lake District, could only be reached by crossing these sands or by ferry, until the Furness Railway was built in 1857. This skirts the edge of the bay; the London-Glasgow railway briefly runs alongside the bay - the only place where the West Coast Main Line runs alongside the coast. The bay is notorious for its quicksand and fast moving tides. On the night of 5 February 2004, at least 21 Chinese immigrant cockle pickers drowned after being cut off by the tides; this tragedy led some commentators to suggest that the cockle beds should be closed until improved safety measures could be introduced.
Morecambe Bay is home to several of the UK's offshore wind farms: West of Duddon Sands, Burbo Bank, Walney and Ormonde. Some 319,100 people live along the coastline of Morecambe Bay, with many of these people residing in the towns listed in the table below; the largest town in the vicinity of the bay is Barrow-in-Furness located to its west, whilst the town which adopted its name from the bay follows. Morecambe relied on the bay for many years, as a popular seaside holiday destination, whilst Barrow still relies on the seas for a large percentage of its economy - ship and submarine construction; the bay has Britain's second-largest natural gas field, in the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone with a seal of Mercia Mudstone and a Carboniferous source. The South Morecambe Field, covering an area of 32 square miles, was discovered in 1974 and the first gas came ashore in 1985; the North Morecambe Field, found in 1976, 8 miles to the north, is 11 square miles and started production in 1994. Both are operated by Centrica Energy.
They are 25 miles west of Blackpool in 30 metres of water. The combined gas reserves on discovery were estimated at 179 billion cubic metres. A further 0.65tcf is recognised in the satellite fields of Bains, Dalton, Millom East and Millom West, a number of smaller fields have been identified. The gas is landed at three terminals at Westfield Point in Barrow-in-Furness, collectively referred to as the Rampside Gas Terminal; the South Morecambe Central Processing Complex is connected via a 36-inch pipeline to the South Morecambe terminal. North Morecambe gas has a different composition so the unmanned Drilling and Production Platform is linked by a separate 36" wet sealine to the North Morecambe Terminal, where it is stripped of water, CO2 and nitrogen; the Rivers Terminal has a dedicated pipeline for sour gas from the Calder field, which must be stripped of hydrogen sulphide before processing by the North Morecambe Terminal. The hydrogen sulphide is converted to sulphuric ac
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water. They result from the wind blowing over an area of fluid surface. Waves in the oceans can travel thousands of miles before reaching land. Wind waves on Earth range in size to waves over 100 ft high; when directly generated and affected by local waters, a wind wave system is called a wind sea. After the wind ceases to blow, wind waves are called swells. More a swell consists of wind-generated waves that are not affected by the local wind at that time, they have been generated some time ago. Wind waves in the ocean are called ocean surface waves. Wind waves have a certain amount of randomness: subsequent waves differ in height and shape with limited predictability, they can be described as a stochastic process, in combination with the physics governing their generation, growth and decay—as well as governing the interdependence between flow quantities such as: the water surface movements, flow velocities and water pressure.
The key statistics of wind waves in evolving sea states can be predicted with wind wave models. Although waves are considered in the water seas of Earth, the hydrocarbon seas of Titan may have wind-driven waves; the great majority of large breakers seen at a beach result from distant winds. Five factors influence the formation of the flow structures in wind waves: Wind speed or strength relative to wave speed—the wind must be moving faster than the wave crest for energy transfer The uninterrupted distance of open water over which the wind blows without significant change in direction Width of area affected by fetch Wind duration — the time for which the wind has blown over the water. Water depthAll of these factors work together to determine the size of the water waves and the structure of the flow within them; the main dimensions associated with waves are: Wave height Wave length Wave period Wave propagation directionA developed sea has the maximum wave size theoretically possible for a wind of a specific strength and fetch.
Further exposure to that specific wind could only cause a dissipation of energy due to the breaking of wave tops and formation of "whitecaps". Waves in a given area have a range of heights. For weather reporting and for scientific analysis of wind wave statistics, their characteristic height over a period of time is expressed as significant wave height; this figure represents an average height of the highest one-third of the waves in a given time period, or in a specific wave or storm system. The significant wave height is the value a "trained observer" would estimate from visual observation of a sea state. Given the variability of wave height, the largest individual waves are to be somewhat less than twice the reported significant wave height for a particular day or storm. Wave formation on an flat water surface by wind is started by a random distribution of normal pressure of turbulent wind flow over the water; this pressure fluctuation produces normal and tangential stresses in the surface water, which generates waves.
It is assumed that: The water is at rest. The water is not viscous; the water is irrotational. There is a random distribution of normal pressure to the water surface from the turbulent wind. Correlations between air and water motions are neglected; the second mechanism involves wind shear forces on the water surface. John W. Miles suggested a surface wave generation mechanism, initiated by turbulent wind shear flows based on the inviscid Orr-Sommerfeld equation in 1957, he found the energy transfer from wind to water surface is proportional to the curvature of the velocity profile of the wind at the point where the mean wind speed is equal to the wave speed. Since the wind speed profile is logarithmic to the water surface, the curvature has a negative sign at this point; this relation shows the wind flow transferring its kinetic energy to the water surface at their interface. Assumptions: two-dimensional parallel shear flow incompressible, inviscid water and wind irrotational water slope of the displacement of the water surface is smallGenerally these wave formation mechanisms occur together on the water surface and produce developed waves.
For example, if we assume a flat sea surface, a sudden wind flow blows across the sea surface, the physical wave generation process follows the sequence: Turbulent wind forms random pressure fluctuations at the sea surface. Ripples with wavelengths in the order of a few centimetres are generated by the pressure fluctuations; the winds keep acting on the rippled sea surface causing the waves to become larger. As the waves grow, the pressure differences get larger causing the growth rate to increase; the shear instability expedites the wave growth exponentially. The interactions between the waves on the surface generate longer waves and the interaction will transfer wave energy from the shorter waves generated by the Miles mechanism to the waves which have lower frequencies than the frequency at the peak wave magnitudes finally the waves will be faster than the cross wind speed. Three different types of wind waves develop over time: Capillary waves