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Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic era. Before the invention of spinning yarn or weaving fabric, archaeologists believe Stone Age people across Europe and Asia sewed fur and skin clothing using bone, antler or ivory needles and "thread" made of various animal body parts including sinew and veins. For thousands of years, all sewing was done by hand; the invention of the sewing machine in the 19th century and the rise of computerization in the 20th century led to mass production and export of sewn objects, but hand sewing is still practiced around the world. Fine hand sewing is a characteristic of high-quality tailoring, haute couture fashion, custom dressmaking, is pursued by both textile artists and hobbyists as a means of creative expression; the first known use of the word "sewing" was in the 14th century. Sewing has an ancient history estimated to begin during the Paleolithic Era.

Sewing was used to stitch together animal hides for shelter. The Inuit, for example, used sinew from caribou for thread and needles made of bone. Sewing was combined with the weaving of plant leaves in Africa to create baskets, such as those made by Zulu weavers, who used thin strips of palm leaf as "thread" to stitch wider strips of palm leaf, woven into a coil; the weaving of cloth from natural fibres originated in the Middle East around 4000 BC, earlier during the Neolithic Age, the sewing of cloth accompanied this development. During the Middle Ages, Europeans who could afford it employed tailors; the vital importance of sewing was indicated by the honorific position of "Lord Sewer" at many European coronations from the Middle Ages. An example was Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex, appointed Lord Sewer at the coronation of Henry VIII of England in 1509. Sewing for the most part was a woman's occupation, most sewing before the 19th century was practical. Clothing was an expensive investment for most people, women had an important role in extending the longevity of items of clothing.

Sewing was used for mending. Clothing, faded would be turned inside-out so that it could continue to be worn, sometimes had to be taken apart and reassembled in order to suit this purpose. Once clothing became worn or torn, it would be taken apart and the reusable cloth sewn together into new items of clothing, made into quilts, or otherwise put to practical use; the many steps involved in making clothing from scratch meant that women bartered their expertise in a particular skill with one another. Decorative needlework such as embroidery was a valued skill, young women with the time and means would practise to build their skill in this area. From the Middle Ages to the 17th century, sewing tools such as needles and pincushions were included in the trousseaus of many European brides. Decorative embroidery was valued in many cultures worldwide. Although most embroidery stitches in the Western repertoire are traditionally British, Irish or Western European in origin, stitches originating in different cultures are known throughout the world today.

Some examples are the Cretan Open Filling stitch, Romanian Couching or Oriental Couching, the Japanese stitch. The stitches associated with embroidery spread by way of the trade routes that were active during the Middle Ages; the Silk Road brought Chinese embroidery techniques to Western Asia and Eastern Europe, while techniques originating in the Middle East spread to Southern and Western Europe through Morocco and Spain. European imperial settlements spread embroidery and sewing techniques worldwide. However, there are instances of sewing techniques indigenous to cultures in distant locations from one another, where cross-cultural communication would have been unlikely. For example, a method of reverse appliqué known to areas of South America is known to Southeast Asia; the Industrial Revolution shifted the production of textiles from the household to the mills. In the early decades of the Industrial Revolution, the machinery produced whole cloth; the world's first sewing machine was patented in 1790 by Thomas Saint.

By the early 1840s, other early sewing machines began to appear. Barthélemy Thimonnier introduced a simple sewing machine in 1841 to produce military uniforms for France's army. By the 1850s, Isaac Singer developed the first sewing machines that could operate and and surpass the productivity of a seamstress or tailor sewing by hand. While much clothing was still produced at home by female members of the family and more ready-made clothes for the middle classes were being produced with sewing machines. Textile sweatshops full of poorly paid sewing machine operators grew into entire business districts in large cities like London and New York City. To further support the industry, piece work was done for little money by women living in slums. Needlework was one of the few occupations considered acceptable for women, but it did not pay a living wage. Women doing piece work from home worked 14-hour days to earn enough to support themselves, sometimes by renting sewing machines that they could not afford to buy.

Tailors became associated with higher-end clothing during this period. In London, this status grew out of the dandy trend of the early 19th century, when new tailor shops were established around Savile Row

Anna Stuart

Anna Stuart is an American actress. She has played roles in daytime soap operas. Stuart got her start on The Doctors as lab technician Toni Ferra, a role she played from 1971 to 1976, her character was involved in a triangle with Dr. Alan Stewart, she followed up her work on The Doctors originating the role of Dr. Gina Dante Lansing on rival soap General Hospital where she was reunited with her former "The Doctors" co-star Gerald Gordon who played her brother, Dr. Mark Dante. In 1981, she filled in for Maeve Kinkead on Guiding Light as Vanessa Chamberlain while Kinkead was on maternity leave, it was during this time. This was Stuart's first time playing a schemer on the soaps, led to playing other sophisticated trouble-makers on every New York based soap. Stuart is best known for her role as Donna Love Hudson on Another World, which she played from January 1983 to November 1986 and again from February 1989 to the show's final episode in June 1999; the role of Donna Love was written as a complex society snob, interfering in the love life of her brother Peter and dating Iris's ex-husband, Bay City mayor Brian Bancroft.

At first a supporting character, Donna was made a lead as she became involved in a triangle with ex-husband Carl Hutchins and flashy novelist Felicia Gallant. Her storyline became more complex when it was revealed that not only was her sister Marley her illegitimate daughter, but she'd given birth to Marley's twin, Victoria, as well; as Stuart became more popular, a major romance was created for her with Michael Hudson, Victoria and Marley's father. The Michael/Donna pairing remains one of the show's top supercouples; when Stuart left the show in 1986, the role of Donna was recast with Philece Sampler, who had played Renee Dumonde DiMera Banning Marshall on Days of Our Lives in the early 1980s. The recast however was panned by soap periodicals and after two years, Sampler's contract was terminated when Stuart expressed interest in returning to Another World, her return was highlighted by her being asked to be a part of the show's 25th-anniversary Soap Opera Digest cover. Stuart took medical sabbaticals from her role as Donna in 1990 and 1993, during which former GL and Another World co-star Sofia Landon played the role.

In the early 1990s, Donna began a May–December romance with Matthew Cory, which proved to be popular. As the 1990s went on, the character was written in such a way that longtime viewers no longer recognized Donna. Stuart was quoted in Soap Opera Digest after Another World's cancellation as saying that if the show had not been canceled in 1999, she would have left the role due to her disapproval regarding her character's direction; when Michael Hudson was killed off in 1997, Donna's behavior became bizarre with the character blaming her daughter Victoria for causing Michael's death. After the show's cancellation and several other cast members played their characters on the soap opera As the World Turns in an attempt to lure fans of Another World to watch that program. Stuart's appearance was to have lasted for two episodes in order to help introduce the character of Jake McKinnon to the show, but she ended up recurring on the show for three years as Donna paid Jake occasional visits after the death of his wife Victoria.

Her final appearance in April 2002 took place when Jake was killed off, with Marley and Donna taking Jake and Victoria's children back to Bay City with them. In April 2002 Stuart filled in for former Another World co-star Linda Dano as Rae Cummings on One Life to Live while Dano was on sick leave. Following this, Stuart began the role of Mary Smythe on All My Children where she played opposite former Another World castmate Mark Pinter, she is one of the few actors to have appeared on three soaps in one calendar year. Meant to be written in for only a short stint, the character became integral in a plotline in which Mary revealed that Jackson Montgomery was Greenlee's natural father, making her the latest in the long line of rivals to that show's reigning queen, Erica Kane. Mary had a brief romance with Adam Chandler before disappearing off the canvas in 2005, she returned to the show for two episodes in 2009. In 2010, Stuart debuted on the internet based soap opera Gotham. Stuart attended the 2013 Emmys with James Cromwell.

Stuart married actor James Cromwell on January 1, 2014, at the home of her former Another World co-star Charles Keating. South of Hell Mountain as Sally Life Zone as Mother All My Children as Mary Greenlee Smythe One Life to Live as Rae Cummings. Stuart appeared for only one day; as the World Turns as Donna Love Another World as Donna Love Guiding Light as Vanessa Chamberlain. Stuart appeared for a few months. General Hospital as Dr. Gina Dante Lansing The Doctors as Toni Ferra Powers Anna Stuart on IMDb

Fukuroda Falls

Fukuroda Falls are located in Daigo, Ibaraki Prefecture Japan. The Taki River has its source spring just above the falls; the river flows through the falls and joins a major Kuji River. The width of the falls is 73 m. During winter the falls may freeze; the falls are ranked as the third most beautiful waterfall in Japan, coming after Kegon Falls and Nachi Falls. The Fukuroda Falls is listed as one of the "Japan’s Top 100 Waterfalls", in a listing published by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment in 1990; the closest train station is Fukuroda JR station located 3 kilometers away. By car, the falls can be reached from the Naka Interchange on the Jōban Expresway to Japan National Route 118 in the direction of Omiya. OMOIDE ROMAN-KAN

Upper Main Street Historic District (Hatfield, Massachusetts)

The Upper Main Street Historic District is a predominantly residential historic district in northeastern Hatfield, Massachusetts. Unlike Hatfield Center, which dated to colonial days and lies south of the district, this part of Hatfield developed between 1860 and 1939 as a village centered on the nearby ferry landing on the Connecticut River; the district includes properties in a triangular area bounded by Main Street, King Street, North Street, features a large number of Colonial Revival, Queen Anne, bungalow-style houses. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994; the town center of Hatfield was laid out in 1661, with narrow house lots facing the main road, large agricultural areas surrounding the village. The southern portion of this district includes a portion of the original town plan, still evident in the placement of houses and surrounding land use. In addition to the residential buildings lining its roads, the district includes agricultural buildings related to the area's historic patterns of agriculture.

Prominent among these are several tobacco barns, reflecting the importance of that crop in the town's 19th century economic prosperity. There are several surviving livestock and horse barns, of which one of the former dates to about 1800; the oldest house in the district, the Jeremiah Bardwell House at 108 Main Street, is of similar vintage, dating to about 1790. Bradstreet Historic District North Hatfield Historic District West Hatfield Historic District National Register of Historic Places listings in Hampshire County, Massachusetts

Snow White, Blood Red (book)

Snow White, Blood Red is the first book in a series of collections of re-told fairy tales edited by Ellen Datlow and Terri Windling. Introduction: White as Snow: Fairy Tales and Fantasy -- Terri Windling Red as Blood: Fairy Tales and Horror -- Ellen Datlow Like a Red, Red Rose -- Susan Wade The Moon Is Drowning While I Sleep -- Charles de Lint The Frog Prince -- Gahan Wilson Stalking Beans -- Nancy Kress Snow-Drop -- Tanith Lee Little Red -- Wendy Wheeler I Shall Do Thee Mischief in the Wood -- Kathe Koja The Root of the Matter -- Gregory Frost The Princess in the Tower -- Elizabeth A. Lynn Persimmon -- Harvey Jacobs Little Poucet -- Steve Rasnic Tem The Changelings -- Melanie Tem The Springfield Swans -- Caroline Stevermer & Ryan Edmonds Troll Bridge -- Neil Gaiman A Sound, Like Angels Singing -- Leonard Rysdyk Puss -- Esther M. Friesner The Glass Casket -- Jack Dann Knives -- Jane Yolen The Snow Queen -- Patricia A. McKillip Breadcrumbs and Stones -- Lisa Goldstein Recommended Reading · Misc.

Material Ellen Datlow's Bibliography Reviews and Ratings at

Shangpa Kagyu

The Shangpa Kagyu is known as the "secret lineage" of the Kagyu school of Vajrayana or Tibetan Buddhism and differs in origin from the better known Dagpo schools. The Dagpo Kagyu are the lineage of Tilopa through his student Naropa while the Shangpa lineage descends from Tilopa's student Niguma, Naropa's sister, as well as from the teachings of Sukhasiddhi, its founder was Khyungpo Neljor, the student of both women, whose monastery in the Shang Valley gave its name to the tradition. The principal Shangpa dharmapala is the six-armed Mahākāla; the Shangpa tradition was revitalized in the 20th century by the first Kalu Rinpoche, who had many students both in Tibet and in the West. The Shangpa Kagyu lineage was founded by the eleventh-century Tibetan scholar Khyungpo Nenjor. Seeking to increase his understanding of the teachings he received in Tibet, he traveled to India, where he met the female mystic yogini, Niguma. (Vajradhara Niguma is the full Tibetan name of the Indian yogini Vimalashri. He received many teachings from her.

Khyungpo Nenjor was Niguma's most famous disciple. He was the only one, he met and studied with the dakini Sukhasiddhi, another female mystic and student of the mahasiddha Virūpa, as well as Vajrāsana, Maitripada, Rāhula, others. Thang Tong Gyalpo was another famous yogi instructed by Niguma in a vision, he started his own religious tradition within the Shangpa Kagyu lineage. On his return to Tibet, Khyungpo Neljor established a monastery at Shang in Tsang; this was his main seat, he became known as the Lama of Shang. Although he was reputed to have founded hundreds of monasteries and had thousands of students, he passed the teachings of Niguma to only one of his students, Mochok Rinchen Tsondru; the Shangpa lineage is referred to as the "secret lineage" because Niguma instructed Khyungpo Neljor to transmit the teachings to only one student for the first seven generations beginning with Vajradhara and Niguma. From Mochok Rinchen Tsondru, the lineage was passed to Kyergang Chokyi Senge, Nyenton Rigung Chokyi Sherab, Songjay Tenpa Tsondru Senge.

These first seven teachings are known as the Seven Great Jewels of the Shangpa tradition. Songjay Tenpa was the first teacher who gave these instructions to more than one of his disciples, from this point on, several different lines of transmission developed; the intention for keeping the lineage secret in this fashion was to protect it from becoming an established monastic tradition. As one of the more esoteric traditions, it was meant to be practiced rather than codified. Although the Shangpa teachings were regarded and were assimilated by many schools, the tradition itself ceased to exist as an independent school with the dissolution of the Jonangpas in the 17th century. However, its teachings were still transmitted. In the 19th century Jamgon Kongtrul gathered together the surviving transmissions and ensured their continued survival by including them in his Treasury of Key Instructions; the lineage transmission has been incorporated into the Sakya school and other Kagyu schools. Je Tsongkhapa, who founded the Gelug school, was versed in the doctrine of the Shangpa Kagyu.

In the west, the principal teacher of the Shangpa Kagyu lineage was the first Kalu Rinpoche. He received the lineage teachings in the early 1940s when he went for training at Tsa Tsa Monastery in Eastern Tibet, he trained with the Abbot of the monastery, the 8th Tsa Tsa Drubgen, Yizhin Norbu called Karma Singhe and the White Crown Master. The Karma Kagyu regent Tai Situpa described Yizhin Norbu as “one of the most learned and accomplished Kagyu masters now living.”There, Kalu Rinpoche received the complete cycle of the Shangpa teachings during a closed retreat. Tsa Tsa monastery is a major Dakpo Kagyu Centre and preserves the Rimé movement; the Tsa Tsa Drubgen Yizhin Norbu died in the middle of June, 2005. The Shangpa traditions are held by his regent and successor the second Gyalten Thongwa Rangdrol. After the first Kalu Rinpoche died his student Bokar Tulku Rinpoche became the main lineage holder. After Bokar Tulku Rinpoche died, Yangsi Kalu, a young tulku who finished a Shangpa three-year retreat in September 2008, became the holder of the seat of the lineage.

The other current holders of the Shangpa lineage are the lamas who have been entrusted by Vajradhara Kalu Rangjung Künchab, for example Norla Rinpoche, Denys Rinpoche, as well as Ven Mogchok Rinpoche living and teaching in France. A list of Kalu Rangjung Kunchab contemporary heirs is available on Shangpa Resource center web Site Wangchen Rinpoche is a current lineage holder, recognized by Dorje Chang Kalu Rinpoche as “Kalu the Younger”, his meditation companion in Tibet. There are many unique teachings in the Shangpa tradition, but the most important are "The Five Golden Teachings" called the Five Golden Doctrines of the Shangpas, a group of teachings envisioned as forming a tree; the innermost teachings are the "Six Yogas of Niguma" or more properly called "Six Dharmas of Niguma" (Wylie: ni gu'i chos drug which are similar to the Six Yogas of Naropa practiced by the Dagpo schools. The Six Dharmas of Niguma include the teachings on heat, illusory-body, the dream state, sheer clarity and bardo The next