Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, crocheting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns designed for needlework; the word yarn comes from Middle English, from the Old English gearn, akin to Old High German's garn yarn, Greek's chordē string, Sanskrit's hira band. Yarn can be made from a number of synthetic fibers. Many types of yarn are made differently though. There are two main types of yarn: spun and filament; the most common plant fiber is cotton, spun into fine yarn for mechanical weaving or knitting into cloth. Cotton and polyester are the most spun fibers in the world. Cotton is grown throughout the world. After harvesting it is prepared for yarn spinning. Polyester is extruded from polymers derived from natural oil. Synthetic fibers are extruded in continuous strands of gel-state materials.
These strands are drawn and cured to obtain properties desirable for processing. Synthetic fibers come in three basic forms: staple and filament. Staple is cut fibers sold in lengths up to 120mm. Tow is a continuous "rope" of fibers consisting of many filaments loosely joined side-to-side. Filament is a continuous strand consisting of anything from 1 filament to many. Synthetic fiber is most measured in a weight per linear measurement basis, along with cut length. Denier and Dtex are the most common weight to length measures. Cut-length only applies to staple fiber. Filament extrusion is sometimes referred to as "spinning" but most people equate spinning with spun yarn production; the most spun animal fiber is wool harvested from sheep. For hand knitting and hobby knitting, thick and acrylic yarns are used. Other animal fibers used include alpaca, mohair, llama and silk. More yarn may be spun from camel, possum, musk ox, dog, rabbit, or buffalo hair, turkey or ostrich feathers. Natural fibers such as these have the advantage of being elastic and breathable, while trapping a great deal of air, making for a warm fabric.
Other natural fibers that can be used for yarn include cotton. These tend to be much less elastic, retain less warmth than the animal-hair yarns, though they can be stronger in some cases; the finished product will look rather different from the woolen yarns. Other plant fibers which can be spun include bamboo, corn and soy fiber. T-shirt yarn is a yarn made directly from t-shirts, the fiber composition is determined by the material the t-shirt is made from. In general, natural fibers tend to require more careful handling than synthetics because they can shrink, stain, fade, wrinkle, or be eaten by moths more unless special treatments such as mercerization or superwashing are performed to strengthen, fix color, or otherwise enhance the fiber's own properties. Protein yarns may be irritating to some people, causing contact dermatitis, wheezing, or other reactions. Plant fibers tend to be better tolerated by people with sensitivities to the protein yarns, allergists may suggest using them or synthetics instead to prevent symptoms.
Some people find that they can tolerate organically grown and processed versions of protein fibers because organic processing standards preclude the use of chemicals that may irritate the skin. When natural hair-type fibers are burned, they tend to have a smell of burnt hair. Cotton and viscose yarns burn as a wick. Synthetic yarns tend to melt though some synthetics are inherently flame-retardant. Noting how an unidentified fiber strand burns and smells can assist in determining if it is natural or synthetic, what the fiber content is. Both synthetic and natural yarns can pill. Pilling is a function of fiber content, spinning method, contiguous staple length, fabric construction. Single ply yarns or using fibers like merino wool are known to pill more due to the fact that in the former, the single ply is not tight enough to securely retain all the fibers under abrasion, the merino wool's short staple length allows the ends of the fibers to pop out of the twist more easily. Yarns combining synthetic and natural fibers inherit the properties of each parent, according to the proportional composition.
Synthetics are added to lower cost, increase durability, add unusual color or visual effects, provide machine washability and stain resistance, reduce heat retention or lighten garment weight. Spun yarn is made by twisting staple fibres together to make a cohesive thread, or "single." Twisting fibres into yarn in the process called spinning can be dated back to the Upper Paleolithic, yarn spinning was one of the first processes to be industrialized. Spun yarns may be a blend of various types. Combining synthetic fibres with natural fibres is common; the most used blends are cotton-polyester and wool-acrylic fibre blends. Blends of different natural fibres are common too with more expensive fibres such as alpaca and cashmere. Yarn is selected for different textiles based on the characteristics of the yarn fibres, such as warmth, light weight, durability (nylo
Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic era. Before the invention of spinning yarn or weaving fabric, archaeologists believe Stone Age people across Europe and Asia sewed fur and skin clothing using bone, antler or ivory needles and "thread" made of various animal body parts including sinew and veins. For thousands of years, all sewing was done by hand; the invention of the sewing machine in the 19th century and the rise of computerization in the 20th century led to mass production and export of sewn objects, but hand sewing is still practiced around the world. Fine hand sewing is a characteristic of high-quality tailoring, haute couture fashion, custom dressmaking, is pursued by both textile artists and hobbyists as a means of creative expression; the first known use of the word "sewing" was in the 14th century. Sewing has an ancient history estimated to begin during the Paleolithic Era.
Sewing was used to stitch together animal hides for shelter. The Inuit, for example, used sinew from caribou for thread and needles made of bone. Sewing was combined with the weaving of plant leaves in Africa to create baskets, such as those made by Zulu weavers, who used thin strips of palm leaf as "thread" to stitch wider strips of palm leaf, woven into a coil; the weaving of cloth from natural fibres originated in the Middle East around 4000 BC, earlier during the Neolithic Age, the sewing of cloth accompanied this development. During the Middle Ages, Europeans who could afford it employed tailors; the vital importance of sewing was indicated by the honorific position of "Lord Sewer" at many European coronations from the Middle Ages. An example was Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex, appointed Lord Sewer at the coronation of Henry VIII of England in 1509. Sewing for the most part was a woman's occupation, most sewing before the 19th century was practical. Clothing was an expensive investment for most people, women had an important role in extending the longevity of items of clothing.
Sewing was used for mending. Clothing, faded would be turned inside-out so that it could continue to be worn, sometimes had to be taken apart and reassembled in order to suit this purpose. Once clothing became worn or torn, it would be taken apart and the reusable cloth sewn together into new items of clothing, made into quilts, or otherwise put to practical use; the many steps involved in making clothing from scratch meant that women bartered their expertise in a particular skill with one another. Decorative needlework such as embroidery was a valued skill, young women with the time and means would practise to build their skill in this area. From the Middle Ages to the 17th century, sewing tools such as needles and pincushions were included in the trousseaus of many European brides. Decorative embroidery was valued in many cultures worldwide. Although most embroidery stitches in the Western repertoire are traditionally British, Irish or Western European in origin, stitches originating in different cultures are known throughout the world today.
Some examples are the Cretan Open Filling stitch, Romanian Couching or Oriental Couching, the Japanese stitch. The stitches associated with embroidery spread by way of the trade routes that were active during the Middle Ages; the Silk Road brought Chinese embroidery techniques to Western Asia and Eastern Europe, while techniques originating in the Middle East spread to Southern and Western Europe through Morocco and Spain. European imperial settlements spread embroidery and sewing techniques worldwide. However, there are instances of sewing techniques indigenous to cultures in distant locations from one another, where cross-cultural communication would have been unlikely. For example, a method of reverse appliqué known to areas of South America is known to Southeast Asia; the Industrial Revolution shifted the production of textiles from the household to the mills. In the early decades of the Industrial Revolution, the machinery produced whole cloth; the world's first sewing machine was patented in 1790 by Thomas Saint.
By the early 1840s, other early sewing machines began to appear. Barthélemy Thimonnier introduced a simple sewing machine in 1841 to produce military uniforms for France's army. By the 1850s, Isaac Singer developed the first sewing machines that could operate and and surpass the productivity of a seamstress or tailor sewing by hand. While much clothing was still produced at home by female members of the family and more ready-made clothes for the middle classes were being produced with sewing machines. Textile sweatshops full of poorly paid sewing machine operators grew into entire business districts in large cities like London and New York City. To further support the industry, piece work was done for little money by women living in slums. Needlework was one of the few occupations considered acceptable for women, but it did not pay a living wage. Women doing piece work from home worked 14-hour days to earn enough to support themselves, sometimes by renting sewing machines that they could not afford to buy.
Tailors became associated with higher-end clothing during this period. In London, this status grew out of the dandy trend of the early 19th century, when new tailor shops were established around Savile Row
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven by hand on a loom. Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike cloth weaving where both the warp and the weft threads may be visible. In tapestry weaving, weft yarns are discontinuous, it is a plain weft-faced weave having weft threads of different colours worked over portions of the warp to form the design. Most weavers use a natural warp thread, such as linen or cotton; the weft threads are wool or cotton, but may include silk, silver, or other alternatives. First attested in English in 1467, the word tapestry derives from Old French tapisserie, from tapisser, meaning "to cover with heavy fabric, to carpet", in turn from tapis, "heavy fabric", via Latin tapes, the Latinisation of the Greek τάπης, "carpet, rug"; the earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek, ta-pe-ja, written in the Linear B syllabary. The success of decorative tapestry can be explained by its portability.
Kings and noblemen could transport tapestries from one residence to another. In churches, they were displayed on special occasions. Tapestries were draped on the walls of castles for insulation during winter, as well as for decorative display. In the Middle Ages and renaissance, a rich tapestry panel woven with symbolic emblems, mottoes, or coats of arms called a baldachin, canopy of state or cloth of state was hung behind and over a throne as a symbol of authority; the seat under such a canopy of state would be raised on a dais. The iconography of most Western tapestries goes back to written sources, the Bible and Ovid's Metamorphoses being two popular choices. Apart from the religious and mythological images, hunting scenes are the subject of many tapestries produced for indoor decoration. Tapestries have been used since at least Hellenistic times. Samples of Greek tapestry have been found preserved in the desert of Tarim Basin dating from the 3rd century BC; the form reached a new stage in Europe in the early 14th century AD.
The first wave of production occurred in Switzerland. Over time, the craft expanded to France and the Netherlands; the basic tools have remained much the same. In the 14th and 15th centuries, France was a thriving textile town; the industry specialised in fine wool tapestries which were sold to decorate palaces and castles all over Europe. Few of these tapestries survived the French Revolution as hundreds were burnt to recover the gold thread, woven into them. Arras is still used to refer to a rich tapestry no matter. Indeed, as literary scholar Rebecca Olson argues, arras were the most valuable objects in England during the early modern period and inspired writers such as William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser to weave these tapestries into their most important works such as Hamlet and The Faerie Queen. By the 16th century, the towns of Oudenaarde, Brussels and Enghien had become the centres of European tapestry production. In the 17th century, Flemish tapestries were arguably the most important productions, with many specimens of this era still extant, demonstrating the intricate detail of pattern and colour embodied in painterly compositions of monumental scale.
In the 19th century, William Morris resurrected the art of tapestry-making in the medieval style at Merton Abbey. Morris & Co. made successful series of tapestries for home and ecclesiastical uses, with figures based on cartoons by Edward Burne-Jones. Kilims and Navajo rugs are types of tapestry work. In the mid-twentieth century, new tapestry art forms were developed by children at the Ramses Wissa Wassef Art Centre in Harrania, by modern French artists under Jean Lurçat in Aubusson, France. Traditional tapestries are still made at the factory of Gobelins and a few other old European workshops, which repair and restore old tapestries. While tapestries have been created for many centuries and in every continent in the world, what distinguishes the contemporary field from its pre-World War ll history is the predominance of the artist as weaver in the contemporary medium; this trend has its roots in France during the 1950s where one of the "cartoonists" for the Aubusson Tapestry studios, Jean Lurçat spearheaded a revival of the medium by streamlining color selection, thereby simplifying production, by organizing a series of Biennial exhibits held in Lausanne, Switzerland.
The Polish work submitted to the first Biennale, which opened in 1962, was quite novel. Traditional workshops in Poland had collapsed as a result of the war. Art supplies in general were hard to acquire. Many Polish artists had learned to weave as part of their art school training and began creating individualistic work by using atypical materials like jute and sisal. With each Biennale the popularity of works focusing on exploring innovative constructions from a wide variety of fiber resounded around the world. There were many weavers in pre-war United States, but there had never been a prolonged system of workshops for producing tapestries. Therefore, weavers in America were self-taught and chose to design as well as weave their art. Through these Lausanne exhibitions, US artists/weavers, others in countries all over the world, were excited about the Polish trend towards experimental forms. Throughout the 1970s all weavers had explored some manner of techniques and materials in vogue at the time.
What this movement contributed to the newly realized field of art weaving, termed "contemporary tapestry", was the option for working
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, ductile unreactive, silverish-white transition metal, its name is derived from the Spanish term platino, meaning "little silver". Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements, it has six occurring isotopes. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust, with an average abundance of 5 μg/kg, it occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, given its important uses, it is valuable and is a major precious metal commodity. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals, it has remarkable resistance to corrosion at high temperatures, is therefore considered a noble metal. Platinum is found chemically uncombined as native platinum; because it occurs in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts.
It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in 1748 that it began to be investigated by scientists. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, jewelry. Being a heavy metal, it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts. Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer; as of 2018, the value of platinum is $833.00 per ounce. Pure platinum is a lustrous and malleable, silver-white metal. Platinum is more ductile than gold, silver or copper, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold; the metal has excellent resistance to corrosion, is stable at high temperatures and has stable electrical properties. Platinum does oxidize, forming PtO2, at 500 °C, it reacts vigorously with fluorine at 500 °C to form platinum tetrafluoride.
It is attacked by chlorine, bromine and sulfur. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but dissolves in hot aqua regia, to form chloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6, its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. Its resistance to wear and tarnish is well suited to use in fine jewellery; the most common oxidation states of platinum are +2 and +4. The +1 and +3 oxidation states are less common, are stabilized by metal bonding in bimetallic species; as is expected, tetracoordinate platinum compounds tend to adopt 16-electron square planar geometries. Although elemental platinum is unreactive, it dissolves in hot aqua regia to give aqueous chloroplatinic acid: Pt + 4 HNO3 + 6 HCl → H2PtCl6 + 4 NO2 + 4 H2OAs a soft acid, platinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on dimethyl sulfoxide. In 2007, Gerhard Ertl won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum.
Platinum has six occurring isotopes: 190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, 198Pt. The most abundant of these is 195 Pt, it is the only stable isotope with a non-zero spin. 190Pt is the least abundant at only 0.01%. Of the occurring isotopes, only 190Pt is unstable, though it decays with a half-life of 6.5×1011 years, causing an activity of 15 Bq/kg of natural platinum. 198 Pt can undergo alpha decay. Platinum has 31 synthetic isotopes ranging in atomic mass from 166 to 204, making the total number of known isotopes 39; the least stable of these is 166Pt, with a half-life of 300 µs, whereas the most stable is 193Pt with a half-life of 50 years. Most platinum isotopes decay by some combination of beta alpha decay. 188Pt, 191Pt, 193Pt decay by electron capture. 190Pt and 198Pt are predicted to have energetically favorable double beta decay paths. Platinum is an rare metal, occurring at a concentration of only 0.005 ppm in Earth's crust. It is sometimes mistaken for silver. Platinum is found chemically uncombined as native platinum and as alloy with the other platinum-group metals and iron mostly.
Most the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in alluvial deposits. The alluvial deposits used by pre-Columbian people in the Chocó Department, Colombia are still a source for platinum-group metals. Another large alluvial deposit is in the Ural Mountains, it is still mined. In nickel and copper deposits, platinum-group metals occur as sulfides, tellurides and arsenides, as end alloys with nickel or copper. Platinum arsenide, sperrylite, is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario, Canada. At Platinum, about 17,000 kg was mined between 1927 and 1975; the mine ceased operations in 1990. The rare sulfide minera
The Karawanks or Karavankas or Karavanks are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps on the border between Slovenia to the south and Austria to the north. With a total length of 120 kilometres in an east-west direction, the Karawanks chain is one of the longest ranges in Europe, it has a great tourist significance. Geographically and geologically, it is divided into the higher Western Karawanks and the lower-lying Eastern Karawanks, it is traversed by the Periadriatic Seam, separating the Apulian tectonic plate from the Eurasian Plate. The Karawanks form the continuation of the Carnic Alps east of the Slizza stream near the tripoint of Austria and Italy at Arnoldstein, they are confined by the Drava Valley in the north and the Sava in the south, separating it from the adjacent Julian Alps. In the east, they border on the Kamnik–Savinja Alps and Pohorje ranges. A number of mountain passes on important trade routes cross the range, like Wurzen, Loibl or Seeberg, which have been used since prehistory.
Nowadays the Austrian Karawanken Autobahn runs from Villach to the Karavanke motorway tunnel, which traverses the Western Karawanks connecting it with the Slovenian A2 motorway at Jesenice. A parallel railway line crosses the range through the Karawanks railway tunnel; the Karawanks are a popular mountaineering area with numerous mountain huts. Many of the peaks offer a good view of the Klagenfurt basin on the Austrian side and the Ljubljana basin on the Slovene side; the northern Austrian side is rocky and precipitous while the Slovenian side is less steep, covered with spruce forests and low bushy pine at lower elevations with grass higher up. The Karawanks were settled in the Stone Age, as indicated by findings from the Potok Cave. In Roman times, they represented the southern border of the Noricum province, of the Slavic principality of Carantania; the ancient geographer Claudius Ptolemy mentioned the Karwankas mountains about 150 AD. The name is derived from Celtic karv, a tradition that has survived in the Košuta massif.
From the first half of the 11th century, the Karawanks formed the border between the territory of the Duchy of Carinthia and the adjacent March of Carniola in the south. After Carniola had been elevated to a duchy in 1364, both lands became part of Inner Austria and were crown lands of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1526 up to World War I; the northern slopes of the Karawanks had been settled by Carinthian Slovenes in October 1920, the Carinthian Plebiscite decided that the crest was the border between the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In the final weeks of the Second World War the Karawanks passes witnessed intense fighting; the 24th SS Kampfgruppe commanded by SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS Heinz Harmel was ordered to keep the Karawanken passes open between Yugoslavia and Austria. This task was critical in allowing German forces to withdraw from Yugoslavia in order to surrender to British rather than Yugoslav forces; the Kampfgruppe succeeded in its final task, was one of the last German units to surrender, when it encountered the British 6th Armoured Division on 9 May 1945.
After World War II the Karawanks remained the border between Austria and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the independent Slovenia from 1991. Since the entry of Slovenia to the Schengen Area in 2007, a free movement of people and goods across the Karawanks has been allowed, the two countries started to aim for an economic integration of their border areas. Several place names have German names, today the peaks along the main chain of the Karawanks are displayed in Slovene and German on hiking maps: List of mountains in Slovenia List of mountains in Austria Slovenian Mountain Hiking Trail Karawanks on Hiking Trail Karawanks. More Information about Karawanks
Chenille may refer to either a type of yarn or fabric made from it. Chenille is the French word for caterpillar. According to textile historians, chenille-type yarn is a recent invention, dating to the 18th century and believed to have originated in France; the original technique involved weaving a "leno" fabric and cutting the fabric into strips to make the chenille yarn. Alexander Buchanan, a foreman in a Paisley fabric mill, is credited with introducing chenille fabric to Scotland in the 1830s. Here he developed a way to weave fuzzy shawls. Tufts of coloured wool were woven together into a blanket, cut into strips, they were treated by heating rollers. This resulted in a soft, fuzzy fabric named chenille. Another Paisley shawl manufacturer went on to further develop the technique. James Templeton and William Quiglay worked to refine this process while working on imitation oriental rugs; the intricate patterns used to be difficult to reproduce by automation, but this technique solved that issue.
These men patented the process but Quiglay soon sold out his interest. Templeton went on to open a successful carpet company that became a leading carpet manufacturer throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. In the 1920s and 1930s, Dalton in Northwest Georgia became the tufted bedspread capital of the US thanks to Catherine Evans who revived the handcraft technique in the 1890s. Hand-tufted bedspreads with an embroidered appearance became popular and were referred to as "chenille" a term which stuck. With effective marketing, chenille bedspreads appeared in city department stores and tufting subsequently became important to the economic development of North Georgia, maintaining families through the Depression era. Merchants organised "spread houses" where products tufted on farms were finished using heat washing to shrink and "set" the fabric. Trucks delivered pattern-stamped sheets and dyed chenille yarns to families for tufting before returning to pay the tufters and collect the spreads for finishing.
By this time, tufters all over the state were creating not only bedspreads but pillow shams and mats and selling them by the highway. The first to make a million dollars in the bedspread business, was Dalton County native, B. J. Bandy with the help of his wife, Dicksie Bradley Bandy, by the late 1930s, to be followed by many others. In the 1930s, usage for the tufted fabric became desirable for throws, mats and carpets, but not as yet, apparel. Companies shifted handwork from the farms into factories for greater control and productivity, encouraged as they were to pursue centralized production by the wage and hour provisions of the National Recovery Administration's tufted bedspread code. With the trend towards mechanization, adapted sewing machines were used to insert raised yarn tufts. Chenille became. Standards of industrial production were not introduced until the 1990s, when the Chenille International Manufacturers Association was formed with the mission to improve and develop the manufacturing processes.
From the 1970s each machine head made two chenille yarns straight onto bobbins, a machine could have over 100 spindles. Giesse was one of the first major machine manufacturers. Giesse acquired Iteco company in 2010 integrating the chenille yarn electronic quality control directly on their machine. Chenille fabrics are often used in Letterman jackets known as "varsity jackets", for the letter patches; the chenille yarn is manufactured by placing short lengths of yarn, called the "pile", between two "core yarns" and twisting the yarn together. The edges of these piles stand at right angles to the yarn's core, giving chenille both its softness and its characteristic look. Chenille will look different in one direction compared to another, as the fibers catch the light differently. Chenille can appear iridescent without using iridescent fibers; the yarn is manufactured from cotton, but can be made using acrylic and olefin. One of the problems with chenille yarns is that the tufts can create bare fabric.
This was resolved by using a low melt nylon in the core of the yarn and autoclaving the hanks of yarn to set the pile in place. Since the late 1990s, chenille appeared in quilting in a number of yards or finishes; as a yarn, it is a soft, feathery synthetic that when stitched onto a backing fabric, gives a velvety appearance known as imitation or "faux chenille". Real chenille quilts are made using patches of chenille fabric in various patterns and colors, with or without "ragging" the seams; the chenille effect by ragging the seams, has been adapted by quilters for a casual country look. A quilt with a so-called "chenille finish" is known as a "rag quilt" or, a "slash quilt" due to the frayed exposed seams of the patches and the method of achieving this. Layers of soft cotton are batted together in patches or blocks and sewn with wide, raw edges to the front; these edges are cut, or slashed, to create a worn, soft, "chenille" effect. Many chenille fabrics should be dry. If hand or machine-washed, they should be machine-dried using low heat, or as a heavy textile, dried flat to avoid stretching, never hung.
Chenille at apparelsearch.com Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Chenille". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press
Naqada is a town on the west bank of the Nile in Qena Governorate, Egypt. It was known in Egyptian as nbwt, which became Coptic Ⲉⲙⲃⲱ, borrowed as classical antiquity as Ombos, its name derives from Egyptian nbw, meaning "gold", on account of the proximity of gold mines in the Eastern Desert. Naqada comprises some villages such as Tukh, Khatara and Zawayda, it stands near the site of a necropolis from prehistoric Egypt around 4400–3000 BCE. Naqada has given its name to the widespread Naqada culture, which existed at the time here and at other sites, including el Badari, the Gerzeh culture and Nekhen; the large quantity of remains from Naqada have enabled the dating of the entire culture, throughout Egypt and environs. The town was the centre of the cult of Set and large tombs were built there around c. 3500 BC. The town is one of few to have had a Coptic majority in 1960. List of cities and towns in Egypt Amratian culture Ifri N'Ammar Kelif el Boroud Kulubnarti Luxmanda Naqada III