The Ronettes were an American girl group from New York City. One of the most popular groups from the 1960s, they placed nine songs on the Billboard Hot 100, five of which became Top 40 hits; the trio from Spanish Harlem, New York, consisted of lead singer Veronica Bennett, her older sister Estelle Bennett, their cousin Nedra Talley. Among the Ronettes' most famous songs are "Be My Baby", "Baby, I Love You", " Breakin' Up", "Walking in the Rain", all of which charted on the Billboard Hot 100. "Walking in the Rain" won a Grammy Award in 1965, "Be My Baby" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1999. The Ronettes were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2007; the girls had sung together since they were teenagers known as "The Darling Sisters". Signed first by Colpix Records in 1961, they moved to Phil Spector's Philles Records in March 1963 and changed their name to "The Ronettes". In late 1964, the group released their only studio album, Presenting the Fabulous Ronettes Featuring Veronica, which entered the Billboard charts at number 96.
Rolling Stone ranked it number 422 on its list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The group was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 2004; the Ronettes were the only girl group to tour with the Beatles. The Ronettes began as a family act where the girls grew up in Manhattan. According to Nedra Talley, they started singing during childhood visits to their grandmother's home. "Estelle and Veronica are sisters," she said in a interview. "I'm their cousin. Our mothers are sisters. We came out of a family that, on Saturday nights, home for us was at our grandmother's, entertaining each other." The Bennetts' mother was Cherokee. Their cousin, Talley, is African-American and Puerto Rican; the trio had a great-grandfather, Chinese."By the time I was eight, I was working up whole numbers for our family's little weekend shows," Ronnie Spector recalled. "Then Estelle would get up onstage and do a song, or she'd join Nedra or my cousin Elaine and me in a number we'd worked out in three-part harmony."Furthering their interest in show business, Estelle was enrolled at Startime, a popular dancing school in the 1950s, while Ronnie became fascinated with Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers.
In 1957, Ronnie formed the group which would become known as the Ronettes. Composed of Ronnie, her sister Estelle, their cousins Nedra and Elaine, the five girls learned how to perfect their harmonies first at their grandmother's house, they became proficient in songs such as “Goodnight Sweetheart” and “Red Red Robin”. Emulating Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers, the girls added their male cousin Ira to the group and signed up for a Wednesday night amateur show at the Apollo Theatre run by a friend of Ronnie and Estelle's mother; the show started out as a disaster. "I strutted out across the stage, singing as loud as I could," Ronnie recalled. "When I heard a few hands of scattered applause, I sang louder. That brought a little more applause, all I needed." After their night at the Apollo, Ira and Diane left the group. After the curious renaming of the group to "Ronnie and the Relatives", Ronnie and Nedra began taking singing lessons two afternoons per week. Appearing at local bar mitzvahs and sock hops, they met Phil Halikus, who introduced them to Colpix Records producer Stu Phillips.
According to Ronnie, Phillips played the piano while the women auditioned for him, singing "What's So Sweet About Sweet Sixteen". The audition was successful, the group was brought into the studio in June 1961 and recorded four tracks: "I Want a Boy", "What's So Sweet About Sweet Sixteen", "I'm Gonna Quit While I'm Ahead", "My Guiding Angel". Colpix released "I Want a Boy" in August 1961 and "I'm Gonna Quit While I'm Ahead" in January 1962, the first singles credited to Ronnie and the Relatives. While both singles failed to chart on the Billboard Top 100, fate intervened in advancing the group's success. A fortuitous case of mistaken identity led to Ronnie and the Relatives making their debut – as dancers rather than a singing act – at New York City's hip The Peppermint Lounge in 1961, it was the height of the Twist craze, under-aged Nedra and Ronnie disguised themselves to get in. The girls' mothers showed them how to put on make-up and fix their hair to make them look at least 23; when they arrived outside the club, its manager mistook Ronnie and Nedra for the trio supposed to dance behind house band Joey Dee and the Starliters for the evening.
He put them onstage to perform in their place. During the show, Starliter David Brigati handed the mic over to Ronnie when she started to sing Ray Charles' "What'd I Say". Soon afterward and the Relatives became a permanent act at The Peppermint Lounge, each earning $10 per night to dance The Twist and sing a song at some point in the show. Ronnie and the Relatives soon became “The Ronettes”. Colpix issued the first two singles credited to the Ronettes, "Silhouettes" and a re-issue of "I'm Gonna Quit While I'm Ahead", on its May label in April and June 1962, respectively. Both singles disappointingly failed to chart; that year, they were flown to Miami to open a Florida branch of The Peppermint Lounge. After their performance at the Miami gala, radio host Murray the K came backstage and introduced himself to them, he asked the women to begin appearing at his shows at The Brooklyn Fox in New York. They agreed, taking the Fox stage in 1962 and completing a transition from Murray the K's "Dancing Gir
"Louie Louie" is an American rhythm and blues song written and composed by Richard Berry in 1955 and best known for the 1963 hit version by The Kingsmen. It has become a standard with hundreds of versions recorded by different artists; the song is based on the tune "El Loco Cha Cha” popularized by bandleader René Touzet and is an example of Latin influence on American popular music. "Louie Louie" tells, in simple verse–chorus form, the first-person story of a Jamaican sailor returning to the island to see his lady love. The Kingsmen's recording was the subject of an FBI investigation about the supposed, but nonexistent, obscenity of the lyrics, an investigation that ended without prosecution; the recording notably includes the drummer yelling "Fuck!" after dropping his drumstick at the 0:54 mark. "Louie Louie" has been recognized by organizations and publications worldwide for its influence on the history of rock and roll. A partial list includes the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Grammy Hall of Fame, National Public Radio, VH1, Rolling Stone Magazine, the National Endowment for the Arts, the Recording Industry Association of America.
In addition to new versions appearing on YouTube and elsewhere, other major examples of the song's legacy include the celebration of International Louie Louie Day every year on April 11. The tune was written as "Amarren Al Loco" by Cuban bandleader Rosendo Ruiz Jr. known as Rosendo Ruiz Quevedo, but became best known in the "El Loco Cha Cha" arrangement by René Touzet which included a rhythmic ten-note "1-2-3 1–2 1-2-3 1–2" riff. Touzet performed the tune in Los Angeles clubs in the 1950s. In Berry's mind, the words "Louie Louie" superimposed themselves over the bass riff. Lyrically, the first person perspective of the song was influenced by "One for My Baby,", sung from the perspective of a customer talking to a bartender. Berry cited Chuck Berry's "Havana Moon" and his exposure to Latin American music for the song's speech pattern and references to Jamaica. Richard Berry released his version in April of 1957 as a B-side, with his backing band the Pharaohs, scored a regional hit on the west coast in San Francisco.
When the group toured the Pacific Northwest, local R&B bands began to play the song, increasing its popularity. The track was re-released as an A-side. However, the single never charted on Billboard's national blues or pop charts. Berry's label reported. After a series of unsuccessful follow-ups, Berry sold his portion of publishing and songwriting rights for $750 to the head of Flip Records in 1959. While the title of the song is rendered with a comma, in 1988, Berry told Esquire magazine that the correct title of the song was "Louie Louie," with no comma. Although similar to the original, the version on Rhino's 1983 The Best of Louie, Louie compilation is a note-for-note re-recording created because licensing could not be obtained for Berry's 1957 version; the original version was not released on CD until the Ace Records Love That Louie compilation in 2002. By some accounts "Louie Louie" is the world's most recorded rock song with over 1,600 versions and counting. Robin Roberts developed an interest in rock'n' roll and rhythm and blues records as a high school student in Tacoma, Washington.
Among the songs he began performing as an occasional guest singer with a local band, the Bluenotes, in 1958 were "Louie Louie", which he had heard on Berry's obscure original single, Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin", which gave him his stage name. In 1959, Roberts began singing with another local band, the Wailers. Known for his dynamic onstage performances, Roberts added "Louie Louie" to the band's set and, in 1960 recorded the track with the Wailers as his backing band; the arrangement, devised by Roberts with the band, included Roberts' ad-lib "Let's give it to'em, RIGHT NOW!!" Released on the band's own label, Etiquette, in early 1961, it became a hit locally and was reissued and promoted by Liberty Records in Los Angeles, but it failed to chart. Roberts was killed in an automobile accident in 1967. On April 6, 1963, a rock and roll group from Portland, called the Kingsmen, chose "Louie Louie" as their second recording, their first having been "Peter Gunn Rock"; the Kingsmen recorded the song at Inc..
Motion Pictures and Recording in Portland. The session cost $50, the band split the cost; the session was produced by Ken Chase. Chase was a local radio personality on the AM rock station 91 KISN and owned the teen nightclub that hosted the Kingsmen as their house band; the engineer for the session was Robert Lindahl. The Kingsmen's lead singer Jack Ely based his version on the recording by Rockin' Robin Roberts with the Fabulous Wailers, unintention
Fillmore East was rock promoter Bill Graham's rock venue on Second Avenue near East 6th Street in the Lower East Side neighborhood, now called the East Village neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan of New York City. It was open from March 8, 1968, to June 27, 1971, featured some of the biggest acts in rock music at the time; the Fillmore East was a companion to Graham's Fillmore Auditorium, its successor, the Fillmore West, in San Francisco, Graham's home base. The theatre at 105 Second Avenue that became the Fillmore East was built as a Yiddish theater in 1925-26 – designed by Harrison Wiseman in the Medieval Revival style – at a time when the section of Second Avenue was known as the "Yiddish Theater District" and the "Jewish Rialto" because of the numerous theatres that catered to a Yiddish-speaking audience. Called the Commodore Theater, independently operated, it was taken over by Loews Inc. and became a movie theater, the Loews Commodore. It became the Village Theatre, owned by Roger Euster, with on-site management by Bill Barenholtz.
When Bill Graham took over the theatre in 1968, it had fallen into disrepair. Despite the deceptively small marquee and façade, the theater had a capacity of 2,700; the venue provided Graham with an East Coast counterpart to his existing Fillmore in San Francisco, California. Opening on March 8, 1968, the Fillmore East became known as "The Church of Rock and Roll," with two-show, triple-bill concerts several nights a week. Graham would alternate acts between the East and West Coast venues; until early 1971, bands were booked to play two shows per night, at 8 pm and 11 pm, on both Friday and Saturday nights. Among the notable acts to play the Fillmore East was Jimi Hendrix, his album Band of Gypsys was recorded live on New Year's Day 1970. However before Hendrix hit the stage, British blues-rock trio Cream played the Fillmore East when it was called the "Village Theater" on September 20 & 23 1967; the Kinks played October 17th and 18th, 1969, supported by the Bonzo Dog Band. John Lennon and Yoko Ono sat in with Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention at the theater on June 6, 1971.
The Allman Brothers Band played so many shows at Fillmore East that they were sometimes called "Bill Graham's house band". Jefferson Airplane performed six shows and Taj Mahal played eight shows at the venue, while Crosby, Stills and Young did four shows in September 1969 and six performances in June 1970. Led Zeppelin made four appearances in early 1969. Amateur film footage of their January 31 performance can be viewed at the Led Zeppelin website; the Joshua Light Show, headed by Joshua White, was an integral part of many performances, with its psychedelic art lighting on a backdrop behind many live bands. From the summer of 1970, the Pig Light Show under the direction of Marc L. Rubinstein performed at the theater from time to time trading duties until the venue's closing in 1971 with Joe's Lights, made up of former members of the Joshua Light Show which remained the de facto house light show. National Educational Television taped a show on September 1970, for broadcast, it featured Elvin Bishop Group, Albert King, Sha Na Na, Van Morrison and Joe's Lights.
The Allman Brothers were taped for broadcast but due to technical difficulties, the segment with them was not aired. The show, "Welcome To Fillmore East" was aired on WNET channel 13 in NYC and simulcast on WNEW-FM radio on October 10, 1970, at 10:00 pm in the NYC area. A thirty-minute clip from that show of the Allmans can be seen on YouTube; because of the auditorium's great acoustics, many live albums were recorded at the Fillmore East, including: The Allman Brothers Band – At Fillmore East The Allman Brothers Band – Fillmore East, February 1970 on Grateful Dead Records The Allman Brothers Band – The 1971 Fillmore East Recordings six CD set of both early and late shows from March 12 and 13, 1971, the complete closing show from June 27, 1971. Released by The Island Def Jam Music Group, 2014. Buffalo Bob Smith – Live at Bill Graham's Fillmore East. Six CD set released in 2006 on Hip-O Select. Crosby, Stills and Young – 4 Way Street Miles Davis – Live at the Fillmore East, March 7, 1970: It's About That Time.
Derek and the Dominos – In Concert. Y. N. Y. Late Show, Nov. 7, 1970 Virgil Fox/Heavy Organ – Bach Live at Fillmore East.
The pompadour is a hairstyle named for Madame de Pompadour, a mistress of King Louis XV. Although there are numerous variations of the style for men and children, the basic concept is hair swept upwards from the face and worn high over the forehead, sometimes upswept around the sides and back as well. After its initial popularity among fashionable women in the 18th century, the style was revived as part of the Gibson Girl look in the 1890s and continued to be in vogue until World War I; the style was in vogue for women once again in the 1940s. The men's version, as worn by existentialist Franz Kafka and early country and rock and roll stars such as Elvis Presley and Johnny Cash, was popular in the late 1950s and early 1960s, has enjoyed a renaissance in the mid 2010s. Variations of the pompadour style continue to be worn by women in the 21st century. Among women, the hairstyle has become marginally popular again in the first few years of the 21st century, it can be created by backcombing or ratting at the roots of the hair on the sides of the pompadour towards the top of the head.
The hair is combed up and over the ratted hair, off the forehead, the front up in a curl straight back, the sides pulled back towards the center. During the 1980s, the pompadour hair style was adopted by those enamoured with vintage culture of the late 1950s and early 1960s, which included antique cars, hot rods, muscle cars, American folk music, Teddy Boys, rockabilly bands, Elvis Presley impersonators. Celebrities known for wearing pompadours during the 1950s and 1960s include Little Richard and Afghanistan's Ahmad Zahir as well as actors such as James Dean, Marlon Brando, Desi Arnaz. There are Latins |Latin variants of the hair style more associated with European and Argentine tango fashion trends and with late 20th century musical genres such as rockabilly and country. During the 1930s and 1940s, the pompadour and ducktail were popular among hep cats and Mexican zoot suiters; this style has become popular among cholos, Italian Americans and the "goombah" or "Guido" subculture. The style is parodied in shows like The Sopranos or Jersey Shore, which portray negatively stereotyped characters—especially Silvio Dante.
Notable gangsters, such as John Gotti, have sported the hair style. In modern Japanese popular culture, the pompadour is a stereotypical hairstyle worn by gang members, members of the yakuza and its junior counterpart bōsōzoku, other similar groups such as the yankii. In Japan the style is known as the "Regent" hairstyle, is caricatured in various forms of entertainment media such as anime, manga and music videos into improbable levels of length and volume; the punch perm combines elements of the traditional pompadour. This style, too, is stereotypically worn by less reputable members of society, including the yakuza, bōsōzoku, chinpira. For the main hero of the long-running manga series "Jojo's Bizarre Adventure"'s 4th part, Diamond is Unbreakable, Josuke Higashikata, the hairstyle became a signature detail. In the psychobilly subculture, the pompadour is modified to form the quiff; the quiff is a hairstyle worn by Psychobilly musicians. A psychobilly wedge is a sort of mix between a mohawk hairstyle and the pompadour, where the hair along the side of the head is shaved and the middle is not spiked but slicked back and stood up like a pompadour.
Today, the pompadour hairstyle is worn on celebrities which include Conan O'Brien, Bruno Mars, David Beckham, Drake Bell, Zac Efron, Zayn Malik, Alex Turner of Arctic Monkeys, Justin Timberlake. The pompadour hairstyle came from French sailors hats that had pompoms on them, they used these to detect if they would hit their head on the beams on the ship. Big hair Bouffant Ducktail Definition Merriam-Webster definition. Retrieved 25 April 2005. Rockabilly connection "Lord Carrett's Pompadour Page". Retrieved 25 April 2005. "Pompadour". A Word A Day Archives. Retrieved 25 April 2005. Trebay, Guy. "Hidden for Years at Graceland, His Clothes Have Left the Building". Elvis Australia. Retrieved 25 April 2005. Setzer connection Abrams, Kerry. "Setzer Swings Into Town". The Daily Beacon. Retrieved 25 April 2005. Burrell, Dan. "More Discussion Regarding Emergent Methodology". Whirled Views With Dan Burrell. Retrieved 30 December 2008. Hinke, Christina M. "Brian Setzer Puts the Swing Into the Holidays". Associated Press, reprinted on Hoodoo Voodoo Lounge fan site.
Retrieved 25 April 2005. Hinke, Christina M.. "Brian Setzer Rocks and Doo-wops his Way Through New Album". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 April 2005. Townsend Records Shop description of Brian Setzer. Retrieved 25 April 2005. Examples of non-rockabilly male musicians with pompadours "Nick Cave Kinder and Gentler? Not Quite".. Reprise Records News. Retrieved 25 April 2005. Leiby, Richard. "Joe Henry: Too Big Too Fit". The Washington Post, pg. C1. Tango and Latin connection Foley, Dylan. "Tango: Looking for Love in All the Wrong Places". Toronto Globe and Mail. Retrieved 25 April 2005. "Tressed to Kill".. New York Post. Retrieved 25 April 2005
William Morris Agency
The William Morris Agency was a Hollywood-based talent agency. It represented some of the best known 20th century entertainers in film and music. During its 109 year tenure it came to be regarded as the "first great talent agency in show business". In April 2009, WMA announced it would merge with the Endeavor Talent Agency to form William Morris Endeavor which owns Miss Universe. In 1898, William Morris, a German Jewish immigrant to the US, posted a cross-hatch trademark above an office door in New York City – four "X's", representing a W superimposed on an M – and went into business as William Morris, Vaudeville Agent. By the time WMA formally incorporated in New York State on January 31, 1918, Morris' son William Morris Jr. and an office boy named Abraham Lastfogel, after becoming a talent agent in his own right, entered into a business partnership with Morris Sr. As silent film grew into viewed entertainment, Morris encouraged his clients to experiment in the new medium. Stars such as Charlie Chaplin, Al Jolson, the Marx Brothers, Mae West were all represented by the company.
By 1930, Morris had turned over leadership of the agency to Lastfogel. In 1932, five years after his retirement, William Morris, Sr. died from heart failure. By that time, the Agency had begun the process of relocating from Hollywood and Vine to Canon Drive in Beverly Hills; the William Morris Agency attained further industry dominance with the December 1949 acquisition of the Berg-Allenberg Agency. The senior agent in the motion picture department during the 1950s was Mike Zimring. By 1965, WMA's Music Department had emerged as an industry powerhouse, among others, the Rolling Stones, Sonny & Cher, the Beach Boys, the Byrds. Less than 10 years in 1973, the Agency's newly established Nashville office provided another significant boost to the operations of William Morris, extending the Agency's reach into country music and beyond. In the early 1980s, WMA built the William Morris Plaza located at 150 El Camino Drive, directly across the street from its main building at 151 El Camino. In 1989, WMA acquired the Jim Halsey Company.
In the early 1990s, WMA's Literary Department announced the largest book-to-screen deal inked when it sold the television rights for Scarlett, the sequel to Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind. In 2000, WMA acquired The Writers Shop, owned by Jennifer Rudolph Walsh. WMA's Miami Beach office opened in 2003, WMA's Shanghai office opened in 2004. In 2007, the Agency expanded its London music operation, underscoring WMA's continued commitment to the international marketplace. Along with the addition of new personnel, the London office moved into the iconic Centre Point Tower. In 2003, a seismic shift occurred in the agency landscape when WMA's SVP and Theatre topper, George Lane, fellow agent in charge of foreign rights, Michael Cardonick, left WMA to open Creative Artists Agency's New York City office and Theatrical Department. On April 27, 2009, WMA and the Endeavor Talent Agency announced that they were merging to form William Morris Endeavor. Endeavor executives Ari Emanuel and Patrick Whitesell were recognized as the architects of the deal and took the roles of WME Co-CEOs.
Following the official announcement of the merger, nearly 100 WMA employees and former board members were let go. One of those leaving was Jim Wiatt, who came to WMA in 1999 from International Creative Management, where he was Vice-Chairman, in 1999, he had joined WMA as President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, had risen to Board Chairman. After the merger, WMA permanently relocated its offices to the Endeavor building at 9601 Wilshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California; the WMA Agent Training Program referred to as the "mailroom", was established in the 1940s and is well known for its roster of successful alumni. Since the 1970s the program has been replicated at other talent agencies and studios, many of which were headed by former mailroom trainees. Once accepted, trainees rotate through different departments, starting with the mailroom, before becoming a full-time assistant or coordinator. WMA's longtime competitor, Creative Artists Agency, was founded in 1975 by Michael Ovitz, Ronald Meyer, William Haber, Michael S. Rosenfeld, Rowland Perkins, all former WMA agent trainees.
David Geffen once called the WMA Agent Training Program "The Harvard School of Show Business – only better: no grades, no exams, a small stipend and great placement opportunities." Graduates from the Training Program were perceived at a high level of prestige within the entertainment industry, because of the caliber of notable alums that have graduated from the program. Former Chairman Norman Brokaw became the first mailboy in the Beverly Hills Mailroom at age 15; the Agent Training program still exists today at William Morris Endeavor. It was famously documented in David Rensin's 2003 book, The Mailroom: Hollywood History from the Bottom Up. Haskell, Sam. Promises I Made My Mother. ISBN 978-0345506559. Rensin, David; the Mailroom: Hollywood History from the Bottom Up. ISBN 978-0345442345. Rose, Frank; the Agency: William Morris and the Hidden History of Show Business. ISBN 978-0887307492. Official website
John Winston Ono Lennon was an English singer and peace activist who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music. He and fellow member Paul McCartney formed a much-celebrated songwriting partnership. Along with George Harrison and Ringo Starr, the group achieved worldwide fame during the 1960s. In 1969, Lennon started the Plastic Ono Band with his second wife, Yoko Ono, he continued to pursue a solo career following the the Beatles' break-up in April 1970, he was born as John Winston Lennon in Liverpool, where he became involved in the skiffle craze as a teenager. In 1957, he formed his first band, the Quarrymen, which evolved into the Beatles in 1960. Further to his Plastic Ono Band singles such as "Give Peace a Chance" and "Instant Karma!", Lennon subsequently produced albums that included John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band and Imagine, songs such as "Working Class Hero", "Imagine" and "Happy Xmas". After moving to New York City in 1971, he never returned to England for the remainder of his life.
In 1975, he disengaged himself from the music business to raise his infant son Sean, but re-emerged with Ono in 1980 with the album Double Fantasy. He was shot and killed in the archway of his Manhattan apartment building three weeks after the album's release. Lennon revealed a rebellious nature and acerbic wit in his music, drawings, on film and in interviews, he was controversial through his political and peace activism. From 1971 onwards, his criticism of the Vietnam War resulted in a three-year attempt by the Nixon administration to deport him; some of his songs were adopted as anthems by the larger counterculture. By 2012, Lennon's solo album sales in the United States had exceeded 14 million units, he had 25 number-one singles on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart as a co-writer or performer. In 2002, Lennon was voted eighth in a BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons and in 2008, Rolling Stone ranked him the fifth-greatest singer of all time. In 1987, he was posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame.
Lennon was twice posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: first in 1988 as a member of the Beatles and again in 1994 as a solo artist. Lennon was born on 9 October 1940 at Liverpool Maternity Hospital, to Alfred Lennon. Alfred was a merchant seaman of Irish descent, away at the time of his son's birth, his parents named him John Winston Lennon after his paternal grandfather, John "Jack" Lennon, Prime Minister Winston Churchill. His father was away from home but sent regular pay cheques to 9 Newcastle Road, where Lennon lived with his mother; when he came home six months he offered to look after the family, but Julia, by pregnant with another man's child, rejected the idea. After her sister Mimi complained to Liverpool's Social Services twice, Julia gave her custody of Lennon. In July 1946, Lennon's father visited her and took his son to Blackpool, secretly intending to emigrate to New Zealand with him. Julia followed them – with her partner at the time, Bobby Dykins – and after a heated argument, his father forced the five-year-old to choose between them.
In one account of this incident, Lennon twice chose his father, but as his mother walked away, he began to cry and followed her. According to author Mark Lewisohn, Lennon's parents agreed that Julia should take him and give him a home. A witness, there that day, Billy Hall, has said that the dramatic portrayal of a young John Lennon being forced to make a decision between his parents is inaccurate. Lennon had no further contact with Alf for close to 20 years. Throughout the rest of his childhood and adolescence, Lennon lived at Mendips, 251 Menlove Avenue, with Mimi and her husband George Toogood Smith, who had no children of their own, his aunt purchased volumes of short stories for him, his uncle, a dairyman at his family's farm, bought him a mouth organ and engaged him in solving crossword puzzles. Julia visited Mendips on a regular basis, when John was 11 years old, he visited her at 1 Blomfield Road, where she played him Elvis Presley records, taught him the banjo, showed him how to play "Ain't That a Shame" by Fats Domino.
In September 1980, Lennon commented about his family and his rebellious nature: Part of me would like to be accepted by all facets of society and not be this loudmouthed lunatic poet/musician. But I cannot be what I am not... I was the one who all the other boys' parents – including Paul's father – would say, "Keep away from him"... The parents instinctively recognised I was a troublemaker, meaning I did not conform and I would influence their children, which I did. I did my best to disrupt every friend's home... Out of envy that I didn't have this so-called home... but I did... There were five women. Five strong, beautiful women, five sisters. One happened to be my mother. Just couldn't deal with life, she was the youngest and she had a husband who ran away to sea and the war was on and she couldn't cope with me, I ended up living with her elder sister. Now those women were fantastic... And, my first feminist education... I would infiltrate the other boys' minds. I could say, "Parents are not gods because I don't live with mine and, therefore, I know."
He visited his cousin, Stanley Parkes, who lived in Fleetwood and took him on trips to local cinemas. During the school holidays, Parkes visited Lennon with Leila Harvey, another cousin, the threesome travelled to Blackpool two or three times a week to watch shows, they would
A cappella music is group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. It contrasts with cantata, accompanied singing; the term "a cappella" was intended to differentiate between Renaissance polyphony and Baroque concertato style. In the 19th century a renewed interest in Renaissance polyphony coupled with an ignorance of the fact that vocal parts were doubled by instrumentalists led to the term coming to mean unaccompanied vocal music; the term is used, albeit as a synonym for alla breve. A cappella music was used in religious music church music as well as anasheed and zemirot. Gregorian chant is an example of a cappella singing, as is the majority of secular vocal music from the Renaissance; the madrigal, up until its development in the early Baroque into an instrumentally-accompanied form, is usually in a cappella form. Jewish and Christian music were a cappella, this practice has continued in both of these religions as well as in Islam.
The polyphony of Christian a cappella music began to develop in Europe around the late 15th century AD, with compositions by Josquin des Prez. The early a cappella polyphonies may have had an accompanying instrument, although this instrument would double the singers' parts and was not independent. By the 16th century, a cappella polyphony had further developed, but the cantata began to take the place of a cappella forms. 16th century a cappella polyphony, continued to influence church composers throughout this period and to the present day. Recent evidence has shown that some of the early pieces by Palestrina, such as what was written for the Sistine Chapel was intended to be accompanied by an organ "doubling" some or all of the voices; such is seen in the life of Palestrina becoming a major influence on Bach, most notably in the Mass in B Minor. Other composers that utilized the a cappella style, if only for the occasional piece, were Claudio Monteverdi and his masterpiece, Lagrime d'amante al sepolcro dell'amata, composed in 1610, Andrea Gabrieli when upon his death it was discovered many choral pieces, one of, in the unaccompanied style.
Learning from the preceding two composeres, Heinrich Schütz utilized the a cappella style in numerous pieces, chief among these were the pieces in the oratorio style, which were traditionally performed during the Easter week and dealt with the religious subject matter of that week, such as Christ's suffering and the Passion. Five of Schutz's Historien were Easter pieces, of these the latter three, which dealt with the passion from three different viewpoints, those of Matthew and John, were all done a cappella style; this was a near requirement for this type of piece, the parts of the crowd were sung while the solo parts which were the quoted parts from either Christ or the authors were performed in a plainchant. In the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the music performed in the liturgies is sung without instrumental accompaniment. Bishop Kallistos Ware says, "The service is sung though there may be no choir... In the Orthodox Church today, as in the early Church, singing is unaccompanied and instrumental music is not found."
This a cappella behavior arises from strict interpretation of Psalms 150, which states, Let every thing that hath breath praise the Lord. Praise ye the Lord. In keeping with this philosophy, early Russian musika which started appearing in the late 17th century, in what was known as khorovïye kontsertï made a cappella adaptations of Venetian-styled pieces, such as the treatise, Grammatika musikiyskaya, by Nikolai Diletsky. Divine Liturgies and Western Rite masses composed by famous composers such as Peter Tchaikovsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Alexander Arkhangelsky, Mykola Leontovych are fine examples of this. Present-day Christian religious bodies known for conducting their worship services without musical accompaniment include some Presbyterian churches devoted to the regulative principle of worship, Old Regular Baptists, Primitive Baptists, Plymouth Brethren, Churches of Christ, Church of God, the Old German Baptist Brethren, Doukhobors the Byzantine Rite and the Amish, Old Order Mennonites and Conservative Mennonites.
Certain high church services and other musical events in liturgical churches may be a cappella, a practice remaining from apostolic times. Many Mennonites conduct some or all of their services without instruments. Sacred Harp, a type of folk music, is an a cappella style of religious singing with shape notes sung at singing conventions. Opponents of musical instruments in the Christian worship believe that such opposition is supported by the Christian scriptures and Church history; the scriptures referenced are Matthew 26:30. There is no reference to instrumental music in early church worship in the New Testament, or in the worship of churches for the first six centuries. Several reasons have been posited throughout church history for the absence of instrumental music in church worship. Christians who believe in a cappella music today believe that in the Israelite worship assembly during Temple worship only the Priests of Levi sang and offered animal sacrifices, whereas in the church era, all Christians are commanded to sing praises to God.
They believe that if God