Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings and lords of Iran. It was adopted by the kings of Shirvan namely the Shirvanshahs, it was used by Persianate societies such as the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire, Mughal emperors of the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate, Afghanistan. In Iran the title was continuously used; the word descends from Old Persian xšāyaθiya "king", which used to be considered a borrowing from Median, as it was compared to Avestan xšaϑra-, "power" and "command", corresponding to Sanskrit kṣatra-, from which kṣatriya-, "warrior", is derived. Most the form xšāyaθiya has been analyzed as a genuine, inherited Persian formation with the meaning'pertaining to reigning, ruling'; this formation with the "origin" suffix -iya is derived from a deverbal abstract noun *xšāy-aθa-'rule, Herrschaft', from the verb xšāy-'to rule, reign'. The full, Old Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was Xšāyathiya Xšāyathiyānām or Šāhe Šāhān, "King of Kings" or "Emperor".
This title has ancient Near Mesopotamian precedents. The earliest attestation of such a title dates back to the Middle Assyrian period as šar šarrāni, in reference to the Assyrian ruler Tukulti-Ninurta I. Šāh, or Šāhanšāh to use the full-length term, was the title of the Persian emperors. It includes rulers of the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenid dynasty, who unified Persia in the sixth century BC, created a vast intercontinental empire, as well as rulers of succeeding dynasties throughout history until the twentieth century and the Imperial House of Pahlavi. While in Western sources the Ottoman monarch is most referred to as a Sultan, in Ottoman territory he was most referred to as Padishah and several used the title Shah in their tughras, their male offspring received prince. The full title of the Achaemenid rulers was Xšāyaθiya Xšāyaθiyānām "King of Kings" in Old Persian, corresponding to Middle Persian Šāhān Šāh, Modern Persian شاهنشاه. In Greek, this phrase was translated as βασιλεὺς τῶν βασιλέων, "King of Kings", equivalent to "Emperor".
Both terms were shortened to their roots shah and basileus. In Western languages, Shah is used as an imprecise rendering of Šāhanšāh; the term was first recorded in English in 1564 as a title for the King of Persia and with the spelling Shaw. For a long time, Europeans thought of Shah as a particular royal title rather than an imperial one, although the monarchs of Persia regarded themselves as emperors of the Persian Empire; the European opinion changed in the Napoleonic era, when Persia was an ally of the Western powers eager to make the Ottoman Sultan release his hold on various European parts of the Ottoman Empire, western emperors had obtained the Ottoman acknowledgement that their western imperial styles were to be rendered in Turkish as padishah. In the twentieth century, the Shah of Persia, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi adopted the title شاهنشاه Šāhanšāh and, in western languages, the rendering Emperor, he styled his wife شهبانو Shahbānu. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was the last Shah, as the Iranian monarchy was abolished after the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
From the reign of Ashot III, the Bagratid kings of Armenia used the title shahanshah, meaning "king of kings". The title Padishah was adopted from the Iranians by the Ottomans and by various other monarchs claiming imperial rank, such as the Mughals that established their dynasty in the Indian subcontinent. Another subsidiary style of the Ottoman and Mughal rulers was Shah-i-Alam Panah, meaning "King, refuge of the world"; the Shah-Armens, used the title Shāh-i Arman. Some monarchs were known by a contraction of the kingdom's name with shah, such as Khwarezmshah, ruler of the short-lived Muslim realm of Khwarezmia, or the Shirvanshah of the historical Iranian region of Shirvan The kings of Georgia called themselves shahanshah alongside their other titles. Georgian title mepetmepe was inspired by the shahanshah title. Shahzadeh. In the realm of a shah, a prince or princess of the royal blood was logically called shahzada as the term is derived from shah using the Persian patronymic suffix -zādeh or -zāda, "born from" or "descendant of".
However the precise full styles can differ in the court traditions of each shah's kingdom. This title was given to the princes of the Ottoman Empire and was used by the princes of Islamic India such as in the Mughal Empire; the Mughals and the Sultans of Delhi were not of Indian origin but of Mongol-Turkic origin and were influenced by Persian culture, a continuation of traditions and habits since Persian language was first introduced into the region by Persianised Turkic and Afghan dynasties centuries earlier. Thus, in Oudh, only sons of the
Frank Fenton Moran, known as Frank Fenton, was an American stage and television actor. Born Francis Fenton Moran, the Georgetown University graduate lettered as a tackle on the school's football team, he was active in Georgetown's undergraduate dramatic club, for which he directed and wrote plays. Fenton started his career on stage in New York, acting on Broadway in An American Tragedy billed as Frank Moran; as Frank Fenton, he starred in the Broadway versions of Susan and God with Gertrude Lawrence and as George Kittredge in The Philadelphia Story alongside Katharine Hepburn. His other Broadway credits include Stork Mad, O Evening Star, Dead End, The O'Flynn, he appeared on stage in London, toured with Katherine Cornell in Romeo & Juliet and other plays. Fenton's film debut came in The Navy Comes Through. After moving to Hollywood for Barbara Stanwyck's Lady of Burlesque, the Hartford, Connecticut native appeared in more than 80 movies and television programs. Although the majority of his motion picture career was spent in supporting roles, he starred alongside John Carradine in Isle of Forgotten Sins, re-issued as Monsoon.
Fenton was married from 1934-1948 to the former Aqueena Bilotti, daughter of sculptor Salvadore Bilotti. The couple had two daughters and Honoree, they divorced in 1948. He is confused—in print and online—with screenwriter and novelist Frank Fenton; the actor dropped his last name early in his career to avoid confusion with other well-known Morans in New York City, including prizefighter Frank Moran, drama reporter Frank Moran, George Moran of the popular comedy team Moran and Mack. Fenton died at UCLA Medical Center on July 24, 1957, at age 51, he is buried in Holy Cross Cemetery in California. Frank Fenton on IMDb Brief biography and links to films
Question the Answers is the fourth studio album by The Mighty Mighty Bosstones, released on October 4, 1994. All tracks were composed by Dicky Barrett and Joe Gittleman. "Kinder Words" – 3:06 "A Sad Silence" – 3:57 "Hell of a Hat" – 3:54 "Pictures to Prove It" – 3:16 "We Should Talk" – 3:11 "Dollar and a Dream" – 3:18 "Stand Off" – 3:22 "365 Days" – 3:10 "Toxic Toast" – 3:47 "Bronzing the Garbage" – 2:27 "Dogs and Chaplains" – 3:01 "Jump Through the Hoops" – 4:11 "Pirate Ship" – 3:01 "Chocolate Pudding" – 3:02 Previously available as a B-side to the "Kinder Words" single. "Patricia" – 2:44 Previously available as a B-side to the "Pictures to Prove It" single. Original version appears on their debut album, 1989's Devil's Night Out. Dicky Barrett – lead vocals, artwork Nate Albert – guitar, backing vocals Joe Gittleman – bass, backing vocals Joe Sirois – drums Tim "Johnny Vegas" Burton – saxophone, backing vocals Kevin Lenear – saxophone Dennis Brockenborough – trombone Ben Carr – Bosstone, backing vocals Brian Dwyer – trumpet Johnny Goetchius – keyboards, backing vocals Beth Enloe – backing vocals, assistant engineer Klotz – director Ross Humphrey – producer, mixing Paul Q.
Kolderie – producer, mixing Joe Nicolo – producer, mixing Phil Nicolo – producer, mixing David Cook – engineer, mixing Dan McLaughlin – assistant engineer Carl Plaster – assistant engineer Album – Billboard