Lakulisha was a prominent Shaivite revivalist and preceptor of the doctrine of the Pashupatas, one of the oldest sects of Shaivism. According to some scholars, Lakulisha is the founder of the Pashupata sect. While, another section argues that the Pashupata doctrine was in existence before Lakulisha, he was only its first formal preceptor. According to a tradition stated in the Linga Purana, Lakulisha is considered as the 28th and the last avatar of Shiva and the propounder of Yoga system. According to the same tradition, Lakulisha had four disciples, viz. Kaurushya, Garga and Kushika. According to another tradition mentioned in the Avanti Khanda of the Skanda Purana and his four disciples while passing Mahakalavana, installed a linga at that place, known as Kayavarohaneshvara; the Kurma Purana, the Vayu Purana, the Linga Purana predicted that Shiva would appear in the form of a wandering monk called'Lakulin' or'Nakulisha', that he would have four disciples named, Garga and Kanrushya, who would re-establish the cult of Pashupati and would therefore be called Pashupata.
Lakulisha was the fruition of these divine predictions. According to Vayu Purana V. 1.23.202-214, Lakulisha was a contemporary of Vyasa and Krishna, was the 28th incarnation of Rudra. As per Alain Daniélou, Lakulisha was an ajivaka, who restored Shaivism, re-established the pre-Aryan Indus civilizational cults. Lakulisha united the different Shaivite sects that had survived in semi-secrecy for centuries under the name of the Pashupatas. Lakulisha propagated Saivism, it has been maintained that Lakulisha’s thesis conflicted with that of Gosala, Lakulisha opposed Jainism, most Buddhism. Lakulisha is said to have restored practices of Hatha Yoga and Tantrism and the cosmological theories of the Samkhya and the duality associated with Samkhya tenets. Around the 1st century CE, the Lakulisha cult was established with iconographic representation of Shiva appearing with a club. Two hundred years Lakulisha was accepted as an avatara of Shiva. A pillar erected by Chandragupta II at Mathura in 380 CE states that a ‘Guruvayatana’ was established by certain Uditacharya, 4th in descent from a teacher of Pashupata sect named Parashara, who in turn was 6th in descent from Kushika.
If this Kushika is one of the four disciples of Lakulisha as described in the Linga Purana, the latter must have existed around 125 CE. Renowned epigraphist John Faithfull Fleet contends that in the North India, the Kushana emperors like Huvishka replaced the pictures of Hercules on their coins with ones of Shiva, of Heracles with images of Lakulisha. In the 4th century CE, beginning with the reign of Chandragupta II, icons and representations of Lakulisha have been found, which portray him as a naked yogi with a staff in his left hand and a citron in his right, with his penis erect, either standing or seated in the lotus posture. At about the beginning of the 11th century, the Lakulisha cult shifted its activities to southern India. A sect of Pasupata ascetics, founded by Lakulisa, is attested by inscriptions from the 5th century and is among the earliest of the sectarian religious orders of Shaivite Hinduism. Author M. R. Sakhare argues in "The History and Philosophy of Lingayat Religion", the influence of Lakulisha was immense and spread first in the North and in the South of India.
The Shaivite revival, supported by the Bharashiva Nagas of Mathura and Vakataka dynasty in Central and Northern India spread in the south under the impetus of artisan class Shaiva mystics, the Nayanars. Lakulisha Pashupata has been identified as ‘Dualistic-cum-Non-dualistic Monism’ Shaivism, there was strong emphasis on Yoga system; the principal text of the Pashupata sect, the Pāśupata Sūtra is attributed to Lakulisha. The manuscripts of this text and a commentary of it, the Pañcārtha Bhāṣya by Kaundinya were discovered in 1930; the Pāśupata Sūtra formalizes various canons of the Pashupata sect, contains the basic theology of the sect. However, the authorship of Lakulisha over the Pashupata sutras have been a subject of debate; the Pashupata sutras do not bear the name of any author. Though certain traditions mention Lakulisha as the author, there is nothing to support this in the form of internal written evidence from the Sutras. Kaundinya’s commentary only states the following: "... Tatha shishta pramanyat kamitvad ajatatvach cha, Manushya-rupi bhagavan brahmana-kayam asthaya kayavatarane avatirna iti | Tatha padbhyam ujjayinim praptah.."
Meaning, Shiva incarnated in the form of a human being by entering the body of a deceased Brahmana in the Kayavatara, thereafter wandered to Ujjain. This account matches those narrated in the Puranas and the Karvana Mahatmya where Lakulisha incarnates in Kayavarohana village. However, unlike the latter accounts, the name Lakulisha is never mentioned though in the subsequent lines Kaundinya mentions that Shiva as the Brahmana imparted Shastra to the student Kushika. Only in subsequent Pashupata texts, Ratna Tika and Gana Karika, a clear mention of Lakulisha as the founder of the Pashupata system appears; this raises questions regarding Lakulisha being the actual composer of the Sutras. Notwithstanding, the authorship of the Sutras, the philosophica
The Agamas are a collection of scriptures of several Hindu devotional schools. The term means tradition or "that which has come down", the Agama texts describe cosmology, philosophical doctrines, precepts on meditation and practices, four kinds of yoga, temple construction, deity worship and ways to attain sixfold desires; these canonical texts are in Tamil. The three main branches of Agama texts are those of Shaivism, Shaktism; the Agamic traditions are sometimes called Tantrism, although the term "Tantra" is used to refer to Shakta Agamas. The Agama literature is voluminous, includes 28 Shaiva Agamas, 77 Shakta Agamas, 108 Vaishnava Agamas, numerous Upa-Agamas; the origin and chronology of Agamas is unclear. Some are Vedic and others non-Vedic. Agama traditions include Yoga and Self Realization concepts, some include Kundalini Yoga and philosophies ranging from Dvaita to Advaita; some suggest that these are others as pre-Vedic compositions. Epigraphical and archaeological evidence suggests that Agama texts were in existence by about middle of the 1st millennium CE, in the Pallava dynasty era.
Scholars note that some passages in the Hindu Agama texts appear to repudiate the authority of the Vedas, while other passages assert that their precepts reveal the true spirit of the Vedas. The Agamas literary genre may be found in Śramaṇic traditions. Bali Hindu tradition is called Agama Hindu Dharma in Indonesia. Āgāma is derived from the verb root गम meaning "to go" and the preposition आ meaning "toward" and refers to scriptures as "that which has come down". Agama means "tradition", refers to precepts and doctrines that have come down as tradition. Agama, states Dhavamony, is a "generic name of religious texts which are at the basis of Hinduism and which are divided into Vaishnava Agamas, Saiva Agamas, Sakta Agamas. Agamas, states Rajeshwari Ghose, teach a system of spirituality involving ritual worship and ethical personal conduct through precepts of a god; the means of worship in the Agamic religions differs from the Vedic form. While the Vedic form of yajna requires no idols and shrines, the Agamic religions are based on idols with puja as a means of worship.
Symbols and temples are a necessary part of the Agamic practice, while non-theistic paths are alternative means of Vedic practice. Action and will drive Agama precepts. This, does not mean that Agamas and Vedas are opposed, according to medieval-era Hindu theologians. Tirumular, for example, explained their link as follows: "the Vedas are the path, the Agamas are the horse"; each Agama consists of four parts: Jnana pada called Vidya pada – consists of doctrine, the philosophical and spiritual knowledge, knowledge of reality and liberation. Yoga pada – precepts on yoga, the physical and mental discipline. Kriya pada – consists of rules for rituals, construction of temples; this code is analogous in the Buddhist text of Sadhanamala. Charya pada – lays down rules of conduct, of worship, observances of religious rites, rituals and prayaschittas; the Agamas state three requirements for a place of pilgrimage: Sthala and Murti. Sthala refers to the place of the temple, Tīrtha is the temple tank, Murti refers to the image of god.
Elaborate rules are laid out in the Agamas for Silpa describing the quality requirements of the places where temples are to be built, the kind of images to be installed, the materials from which they are to be made, their dimensions, air circulation, lighting in the temple complex, etc. The Manasara and Silpasara are some of the works dealing with these rules; the rituals followed in worship services each day at the temple follow rules laid out in the Agamas. The Agama texts of Hinduism present a diverse range of philosophies, ranging from theistic dualism to absolute monism; this diversity of views was acknowledged in Chapter 36 of Tantraloka by the 10th-century scholar Abhinavagupta. In Shaivism alone, there are ten dualistic Agama texts, eighteen qualified monism-cum-dualism Agama texts, sixty-four monism Agama texts; the Bhairava Shastras are monistic. A similar breadth of diverse views is present in Vaishnava Agamas as well; the Agama texts of Shaiva and Vaishnava schools are premised on existence of Atman and the existence of an Ultimate Reality.
The texts differ in the relation between the two. Some assert the dualistic philosophy of the individual soul and Ultimate Reality being different, while others state a Oneness between the two. Kashmir Shaiva Agamas posit absolute oneness, God is within man, God is within every being, God is present everywhere in the world including all non-living beings, there is no spiritual difference between life, matter and God; the parallel group among Vaishnavas are the Shuddhadvaitins. Scholars from both schools have written treatises ranging from dualism to monism. For example, Shivagrayogin has emphasized the non-difference or unity of being, rea
Maheshwara murtas are forms of Shiva revered in the Shivagamas of southern Shaiva Siddhanta sect of Saivism. It is counted to twenty five. Sritattvanidhi calls these as Panchavimsatilīlāmūrti; these forms are based on Puranas and Ithihasa in which Shiva's divine play is explained with different stories. Most of these forms are present in South Indian temples as main deities of sanctum or sculptures and reliefs in the outer walls of Shiva temples. Hindu iconography on Shiva is well developed in middle age all over India with his various divine plays described in Purana- ithihasas. Shivagamas tells devotees to worship these forms for distinct purposes. There are so many numbers of these forms available. Most prevalent is twenty five maheshwara murtams or Panchavimsati murtams mentioned in Shivagamas and sixty four shiva murtams; the common list believed. Shiva 25 Maheshwara murtams Pictures of 64 forms of Shiva
Rudraksha is a seed traditionally used as a prayer bead in Hinduism. Rudraksha seeds are covered by a blue outer shell when ripe, hence being called blueberry beads; the seeds are produced by several species of large evergreen broad-leaved tree in the genus Elaeocarpus, with Elaeocarpus ganitrus roxb being the principal species. They are associated with the Hindu deity Lord Shiva and are worn for protection and for chanting the Om Namah Shivaya mantra by devotees; the seeds are used in India and Nepal as beads for organic jewellery and malas and are valued to semi-precious stones. Various meanings and potencies are attributed to beads with different numbers of segments and rare or unique beads are prized and valuable. Rudraksha is a Sanskrit compound word consisting of akṣa. Rudra is one of Lord Shiva's vedic names and Akṣa means'teardrops'. Thus, the name means Lord Rudra's teardrops. There are sources like Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami and Kamal Narayan Seetha who translate Akṣa as eye. In this case the meaning of rudraksha could mean "Eye of Lord Shiva" or "Eye of Rudra".
The term Rudraksha is used both for the berries themselves and in reference to the type of mala made from them. There is a long tradition of wearing rudraksha beads in India within Shaivism, due to their association with Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva; the mantra Om Namah Shivaya is repeated using the rudraksha beads. Rudraksha malas have been used by Hindus as rosaries from at least the 10th century for meditation purposes and to sanctify the mind and soul. Rudraksha beads may be strung together as a mala and used to count the repetition of a mantra or prayer, similar to the use of rosaries in Christianity. Most garlands contain 108 beads plus one, as 108 is considered sacred and a suitable number of times to recite a short mantra; the extra bead, called the "Meru", bindu, or "guru bead", helps mark the beginning and end of a cycle of 108, as well as having symbolic value as a'principle' bead. While counting the mala, the meru should not be overtaken but when it is reached the mala is recited in reverse order.
Recitation should be done after covering the mala and it should not touch the ground. After recitation, the mala should be kept in a cotton bag. Rudraksha malas contain beads in the following combination: 27+1, 54+1, or 108+1. 54+1 needs to be recited twice for one complete round. 27+1 needs to be recited four times for one complete round. It is possible to carry a single seed or several seeds strung on the same thread. Devi-Bhagavata Purana describes the preparation of rudraksha mala; the beads are strung on silk or on a black or red cotton thread. Less jewellers may use copper, silver, or gold wires, though the rudraksha may be damaged if strung too tightly. Elaeocarpus ganitrus roxb grow to a height of 60-80 feet and are found from the Gangetic plain in the foothills of the Himalayas to Southeast Asia, Nepal, New Guinea, to Australia, Hawaii, Taiwan, parts of Malaysia, Java. Out of 300 species of Elaeocarpus, 35 are found in India. Rudraksha seeds are covered by an outer husk of blue when ripe, for this reason are known as blueberry beads.
The blue color is structural. It is an evergreen tree; the rudraksha tree starts bearing fruit in three to four years from germination. As the tree matures, the roots form buttresses, rising up near the trunk and radiating out along the surface of the ground; the tree can be found from sea level up to 3000m. It tends to grow in narrow spaces, not on open ground, its leaves are longer. It yields one to two thousand fruits annually; these fruits are known as Amritphala. Rudraksha beads are found with a variety of much ranging from 1 to 21. A 27-mukhi rudraksha was found in Nepal. 80% of all rudrakshas have 4, 5, 6 mukhi. 1-mukhi is the rarest type of bead. Rudrakshas from Nepal are of bigger size and Indonesian rudrakshas are smaller. Rudrakshas are available in white, brown and black. There are special types of rudraksha available, such as Gauri Shankar, Sawar and other rare ones like Ved, etc. A rudraksha's surface should be hard and the projections should be well grooved, as found in most of the Nepalese Rudrakshas.
The Indonesian rudraksha has a different appearance. Rudrakshas from India show high and grooved projections resembling natural deep hills and valleys. Most fake rudrakshas exhibit 1 mukhi due to its rarity. A variety of rudrakshas called; the 1-mukhi rudraksha is faked using Areca nut. Some suppliers sell fake rudrakshas which have a serpent, Shiva-lingam, etc. carved on them. A real rudraksha does not have these markings. Fake rudrakshas are made by carving extra lines on lower-mukhi rudrakshas to obtain the rare and higher-priced higher-mukhi rudrakshas or by hiding lines to make a rarer lower-mukhi rudraksha. A fake Gauri Shankar rudraksha is made by gluing together two rudraksha beads. To recognize real rudrakshas, many techniques are used, such as sinking and floating of rudrakshas as well as revolving rudraksha
Kartikeya known as Murugan, Skanda and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu god of war. He is the son of Parvati and Shiva, brother of Ganesha, a god whose life story has many versions in Hinduism. An important deity around South Asia since ancient times, Kartikeya is popular and predominantly worshipped in South India, Sri Lanka and Malaysia as Murugan. Kartikeya is an ancient god, traceable to the Vedic era. Archaeological evidence from 1st-century CE and earlier, where he is found with Hindu god Agni, suggest that he was a significant deity in early Hinduism, he is found in many medieval temples all over India, such as at the Ellora Caves and Elephanta Caves. The iconography of Kartikeya varies significantly. Most icons show him with one head, but some show him with six heads reflecting the legend surrounding his birth where six mothers symbolizing the six stars of Pleiades cluster who took care of newly born baby Kartikeya, he grows up into a philosopher-warrior, destroys evil in the form of demon Taraka, teaches the pursuit of ethical life and the theology of Shaiva Siddhanta.
He has inspired many poet-saints, such as Arunagirinathar. Kartikeya is found as a primary deity in temples wherever communities of the Tamil people live worldwide in Tamil Nadu state of India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Singapore, South Africa and Réunion. Three of the six richest and busiest temples in Tamil Nadu are dedicated to him; the Kataragama temple dedicated to him in Sri Lanka attracts Tamils, Sinhalese people and the Vedda people. He is found in other parts of India, sometimes as Skanda, but in a secondary role along with Ganesha and Shiva. Kartikeya is known by numerous names in medieval texts of the Indian culture. Most common among these are Murugan, Kumara and Subrahmanya. Others include Aaiyyan, Senthil, Vēlaṇ, Swaminatha, śaravaṇabhava, Arumugam or ṣaṇmukha, Guha or Guruguha, Kandhan and Mahasena. In ancient coins where the inscription has survived along with his images, his names appear as Kumara, Brahmanya or Brahmanyadeva. On some ancient Indo-Scythian coins, his names appear in Greek script as Skanda and Vishaka.
In ancient statues, he appears as Mahasena and Vishakha. Skanda is derived from skanḍr-, which means to "spill, leap, attack"; this root is derived from the legend of his unusual birth. The legend, translates Lochtefeld, states "Shiva and Parvati are disturbed while making love, Shiva inadvertently spills his semen on the ground"; this semen incubates in River Ganges, preserved by the heat of god Agni, this fetus is born as baby Kartikeya on the banks of Ganges. The "spill" epithet leads to the name Skanda. Additionally N. Gopala Pillai postulated. Kartikeya means "of the Krittikas"; this epithet is linked to his birth. After he appears on the banks of the River Ganges, he is seen by the six of the seven brightest stars cluster in the night sky called Krittikas in Hindu texts; these six mothers all want to take care of nurse baby Kartikeya. Kartikeya ends the argument by growing five more heads to have a total of six heads so he can look at all six mothers, let them each nurse one. There are ancient references which can be interpreted to be Kartikeya in the Vedic texts, in the works of Pāṇini, in the Mahabhasya of Patanjali and in Kautilya's Arthashastra.
For example, the term Kumara appears in hymn 5,2 of the Rig Veda. The Kumara of verse 5.2.1 can be interpreted as Skanda, or just any "boy". However, the rest of the verses depict the "boy" as bright-colored, hurling weapons and other motifs that have been associated with Skanda; the difficulty with interpreting these to be Skanda is that Indra and Rudra are depicted in similar terms and as warriors. The Skanda-like motifs found in Rig Veda are found in other Vedic texts, such as section 6.1-3 of the Shatapatha Brahmana. In these, the mythology is different for Kumara, as Agni is described to be the Kumara whose mother is Ushas and whose father is Purusha; the section 10.1 of the Taittiriya Aranyaka mentions Sanmukha, while the Baudhayana Dharmasutra mentions a householder's rite of passage that involves prayers to Skanda with his brother Ganapati together. The chapter 7 of the Chandogya Upanishad equates Sanat-Kumara and Skanda, as he teaches sage Narada to discover his own Atman as a means to the ultimate knowledge, true peace and liberation.
According to Fred Clothey, the evidence suggests that Kartikeya mythology had become widespread sometime around 200 BCE or after in north India. The first clear evidence of Kartikeya's importance emerges in the Hindu Epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata where his story is recited. In addition to textual evidence, his importance is affirmed by the archeological, the epigraphical and the numismatic evidence of this period. For example, he is found in numismatic evidence linked to the Yaudheyas, a confederation of warriors in north India who are mentioned by ancient Pāṇini, they ruled an area consisting of modern era Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. They struck coins bearing the image of Skanda, these coins are dated to be from before Kushan Empire era started. During the Kushan dynasty era, that included much of northwest
The Vedas are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman" and "impersonal, authorless". Vedas are called śruti literature, distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti; the Veda, for orthodox Indian theologians, are considered revelations seen by ancient sages after intense meditation, texts that have been more preserved since ancient times. In the Hindu Epic the Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma; the Vedic hymns themselves assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis, after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot. According to tradition, Vyasa is the compiler of the Vedas, who arranged the four kinds of mantras into four Samhitas. There are four Vedas: the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda.
Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text types – the Samhitas, the Aranyakas, the Brahmanas, the Upanishads. Some scholars add a fifth category – the Upasanas; the various Indian philosophies and denominations have taken differing positions on the Vedas. Schools of Indian philosophy which cite the Vedas as their scriptural authority are classified as "orthodox". Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Lokayata, Ajivika and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" schools. Despite their differences, just like the texts of the śramaṇa traditions, the layers of texts in the Vedas discuss similar ideas and concepts; the Sanskrit word véda "knowledge, wisdom" is derived from the root vid- "to know". This is reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *u̯eid-, meaning "see" or "know", cognate to Greek εἶδος "aspect", "form"; this is not to be confused is the homonymous 1st and 3rd person singular perfect tense véda, cognate to Greek οἶδα oida "I know".
Root cognates are English wit, etc.. Latin videō "I see", etc; the Sanskrit term veda as a common noun means "knowledge". The term in some contexts, such as hymn 10.93.11 of the Rigveda, means "obtaining or finding wealth, property", while in some others it means "a bunch of grass together" as in a broom or for ritual fire. A related word Vedena appears in hymn 8.19.5 of the Rigveda. It was translated by Ralph T. H. Griffith as "ritual lore", as "studying the Veda" by the 14th-century Indian scholar Sayana, as "bundle of grass" by Max Müller, as "with the Veda" by H. H. Wilson. Vedas are called Vaymoli in parts of South India. Marai means "hidden, a secret, mystery", but Tamil Naanmarai mentioned in Tholkappiam isn't Sanskrit Vedas. In some south Indian communities such as Iyengars, the word Veda includes the Tamil writings of the Alvar saints, such as Divya Prabandham, for example Tiruvaymoli; the Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. The Samhitas date to 1700–1100 BCE, the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c.
1000–500 BCE, resulting in a Vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age. The Vedic period reaches its peak only after the composition of the mantra texts, with the establishment of the various shakhas all over Northern India which annotated the mantra samhitas with Brahmana discussions of their meaning, reaches its end in the age of Buddha and Panini and the rise of the Mahajanapadas. Michael Witzel gives a time span of c. 1500 to c. 500–400 BCE. Witzel makes special reference to the Near Eastern Mitanni material of the 14th century BCE, the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan contemporary to the Rigvedic period, he gives 150 BCE as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature, 1200 BCE as terminus post quem for the Atharvaveda. Transmission of texts in the Vedic period was by oral tradition, preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques. A literary tradition is traceable in post-Vedic times, after the rise of Buddhism in the Maurya period earliest in the Kanva recension of the Yajurveda about the 1st century BCE.
Witzel suggests the possibility of written Vedic texts towards the end of 1st millennium BCE. Some scholars such as Jack Goody state that "the Vedas are not the product of an oral society", basing this view by comparing inconsistencies in the transmitted versions of literature from various oral societies such as the Greek and other cultures noting that the Vedic literature is too consistent and vast to have been composed and transmitted orally across generations, without being written down. However, adds Goody, the Vedic texts involved both a written and oral tradition, calling it a "parallel products of a literate society". Due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript material, surviving manuscripts surpass an age of a few hundred years; the Sampurnanand Sanskrit University has a Rigveda manuscript from the 14th century. The Vedas, Vedic rituals and its ancillary sciences called the Vedangas, were part of the curriculum at ancient universities such as at Ta
The Siddhar refers to intellectual people in Tamil language, from ancient Tamilakam, was written only in Tamil language. A siddhan obtains intellectual powers called siddhi by constant practice of certain educational disciplines. Siddhar refers to the people who were early age wandering adepts that dominated ancient Tamil teaching and philosophy, they were knowledgeable in science, astronomy, fine arts, drama and provided solutions to common people in their illness and advice for their future. Some of their ideologies are considered to have originated during the First Sangam period. Siddhars were saints, doctors and mystics all in one, they wrote their findings in the form of poems in the Tamil language, on palm leaves which are collected and stored in what are known as the "Palm leaf manuscripts". These are still owned by some families in Tamil Nadu and handed down through the generations, as well as being kept in public institutions such as universities in India, Great Britain and the United States.
In this way Siddhars developed, among other branches of a vast knowledge-system, what is now known as Siddha medicine, practised in Tamil Nadu as a type of traditional native medicine. A rustic form of healing, similar to Siddha medicine has since been practised by experienced elders in the villages of Tamil Nadu.. Siddhars are believed to be the founders of Varmam - a martial art for self-defence and medical treatment at the same time. Varmam are specific points located in the human body which when pressed in different ways can give various results, such as disabling an attacker in self-defence, or balancing a physical condition as an easy first-aid medical treatment. Tamil Siddhars were the first to develop pulse-reading to identify the origin of diseases; this method was copied and used in Ayurveda. Siddhars have written many religious poems, it is believed that most of them have lived for ages, in a mystic mountain called Sathuragiri, near Thanipparai village in Tamil Nadu. The Abithana Chintamani encyclopedia states that the Siddhars are either of the 9 or 18 persons listed below, but sage Agathiyar states that there are many who precede and follow these.
Many of the great Siddhars are regarded to have powers spiritual. The 9 listed in "Abithana Chintamani" are as follows: Sathyanathar Sathoganathar Aadhinathar Anadhinathar Vegulinathar Madhanganathar Machaendranathar Gadaendranathar or Gajendranathar Korakkanathar There are 18 siddhars in the Tamil Siddha tradition, they are Nandeeswarar Tirumular Agathiyar Kalangi Nathar Pathanjali Korakkar Pulipaani Konganar Sattamuni Theraiyar Ramadevar Siva vaakiyar Edaikkadar Machamuni KaruvoorarThevar Bogar Pambatti KuthambaiApart from the 18 siddars listed above, there is another list of 18 siddars who represent the 9 navagrahas all navagraha doshas /pariharams are performed to the siddars as Siddar velvi. The details of the 18 siddars who represent the 9 navagrahas are given below 1.sri siva vakya siddar - Moon 2.sri kailaya kambili sattai muni siddar - Moon 3. Sri Bhogar siddar - Mars 4.sri Kagabhujanga siddar - Jupiter 5. Sri. Pullipanisiddar - Mars 6. Sri Sattai muni siddar- Kethu 7. Sri Agapaisiddar - Jupiter 8.sri Azhugani siddar -Raghu 9.
SriKudambai siddar - Kethu 10. Sri Vallalarsiddar - Mercury 11. Sri Edaikaddar siddar -Mercury 12. Sri Pattinathar siddar- Sun 13. Sri Kaduvelli siddar- Sun 14. Sri Kanjamalai siddar - Venus 15. Sri Sennimalai siddar- Venus 16. SriKapilar siddar -Saturn 17. SriKaruvoorar siddar-Saturn 18. Sri Pambatti siddar -Raghu There is an universal shrine for all the 18 siddars at madambakkam in Chennai called SriChakra Mahameru Sri Seshadri swamigal 18 siddars brindavana sakthi peedam built under divine instruction from Sathguru Sri Seshadri Swamigal by Guruji KVLN. SHARMAJI The siddhars are believed to have had both major and minor powers which are described in detail in various yogic and religious texts, they are said to have the power of converting their mass to energy and thereby travelling to different universes. Anima -- Power of becoming the size of an atom and entering the smallest beings Mahima -- Power of becoming mighty and co-extensive with the universe; the power of increasing one's size without limit Laghima -- Capacity to be quite light though big in size Garima -- Capacity to weigh a lot, though being small in size Prapti -- Capacity to enter all the worlds from Brahma Loga to the nether world.
It is the power of attaining everything desired Prakasysm -- Power of disembodying and entering into other bodies and going to heaven and enjoying what everyone aspires for from where he stays Ishtavam -- Have the creative power of God and control over the Sun and the elements Vashitavam -- Power of control over kings and gods. The power of changing the course of nature and assuming any formThese eight are the Great Siddhis, or Great Perfections. Abithana Chintamani Avvaiyar Ayyavazhi mythology Bogar Mahasiddha Nayanars Siddha Tirumandhiram Maruttuvar community 18 siddars who represent the 9 NAVAGRAHAS REFER WEBSITE www.seshadri.info Thamizh Siddhars Info Page Shaivism Home page