A crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly a synonym for all of Corvus. The term "crow" is used as part of the common name of many species. Species with the word "crow" in their common name include: Corvus albus – pied crow Corvus bennetti – little crow Corvus brachyrhynchos – American crow Corvus capensis – Cape crow or Cape rook Corvus caurinus – northwestern crow Corvus cornix – hooded crow Corvus corone – carrion crow Corvus edithae – Somali crow Corvus enca – slender-billed crow Corvus florensis – Flores crow Corvus fuscicapillus – brown-headed crow Corvus hawaiiensis – Hawaiian crow Corvus imparatus – Tamaulipas crow Corvus insularis – Bismarck crow Corvus jamaicensis – Jamaican crow Corvus kubaryi – Mariana crow or aga Corvus leucognaphalus – white-necked crow Corvus macrorhynchos – jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos macrorhynchos – large-billed crow Corvus macrorhynchos levaillantii – eastern jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos culminatus – Indian jungle crow Corvus meeki – Bougainville crow or Solomon Islands crow Corvus moneduloides – New Caledonian crow Corvus nasicus – Cuban crow Corvus orru – Torresian crow or Australian crow Corvus ossifragus – fish crow Corvus palmarum – palm crow Corvus ruficolis edithae – Somali crow or dwarf raven Corvus sinaloae – Sinaloan crow Corvus splendens – house crow or Indian house crow Corvus torquatus – collared crow Corvus tristis – grey crow or Bare-faced crow Corvus typicus – piping crow or Celebes pied crow Corvus unicolor – Banggai crow Corvus validus – long-billed crow Corvus violaceus – violet crow – recent split from slender-billed crow Corvus woodfordi – white-billed crow or Solomon Islands crow Raven – Corvus species with the word "raven" in their common names Rook Jackdaw Eating crow Scarecrow Magpie
Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
Shani (TV series)
Karmaphal Daata Shani is an Indian Hindi-language mythological television series, which aired from 7 November 2016 to 9 March 2018 on Colors TV. The series was produced by Swastik Productions of Siddharth Kumar Tewary.. The story of the series is based on the life of God Shani, known for his wrath; the serial shows Vishnu and Shiva as Shani's mentors. It shows Shani's tough childhood, getting the rank of Karmafaldaata, return to Suryalok, getting his wife's curse and his return as Karmfaldaata; when there is a battle between the gods and the demons, Mahadev appears and reveals that soon the god of karmaphal is going to take birth. Meanwhile, the wife of Surya cannot bear Surya's heat, she visits her father Vishwakarma and she steals a potion which makes her shadow come to life. Chhaya gives birth to a boy but Surya, the Sun God, does not accept the boy as his son because of his dark complexion, he tells Chayya that the boy should not be in his sunrays lest he would be burnt to ashes So Chayya takes the boy to a forest where she names him as Shani and on, Mahadeva reveals that Shani is Karmafal Daata.
The show covers the different incidents of Lord Shani's life, unfolding each chapter from Shrapit yoga to Karmfal data Shani and to Dandnayak Shani. The show focuses on removing the misunderstanding about lord Shani. After Shani's mother Chayya has been vanished, Shani,who becomes sad and heartbroken meets Rahu who starts controlling Shani's mind. Shani in anger of his mother's death starts fighting against the Devas. Mahadev sends Nandi to bring Shani to him but Shani defeats him in a war, Shiv becomes angry and sends Veerbhadra to bring Shani dead or alive, but Shani defeats him too. After this a confrontation takes place between Shani. Shiva removes all the negativity from Shani's mind and Rahu's effects and tells him that he is born to be the Lord of the deeds and gives him the Vakra Drishti. Mahadev Tells Shani the aim of his existence. Shani is known between the gods for strict justice. Shani insures everyone gets the fruit of their deed; the first justice is served by Shani when he punishes Surya Dev.
Devi Sanghya wants Shani's death but no plan of her works in front of the taskmaster. Shani now in no relation with anyone after this becomes so impartial that the Trinity is satisfied with this; the series shows different justice incidents as he did to Harishchandra, Hanumaan, Chandra Dev, Devraj Indra, Devi Sanghya, Maali Sumaali and many more. On Vishnu's command, Shani sacrificed his friendship with Hanuman. Hanuman got cursed by Matang Rishi to lose his memory, he and Shani parted ways, it showed the last story of his childhood about his sister Bhadra. Bhadra realised, she ends up killing herself in such a way. Shani kills Sangya for her misdeeds but ends up hurting Suryadev. Tridev turn Suryadev into a ball of energy. Chhaya banishes him from Suryalok. Shani tells Tridev that he doesn't care about the world anymore. Elsewhere, Chhaya sends off Yami with Devguru Brihaspati to complete their higher studies. Mahadev goes into Samadhi; the story takes a leap of 10 years. Grown up Shani is in deep meditation.
Yam and Yami return to Suryalok and Chhaya announces that they can do the Yajna for Suryadev's revival. Indradev and Rahu plan against the Surya family. Shani wakes up from meditation. Chhaya refuses to talk about Shani. Yami refuses to believe the rumours about Shani. Yama join forces with Rahu. Everyone in Suryalok gather for the Uttarayan yagya. Indra instigates everyone against Shani through his maya. Kakol is attacked by the soldiers. Shani comes to Kakol's rescue and everyone is stunned by him, he gets emotional. As Shani gets into a fight with Yam, Chhaya demands to know his identity. Shani reveals himself. Chhaya, though pretending to hate Shani, shows signs of missing his childhood. Shani battles with all the planets to win Suryadev's throne in order to save it from the clutches of Indradev. Shani impresses Mahakaali with his logical reasonings. Mahakaali announces Shani as'Lagnesh' and offers him to give back his childhood with all the happiness but Shani instead chooses to revive Suryadev for the sake of the universe.
After Suryadev's revival, no one acknowledges Shani's sacrifice. When suryadev awakens from his sleep he wants to punish shani remembering the massive destruction caused by shani in his past years and tries to vanish him from Suryalok but Dev Vishwakarma protests and says that Shani has achieved the Suryalok by becoming Lagnesh,now if he wanted to become the king of Suryalok, no one can stop him. Shani says, I don't want to be king of Suryalok. Shani decides to stay in Suryalok. Gandharva Raj Chitrarath comes to Suryalok with his daughter Dhamini with an intention to get her married to Yam. Dhamini gets into an argument with Shani. Chhaya requests Dhamini to stay in Suryalok till the time of Yami's marriage with Mangala. Dhamini accepts and Chitrarath starts planning for her to get married to Yam. However, Dhamini is seen in a dilemma and Chhaya tries to sympathise with her. Shani tells Dhamini that her presence doesn't affect him in any way and he doesn't care about whether she'll stay or not.
He stuns her by saying that he knows the real reason behind her stay and advises her to choose the
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th