Red bean paste
Red bean paste or red bean jam called adzuki bean paste, is a paste made of red beans, used in East Asian cuisine. The paste is prepared by boiling the beans mashing or grinding them. At this stage, the paste can be left as it is; the color of the paste is dark red, which comes from the husk of the beans. In Korean cuisine, the adzuki beans can be husked prior to cooking, resulting in a white paste, it is possible to remove the husk by sieving after cooking, but before sweetening, resulting in a red paste, smoother and more homogeneous. In Japanese, a number of names are used to refer to red bean paste. Speaking, the term an can refer to any sweet, mashed paste, with azukian referring to the paste made with red beans, although without qualifiers red beans are assumed. Other common forms of an include shiroan, made from navy or other white beans, green beans, kurian, made from chestnuts; the Chinese term dòushā, applies to red bean paste when used without qualifiers, although hóngdòushā explicitly means "red bean paste."
In Korean, pat contrasts with kong, rather than being considered a type of it. Kong without qualifiers means soybeans; as so means "filling", the word patso means "pat filling", with unsweetened dark-red paste as its prototype. Dan attached to patso makes danpat-so, the sweetened red bean paste, called danpat. Geopi attached to pat makes geopipat, the dehulled red beans, the white paste made of geopipat is called geopipat-so. Red bean paste is graded according to its consistency and color. In Chinese cuisine, the most common types are: Mashed: Adzuki beans are boiled with sugar and mashed; the paste is smooth with bits of bean husk. Depending on the intended texture, the beans can be vigorously or mashed; some unmashed beans can be added back into the bean paste for additional texture. This is the most popular type of red bean paste eaten in Chinese confections, it can be eaten on its own or in sweet soups. Smooth: Adzuki beans are boiled without sugar and diluted into a slurry; the slurry is strained through a sieve to remove the husk and squeezed dry using cheesecloth.
Although the dry paste can be directly sweetened and used, either vegetable oil or lard, is used to cook the dry paste and improve its texture and mouth feel. Smooth bean paste is used as a filling for Chinese pastries. In Japanese cuisine and confectionary, the most common types are: Tsubuan, whole red beans boiled with sugar but otherwise untreated Tsubushian, where the beans are mashed after boiling Koshian, passed through a sieve to remove bean skins. In Korean cuisine and confectionery, the most common types are: Patso, dark-red paste made by boiling and mashing or grounding red beans; the bean skins may or may not be removed by sifting the paste through a sieve to make the paste smoother. Danpat or danpat-so, sweetened red bean paste, made by adding sugar when making patso; the bean skins are removed to make the paste smoother. Geopipat-so, white paste made by boiling dehulled red beans, mashing or grinding them. Red bean paste is used in many Chinese dishes, such as: Red bean soup: In some recipes, red bean paste with more water added to form a tong sui, or thick, sweet soup.
It is cooked and eaten with tangyuan and lotus seeds. This is always a dessert. Tangyuan: Glutinous rice balls filled with sweet fillings such as red bean paste and boiled in plain or sweetened water. Sweet zongzi: Glutinous rice and red bean paste wrapped with bamboo leaves and steamed or boiled; the glutinous rice used to make zongzi is specially prepared and appears yellow. Mooncakes: A baked pastry consisting of thin dough surrounding a filling; the filling is traditionally made from various ingredients, including mashed lotus seeds, red bean paste, or other fillings. The texture of this filling is quite similar to straight red bean paste, it is most eaten during the Mid-Autumn Festival. Bāozi: Steamed leavened bread filled with a variety of savoury or sweet fillings. Jiān dui: Fried pastry made from glutinous rice flour, sometimes filled with red bean paste. Red bean cake: It is a type of Asian cake with a sweet red bean paste filling, it is made with azuki beans. Red bean pancake Red bean paste is used in many Japanese sweets.
Anmitsu, a dessert consisting of red bean paste, small cubes of agar jelly, pieces of fruit served with syrup. Anpan, a sweet bun filled with red bean paste. Daifuku, a confection consisting of a small round rice cake stuffed with red bean paste. Anko dango, a dumpling made from rice flour, sometimes topped or filled with red bean paste. Dorayaki, a confection consisting of two small pancake-like patties made from castella wrapped around a filling of red bean paste. Manjū, a steamed cake filled with red bean paste. Oshiruko or Zenzai, adzuki bean soup served with rice cake. Sakuramochi, a Japanese sweet consisting of sweet pink-co
Mantou referred to as Chinese steamed bun, is a type of cloud-like steamed bread or bun popular in Northern China. Folk etymology connects the name mantou to a tale about Zhuge Liang. Mantou are eaten as a staple food in northern parts of China where wheat, rather than rice, is grown, they are made with milled wheat flour and leavening agents. In size and texture, they range from 4 centimetres and fluffy in the most elegant restaurants, to over 15 centimetres and dense for the working man's lunch; as white flour, being more processed, was once more expensive, white mantou were something of a luxury in pre-industrial China. Traditionally, mantou and wheat noodles were the staple carbohydrates of the northern Chinese diet, analogous to rice, which forms the mainstay of the southern Chinese diet, they are known in the south, but are served as street food or a restaurant dish, rather than as a staple or home cooking. Restaurant mantou are smaller and more delicate and can be further manipulated, for example, by deep frying and dipping in sweetened condensed milk.
They are sold pre-cooked in the frozen section of Asian supermarkets, ready for preparation by steaming or heating in the microwave oven. A similar food, but with a savory or sweet filling inside, is baozi. Mantou is the older word, in some regions mantou can be used to indicate both the filled and unfilled buns, while in Japan the equivalent local reading of the word refers only to filled buns. Mantou may have originated in the Qin State of the Zhou Dynasty during the reign of King Zhaoxiang. Mantou as well as other wheat derived foodstuffs such as noodles and Baozi became popular during the Han Dynasty and collectively were known as 餅. During the Western Jin dynasty, Shu Xi wrote about steamed cakes in his "Ode to boiled cakes", written around 300 CE, he first called them mantou. In this book, it was advised to eat this in a banquet during the approach of spring; the Mongols are thought to have taken the filled style of mantou to many countries of Central and East Asia about the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The name mantou is cognate to manty and mantı. A popular Chinese legend relates that the name mantou originated from the homophonous word mántóu, which means "barbarian's head"; the legend was set in the Three Kingdoms period when Zhuge Liang, the Chancellor of the state of Shu Han, led the Shu army on a campaign against Nanman forces in the southern lands of Shu, which correspond to present-day Yunnan and northern Myanmar. After subduing the Nanman king Meng Huo, Zhuge Liang led the army back to Shu, but met a swift-flowing river which defied all attempts to cross it. A barbarian lord informed him that in olden days, the barbarians would sacrifice 50 men and throw their heads into the river to appease the river deity and allow them to cross; as Zhuge Liang did not want to cause any more of his men to lose their lives, he ordered his men to slaughter the livestock the army brought along, fill their meat into buns shaped like human heads. The buns were thrown into the river. After a successful crossing, he named the bun "barbarian's head".
Another version of the story relates back to Zhuge Liang's southern campaign when he instructed that his soldiers who had fallen sick from diarrhea and other illnesses in the swampy region be fed with steamed buns with meat or sweet fillings. Prior to the Song dynasty, the word mantou meant unfilled buns; the term baozi arose in the Song dynasty to indicate filled buns only. As a result, mantou came to indicate only unfilled buns in Mandarin and other varieties of Chinese. In many areas, mantou still retains its meaning of filled buns. In the Jiangnan region where Wu Chinese is spoken, it means both filled and unfilled buns. In Shanxi, where Jin Chinese is spoken, unfilled buns are called momo, the character for "steamed bun"; the name momo spread to Tibet and Nepal and now refers to filled buns or dumplings. The name mantou is cognate to manty and mantı. In Japan, manjū indicates filled buns, which traditionally contain bean paste or minced meat-vegetable mixture. Filled mantou are called siyopaw in Philippine derived from Chinese shāobāo.
In Thailand, they called filled mantou as "salapao". In Korea, mandu can refer to both jiaozi. In Mongolian cuisine, manty or mantu are steamed dumplings and a steamed variation is said to have led to the Korean mandu. In Singapore, the dish chilli crab is served with a fried version of mantou. Chinese Steamed Bun 饅頭
Ban Chao, courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese military general and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty. He was born in Fufeng, now Xianyang, Shaanxi. Three of his family members — father Ban Biao, elder brother Ban Gu, younger sister Ban Zhao — were well known historians who wrote the historical text Book of Han, which recorded the history of the Western Han Dynasty; as a Han general and cavalry commander, Ban Chao was in charge of administrating the "Western Regions" while he was in service. He led Han forces for over 30 years in the war against the Xiongnu and secured Han control over the Tarim Basin region, he was awarded the title "Protector General of the Western Regions" by the Han government for his efforts in protecting and governing the regions. Ban Chao, like his predecessors Huo Qubing and Wei Qing from the Former Han Dynasty before him, was effective at expelling the Xiongnu from the Tarim Basin, brought the various people of the Western Regions under Chinese rule during the second half of the 1st century CE, helping to open and secure the trade routes to the west.
He was outnumbered, but skillfully played on the divisions among his opponents. The kingdoms of Khotan and Kashgar came under Chinese rule by A. D. 74. "Pan Ch'ao crushed fresh rebellions in Kashgar and Yarkand, made the Wusun of the Ili his allies.". Hh Ban Chao was recalled to Luoyang, but sent again to the Western Region area four years during the reign of the new emperor Han Zhang Di, he obtained the military help of the Kushan Empire in 84 in repelling the Kangju who were trying to support the rebellion of the king of Kashgar, the next year in his attack on Turpan, in the eastern Tarim Basin. Ban Chao brought the whole of the Tarim Basin under Chinese control. In recognition for their support to the Chinese, the Kushans requested, but were denied, a Han princess though they had sent presents to the Chinese court. In retaliation, they marched on Ban Chao in 90 CE with a force of 70,000 but were defeated by the smaller Chinese force; the Yuezhi retreated and paid tribute to the Chinese Empire..
In 91 CE, Ban Chao succeeded in pacifying the Western Regions and was awarded the title of Protector General and stationed at Qiuci. A Wuji Colonel was re-established and, commanding five hundred soldiers, stationed in the Kingdom of Nearer Jushi, within the walls of Gaochang, 29 kilometres southeast of Turfan. In 94 CE, Chao proceeded to again defeat Yanqi. Subsequently, more than fifty kingdoms presented hostages, as submission to the Han Dynasty. In 97 CE Ban Chao sent an envoy, Gan Ying, who reached the Persian Gulf and left the first recorded Chinese account of Europe; some modern authors have claimed that Ban Chao advanced to the Caspian Sea, this interpretation has been criticized as a misreading. In 102 CE Ban Chao was retired as Protector General of the Western Regions due to age and ill health, returned to the capital Luoyang at the age of 70, but the following month died there in the 9th month of the 14th Yongyuan year. See: Hou Hanshu, chap 77. Following his death, the power of the Xiongnu in the Western Territories increased again, subsequent Chinese emperors were never able to reach so far to the west.
Ban Chao belonged to a family of historians. His father was Ban Biao who started the History of the Western Han Dynasty in 36, completed by his son Ban Gu and his daughter Ban Zhao. Ban Chao was the key source for the cultural and socio-economic data on the Western Regions contained in the Hanshu. Ban Chao's youngest son Ban Yong participated in military campaigns with his father and continued to have a central military role in the Tarim Basin into the 120s. Ban Biao Ban Gu Ban Chao Ban Xiong Ban Shi Ban Yong Ban Zhao She's the one who petitioned the reigning Emperor to let his brother return home from his posting. "Throw away your writing brush and join the military!" — based on his words "A brave man has no other plan but to follow Fu Jiezi and Zhang Qian's footsteps and do something and become somebody in a foreign land. How can I waste my life on writing? in Book of the Later Han. "... he who does not enter the tiger's lair will never catch its cubs." — similar to the saying "Nothing ventured, nothing gained."
"To die without glory is not the act of valiant men." （ ） Han-Xiongnu War Battle of Édouard. "Trois Généraux Chinois de la dynastie des Han Orientaux. Pan Tch’ao. Chapitre LXXVII du Heou Han chou." T’oung pao 7, pp. 210–269. Hill, John E.. Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, First to Second Centuries CE. BookSurge. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1; the Tarim Mummies. J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05101-1Further Readings Yap, Joseph P; the Western Regions and Han, from the Shiji and Hou Hanshu. ISBN 978-1792829154
Hot pot, or hotpot is a Chinese cooking method, prepared with a simmering pot of soup stock at the dining table, containing a variety of East Asian foodstuffs and ingredients. While the hot pot is kept simmering, ingredients are placed into the pot and are cooked at the table, in a manner similar to fondue. Typical hot pot dishes include thinly sliced meat, leaf vegetables, wontons, egg dumplings and seafood; the cooked food is eaten with a dipping sauce. Archeological evidence shows. Diners among the nobility each had a personal pot. During the Qing dynasty, hot pot became popular among the emperors. In particular, the Qianlong Emperor was fond of hot pot, would eat it for every meal; the Jiaqing Emperor had a banquet with 1550 hot pots at his coronation. Empress Dowager Cixi was known to have enjoyed hot pot in the winter months. There are many reasons explaining; the most convincing one is a folklore about emperors’ love. Qianlong, one of the emperors in Qing Dynasty ardently loved it eating hot pot every meal.
When setting banquet, Qianlong always asked servants to prepare hot pots. His son, Emperor Jiaqing liked the hot pot; the day he ascended the throne, he set more than 1500 tables of hot pots to celebrate. Following the two emperors, people desired to try hot pot. Thereafter, hot pot became popular. Another accepted reason is that the hot pot has the power to enhance friendship and unite family members or colleagues. Several people sit around a hot pot and eating, they pick up food in one pot. The warm air is considered to make people comfortable. Different kinds of hot pots can be found in Chongqing and Sichuan – more modern eateries offer the sectioned bowl with differently flavored broths in each section. More traditional or older establishments serve a fragrant, mild broth in the hot pot, a large brass vessel heated by burning coals in a central chimney; the broth is boiled in a donut-shaped bowl surrounding the chimney. One of the most famous variations is the Chongqing hot pot, it is usual to use a variety of different meats as well as sliced mutton fillet.
A Chongqing hotpot is markedly different from the types eaten in other parts of China. Quite the differences lie in the meats used, the type of soup base, the sauces and condiments used to flavor the meat; the typical dipping sauce contains sesame oil and is mixed with crushed fresh garlic and chopped spring onions. Má là huǒ guō could be used to distinguish from huǒ guō in cases when people refer to the "Northern Style Hot Pot" in China. Instant-boiled mutton could be viewed as representative of this kind of food, which does not focus on the soup base. Sichuan has a number of dry hot pots such as "Malaxiangguo" which are similar to those described above, but lack the soup base. Otherwise, similar ingredients are used and the dish served in a similar manner. In neighbouring Yunnan, although spicy broths are popular, there is another predominant type of hot pot, made with various wild or planted mushrooms; the big difference between the mushroom hot pot and the spicy hot pot is that the former uses spice and chili in order to keep the original flavor of the mushrooms.
The mushroom hot pot is seasonal, depending on the availability of local mushrooms. The Manchurian hot pot uses plenty of suan cai to make the pot's stew sour. A Cantonese variation includes mixing a raw egg with the condiments to reduce the amount of "heat" absorbed by the food, thereby reducing the likelihood of a sore throat after the steamboat meal, according to Chinese herbalist theories. In Hubei, hot pot is prepared with hot spice and Sichuan pepper. Items supplied to be cooked in this broth include mushrooms, thinly shaved beef or lamb and various other green vegetables. In Hainan cuisine hot pot is served in small woks with a prepared broth containing pieces of meat. At the time of serving, the meat is not cooked. Fifteen minutes is required before it is ready to eat. Items supplied to be cooked in this type of hot pot include mushrooms, thinly shaved beef or goat meat and other green vegetables; this dish varies somewhat in different parts of the province. In Japan, hot pot dishes are called nabemono.
There are dozens of varieties of hot pots, each hot pot has a distinguished flavor and style. Sukiyaki is one of the most popular hot pot dishes among the Japanese, undoubtedly the most well-known Japanese hot pot overseas in English-speaking parts of the world. Sukiyaki hot pot is served with sliced beef and tofu in a sweet sauce based on soy sauce, only used in small amounts, enough for the ingredients to merge in a shallow iron pot. Before being eaten, the ingredients are dipped in a small bowl of raw, beaten eggs. Shabu-shabu is another popular hot pot in Japan. Shabu-shabu hot pot is prepared by submerging a thin slice of meat or a piece of vegetable in a pot of broth made with kelp and swishing it back and forth several times; the familiar swishing sound is. Shabu-shabu directly translates to "swish swish." Cooked meat and vegetables are dipped in ponzu or goma sauce before eating. Once the meat and vegetables have been eaten, leftover broth from the pot is customarily c
Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum called benne. Numerous wild relatives occur in a smaller number in India, it is naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods or "buns". World production in 2016 was 6.1 million tonnes, with Tanzania, Myanmar and Sudan as the largest producers. Sesame seed is one of the oldest oilseed crops known, domesticated well over 3000 years ago. Sesamum has most being wild and native to sub-Saharan Africa. Sesamum indicum, the cultivated type, originated in India and is tolerant to drought-like conditions, growing where other crops fail. Sesame has one of the highest oil contents of any seed. With a rich, nutty flavor, it is a common ingredient in cuisines across the world. Like other nuts and foods, it can trigger allergic reactions in some people. Sesame seeds are sometimes sold with the seed coat removed; the word "sesame" is from Greek sēsamon. From these roots, words with the generalized meaning “oil, liquid fat” were derived.
Sesame seed is considered to be the oldest oilseed crop known to humanity. The genus has many species, most are wild. Most wild species of the genus Sesamum are native to sub-Saharan Africa. S. indicum, the cultivated type, originated in India. Archaeological remnants suggest Sesame was first domesticated in the Indian subcontinent dating to 5500 years ago. Charred remains of sesame recovered from archeological excavations have been dated to 3500-3050 BC. Fuller claims trading of sesame between Mesopotamia and the Indian subcontinent occurred by 2000 BC; some reports claim sesame was cultivated in Egypt during the Ptolemaic period, while others suggest the New Kingdom. Records from Babylon and Assyria, dating about 4000 years ago, mention sesame. Egyptians called it sesemt, it is included in the list of medicinal drugs in the scrolls of the Ebers Papyrus dated to be over 3600 years old. Archeological reports from Turkey indicate that sesame was grown and pressed to extract oil at least 2750 years ago in the empire of Urartu.
The historic origin of sesame was favored by its ability to grow in areas that do not support the growth of other crops. It is a robust crop that needs little farming support—it grows in drought conditions, in high heat, with residual moisture in soil after monsoons are gone or when rains fail or when rains are excessive, it was a crop that could be grown by subsistence farmers at the edge of deserts, where no other crops grow. Sesame has been called a survivor crop. Sesame is an annual plant growing 50 to 100 cm tall, with opposite leaves 4 to 14 cm long with an entire margin; the flowers are tubular, 3 to 5 cm long, with a four-lobed mouth. The flowers may vary with some being white, blue, or purple. Sesame seeds occur in many colours depending on the cultivar; the most traded variety of sesame is off-white coloured. Other common colours are buff, gold, reddish and black; the colour is the same for the fruit. Sesame fruit is a capsule pubescent, rectangular in section, grooved with a short, triangular beak.
The length of the fruit capsule varies from 2 to 8 cm, its width varies between 0.5 and 2 cm, the number of loculi varies from four to 12. The fruit splits open to release the seeds by splitting along the septa from top to bottom or by means of two apical pores, depending on the varietal cultivar; the degree of dehiscence is of importance in breeding for mechanised harvesting, as is the insertion height of the first capsule. Sesame seeds are small, their sizes vary with the thousands of varieties known. The seeds are about 3 to 4 mm long by 2 mm wide and 1 mm thick; the seeds are ovate flattened, somewhat thinner at the eye of the seed than at the opposite end. The weight of the seeds is between 40 mg; the seed coat may be ribbed. Sesame varieties have adapted to many soil types; the high-yielding crops thrive best on well-drained, fertile soils of medium texture and neutral pH. However, these have low tolerance for soils with water-logged conditions. Commercial sesame crops require 90 to 120 frost free days.
Warm conditions above 23 °C favor growth and yields. While sesame crops can grow in poor soils, the best yields come from properly fertilized farms. Initiation of flowering is sensitive to sesame variety; the photoperiod affects the oil content in sesame seed. The oil content of the seed is inversely proportional to its protein content. Sesame is drought-tolerant, in part due to its extensive root system. However, it requires adequate moisture for germination and early growth. While the crop survives drought, as well as presence of excess water, the yields are lower in either conditions. Moisture levels before planting and flowering impact yield most. Most commercial cultivars of sesame are intolerant of water-logging. Rainfall late in the season prolongs growth and increases loss to dehiscence, when the seedpod shatters, scattering the seed. Wind can cause shattering at harvest. Sesame seeds are protected by a capsule which only bursts when the seeds are ripe; this is called dehiscence. The dehiscence time tends to vary, so farmers cut plants by hand and place them together in an upright position to continue ripening until all the capsules have opened.
Cha siu bao
Cha siu bao is a Cantonese barbecue-pork-filled bun. The buns are filled with barbecue-flavored cha siu pork, they are sometimes sold in Chinese bakeries. Cha siu refers to the pork filling. There are two major kinds of cha siu bao, the traditional steamed version is called 蒸叉燒包 or 叉燒包, while the baked variety is called 叉燒餐包. Steamed cha siu bao has a white exterior, while the baked variety is glazed. Although visually similar to other types of steamed baozi, the dough of steamed cha siu bao is unique since it makes use of both yeast and baking powder as leavening; this unique mix of leavening gives the dough of cha siu bao the texture of a dense, but fine soft bread. Encased in the center of the bun is tender, slow-roasted pork tenderloin; this cha siu is diced, mixed into a syrupy mixture of oyster sauce, hoisin sauce, roasted sesame seed oil, rice vinegar, shaoxing wine or dry sherry, soy sauce and cornstarch. In Hawaii, the item is called manapua, its name is a shortening of the Hawaiian mea ʻono puaʻa, meaning, "delicious pork thing."
In the U. S. mainland, the Chinese term is used. The Chinese brought this dim sum item with them. In American Samoa and its surrounding islands, the item is referred to as keke pua'a meaning "pig cake"; this food consists of a white bun with a dark pink-colored diced pork filling. The Hawaiian version of the cha siu bao tends to be larger than its Chinese cousin and can be either steamed or baked. In Hawaii starting in the plantation era, Manapua sellers were and still are a common oucurence; the Manapua seller figure has become an iconic symbol of Hawaii. The red pork filling's dark pink color comes from marinating the pork with a small amount of saltpeter prior to slow roasting; the bun is baked, but more steamed when it is made. Manapua has come to mean any meat-filled or bean-paste-filled bun made with the same dough as described above including locally created versions with hot dogs, curry chicken, kalua pig, ube, a popular vegetarian version of the manapua. In Hawaii, freshly prepared or prepackaged frozen manapua may be found in dedicated bakeries and chain convenience stores.
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Breakfast is the first meal of a day. The word in English refers to breaking the fasting period of the prior night. There is a strong tendency for one or more "typical", or "traditional", breakfast menus to exist in most places, but the composition of this varies from place to place, has varied over time, so that globally a wide range of preparations and ingredients are now associated with breakfast; the Old English word for dinner, means to break a fast, was the first meal eaten in the day until its meaning shifted in the mid-13th century. It was not until the 15th century that “breakfast” came into use in written English to describe a morning meal, which means to break the fasting period of the prior night. While breakfast is referred to as "the most important meal of the day", some epidemiological research indicates that having breakfast high in available carbohydrates increases the risk of metabolic syndrome. Present professional opinion is in favor of eating breakfast, but some contest the positive implications of its "most important" status.
The influence of breakfast on managing body weight is unclear. Breakfast in Africa varies from region to region. Most Egyptians begin the day with a light breakfast. Ful medames, one of Egypt's several national dishes, is typical, it is seasoned with salt and cumin, garnished with vegetable oil and optionally with tahini, chopped parsley, chopped tomato, onion, lemon juice, chili pepper and served topped with a boiled egg. It is scooped up and eaten with the staple whole wheat pita bread called Eish Masri or Eish Baladi and accompanied by taʿamiya, the local variant of falafel made with fava beans, fresh cut homemade French fries and various fresh or pickled vegetables. Several kinds of cheeses are popular, including gebna bēḍa or Domyati cheese, gebna rūmi, similar to Pecorino Romano or Manchego, Istanbuli cheese. Fried eggs with pastirma is common breakfast foods in Egypt. For breakfast, many Moroccans eat bread, harsha, or msemen with olive oil and different kinds of Moroccan crepes. Nigeria has over 250 different ethnic groups, with a corresponding variety of cuisines.
For the Hausa of northern Nigeria, a typical breakfast consists of funkaso. Both of these cakes can be served with sugar known as koko. For the south western Yoruba people one of the most common breakfasts is Ògì— a porridge made from corn served with evaporated milk. Ògì is eaten with Moi moi. Both are made from ground bean paste. Ògì can be steamed in leaves to harden it and eaten with akara or moi moi for breakfast. English tea or malta is served as a breakfast drink. Another popular option in southwest Nigeria is Gari, eaten like a cereal. Gari, known in Brazil as farofa, is made from the root of cassava. For breakfast, it is sweetened with sugar. Breakfast consists of café Touba, spiced coffee with abundant sugar sometimes consumed with dried milk, or kinkeliba tea. Small beignets and fresh fruit, including mangoes and bananas, are part of a simple breakfast, are accompanied by baguette with various spreads: Chocoleca, a Nutella equivalent made from peanuts. Breakfast is an important meal for Somalis, who start the day with some style of tea.
The main dish is a pancake-like bread. It might be eaten with a stew or soup. Lahoh is a pancake-like bread originating in Somalia and Yemen, it is eaten along with honey and ghee or beef jerky, washed down with a cup of tea. During lunch, lahoh is sometimes consumed with stew. Lablabi is a popular breakfast stew. In Uganda, most tribes have different cuisines but the most popular breakfast dishes are Porridge and Katogo. Porridge is made by mixing maize flour or millet flour with water and bringing the mixture to a boil. While Katogo is made from matoke and cooked in the same pot with a sauce, Katogo is served with tea or juice. Both dishes are popular in all regions of Uganda. Breakfasts vary throughout Asia. In Arab countries, breakfast is a quick meal, consisting of bread and dairy products, with tea and sometimes jam. Flat bread with olive oil and za'tar is popular; as mainland China is made up of many distinct provinces, each with their own unique cuisine, breakfast in China can vary from province to province.
In general, basic choices include sweet or salty pancakes, deep-fried bread sticks or doughnuts, buns and fried or soup-based noodles. These options are accompanied by tea or sweetened soybean milk. However, condiments for porridge and the soup base tend to vary between regions; the types of teas that are served and spices that are used can differ between the provinces. Due to its near two centuries history as a British colony and proximity to China's Canton region, both English and traditional Cantonese style breakfasts are of somewhat equal popularity in Hong Kong, as well as the hybrid form of breakfast offered in Cha chaan teng. Cha Chaan Te