click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Shape of the universe

The shape of the universe, in physical cosmology, is the local and global geometry of the universe. The local features of the geometry of the universe are described by its curvature, whereas the topology of the universe describes general global properties of its shape as of a continuous object; the spatial curvature is related to general relativity, which describes how spacetime is curved and bent by mass and energy, while the spatial topology cannot be determined from its curvature. Cosmologists distinguish between the observable universe and the entire universe, the former being a spherical portion of the latter that can, in principle, be accessible by astronomical observations. Assuming the cosmological principle, the observable universe is similar for all contemporary vantage points, which allows cosmologists to discuss properties of the entire universe with only information inside their observable universe; the shape of the entire universe can be described with three attributes: Finite or infinite Flat, open, or closed Connectivity, how the universe is put together, i.e. connected space or multiply connected.

There are certain logical connections among these properties. For example, a universe with positive curvature is finite. Although it is assumed in the literature that a flat or negatively curved universe is infinite, this need not be the case if the topology is not the trivial one: for example, a three-torus is flat but finite; the exact shape is still a matter of debate in physical cosmology, but experimental data from various independent sources confirm that the universe is flat with only a 0.4% margin of error. Theorists have been trying to construct a formal mathematical model of the shape of the universe. In formal terms, this is a 3-manifold model corresponding to the spatial section of the 4-dimensional spacetime of the universe; the model most theorists use is the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker model. Arguments have been put forward that the observational data best fit with the conclusion that the shape of the global universe is infinite and flat, but the data are consistent with other possible shapes, such as the so-called Poincaré dodecahedral space and the Sokolov–Starobinskii space.

As stated in the introduction, there are two aspects to consider: its local geometry, which predominantly concerns the curvature of the universe the observable universe, its global geometry, which concerns the topology of the universe as a whole. The observable universe can be thought of as a sphere that extends outwards from any observation point for 46.5 billion light years, going farther back in time and more redshifted the more distant away one looks. Ideally, one can continue to look back all the way to the Big Bang. Experimental investigations show that the observable universe is close to isotropic and homogeneous. If the observable universe encompasses the entire universe, we may be able to determine the structure of the entire universe by observation. However, if the observable universe is smaller than the entire universe, our observations will be limited to only a part of the whole, we may not be able to determine its global geometry through measurement. From experiments, it is possible to construct different mathematical models of the global geometry of the entire universe, all of which are consistent with current observational data.

The universe may be small in some dimensions and not in others. To test whether a given mathematical model describes the universe scientists look for the model's novel implications—what are some phenomena in the universe that we have not yet observed, but that must exist if the model is correct—and they devise experiments to test whether those phenomena occur or not. For example, if the universe is a small closed loop, one would expect to see multiple images of an object in the sky, although not images of the same age. Cosmologists work with a given space-like slice of spacetime called the comoving coordinates, the existence of a preferred set of, possible and accepted in present-day physical cosmology; the section of spacetime that can be observed is the backward light cone, while the related term Hubble volume can be used to describe either the past light cone or comoving space up to the surface of last scattering. To speak of "the shape of the universe" is ontologically naive from the point of view of special relativity alone: due to the relativity of simultaneity we cannot speak of different points in space as being "at the same point in time" nor, therefore, of "the shape of the universe at a point in time".

However, the comoving coordinates provide a strict sense to those by using the time since the Big Bang as a distinguished universal time. The curvature is a quantity describing how the geometry of a space differs locally from the one of the flat space; the curvature of any locally isotropic space (and hence of a locally isotropic u

Valentin Yezhov

Valentin Ivanovich Yezhov, alternatively spelled Ezhov, was a Soviet and Russian screenwriter, playwright and professor at VGIK. Honored Artist of the Russian SFSR. Recipient of the Lenin Prize and the State Prize of the Russian Federation. Valentin Yezhov was born in Samara, Russian SFSR into a simple Russian family, his father Ivan Vasilievich Yezhov came from the Belye Kolodezi village. As a Red Army soldier he took part in battles against the Czechoslovak Legion and was wounded in action. While in a hospital he met Anna Ivanovna Maskalina, a senior nurse who became his wife. Valentin was a premature child born after seven months of pregnancy, he was named after the character of the Faust opera. In six years the family moved to the town of Ozyory and — to Moscow. In 1938 Yezhov joined the army. Shortly before the Great Patriotic War he enrolled into the School for Junior Airmen fought at the Russian Far East as part of the naval aviation forces, he demobilized in 1945 and returned to Moscow where he entered VGIK to study screenwriting under Joseph Manevich.

Alexander Dovzhenko took his place on. Yezhov started working in cinema in 1953 and turned into one of the most prolific screenwriters of the Soviet Union, he co-wrote over 50 screenplays, both for short and feature films. He worked in every genre, including documentaries. 1959 saw the release of the war drama Ballad of a Soldier directed by Grigori Chukhrai. The screenplay was co-written by Yezhov, both war veterans; the film gained a lot of praise and gathered a handful of international awards, including the Special jury prize at the 1960 Cannes Film Festival, the 1961 BAFTA Award for Best Film and the 1961 Bodil Award for Best Non-American Film. It was nominated for the 1961 Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. Both Yezhov and Chukrai were awarded a Lenin Prize for their work; the following years Yezhov worked with such acclaimed directors as Georgiy Daneliya, Larisa Shepitko and Andrei Konchalovsky. Along with Rustam Ibragimbekov he co-wrote a screenplay, made into a 1970 Red Western movie White Sun of the Desert by Vladimir Motyl.

It turned into one of the box office leaders with 34.5 million viewers and gained a cult status despite lacking any awards or attention from critics. It became a good tradition for Russian cosmonauts to watch the film before the space flights. In 1998 it was awarded the State Prize of the Russian Federation by Boris Yeltsin as a culturally significant piece of art. In 1978 an epic historical drama Siberiade was produced by Andrei Konchalovsky based on the screenplay written by him and Yezhov; the movie was shown at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival where it received a lot of praise and won the Grand Prix award. It became Konchalovsky's most recognizable work since and opened him gates to Hollywood where he fled in just a year after the ceremony. In addition to his screenwriting career, Yezhov wrote several theatrical plays, worked as a professor and educator at VGIK. Among his students where Valentin Chernykh who produced the screenplay for the Oscar-winning movie Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears and Sergei Bodrov.

Member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1951. In years Yezhov worked with Sergei Bondarchuk on the Red Bells dilogy, Ion Popescu-Gopo on the sequel to his Maria, Mirabela fairy tale and other Soviet and foreign film directors, he produced a total of six films together with a film director Viktor Sadovsky, including the 1991 biographical drama My Best Friend, General Vasili, Son of Joseph Stalin about the acclaimed Soviet sportsman Vsevolod Bobrov and his friendship with Vasily Stalin. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union he turned to screenwriting only once, in the 2000 short film Dr. Andersen that went unnoticed. In 1993 Yezhov and Rustam Ibragimbekov published a novelization of their White Sun of the Desert screenplay. In 2001 they published a prequel — White Sun of the Desert. Full Version which they hoped to make into a movie or TV series, but this never happened despite the efforts made by Ibragimbekov after his friend's death. Valentin Yezhov died in Moscow on May 8, 2004.

He was buried at the Troyekurovskoye Cemetery. He was survived by a writer Natalia Vsevolodovna Gotovtseva. Between 1972 and 1973 he was married to the Soviet and American actress Victoria Fyodorova who left Russia shortly after their divorce. Ballad of a Soldier Thirty Three Wings Home of the Gentry White Sun of the Desert That Sweet Word: Liberty! Siberiade Alexander the Small Red Bells Red Bells II Moon Rainbow The First Cavalry Maria, Mirabela in Tranzistoria Tsar Ivan the Terrible My Best Friend, General Vasili, Son of Joseph Stalin Valentin Yezhov on IMDb Ezhov, Valentin Ivanovich article by TheFreeDictionary.com Valentin Yezhov at the British Film Institute Remembering Valentin Yezhov at The Art of Cinema magazine, 2005

Uncle Bonsai

Uncle Bonsai is an American contemporary folk trio from Seattle, Washington. They formed in 1981, took a hiatus from 1989 - 1998, have been performing and recording again since 1999, their earlier songs included "Suzy", "Charlie and Me", "Penis Envy", "Boys Want Sex in the Morning", some of which resulted in Federal Communications Commission problems when played on the radio, twenty-odd songs recounting the life experiences of a character named Doug. Their more recent works, including "The Baby's Head", "The Grim Parade", "20th Century Man," and "Where's The Milk", focus on the passing of time, the passing of genes, the passing of pets – the truth of everything buried somewhere under the family tree. Uncle Bonsai has headlined at clubs and festivals throughout North America and opened for various artists, including Bonnie Raitt, TOTO, Suzanne Vega, Loudon Wainwright III, The Bobs; the original members were Andrew Ratshin, Arni Adler, Ashley O'Keeffe. In March 2007 they announced that they would be recording and performing more with O'Keeffe replaced by singer/songwriter Patrice O'Neill.

Most of the satirical songs were written by Ratshin, but Adler revealed her own brand of absurdist wit in several songs, including fan favorites "Cheerleaders on Drugs" and "Don't Put It In Your Mouth." The band's songs continue to receive airplay on Dr. Demento. Andrew Ratshin performs and records solo as'The Electric Bonsai Band', as part of a sextet,'Mel Cooleys', his records are available on the Yellow Tail Records label. A Lonely Grain of Corn Boys Want Sex in the Morning I Am Joe's Eyes The Inessential Uncle Bonsai Myn Ynd Wymyn But I'm Happy Now Plain Brown Wrapper Sponge Boy Doug Apology The Grim Parade The Family Feast Official web site Uncle Bonsai discography at MusicBrainz

Third Man Museum

The Third Man Museum is a film museum in the 4th district of Vienna, Austria. Opened in 2005, the Third Man Museum shows across an area of over 400 square meters in 14 rooms a comprehensive collection of original exhibits based on and around the international film triumph The Third Man, directed by Carol Reed, created after the eponymous novel of Graham Greene; the Third Man Museum is an independent two-person project, initiated by Gerhard Strassgschwandtner. He formed the extensive collection, whilst the design and concept come from Karin Höfler. Specialists and generalists, they have created the museum from scratch. A rounded piece of work, with no Outsourcing, it is a private museum with no subsidies. The museum is aimed not only at film fans but those interested in the pre- and post-war history of Vienna. An extensive exhibition within the museum explains the historical backdrop of the film and portrays the everyday life of a city occupied by the Allies between 1945 and 1955, includes many original documents from the period.

About 3000 original exhibits in the museum including: Trevor Howard's personal script with hundreds of annotations, which he used for the filming in Vienna and in London. Additional documents in the form of letters and photos from the private estate of Trevor Howard. Film-specific correspondence from the author Graham Greene; the cap worn by Herbert Halbik. With an interview and film documents from Herbert Halbik; the film zither of Anton Karas used in 1949 in London to compose the film music and to record it for the film. The former private exhibition of Anton Karas, which he installed in his garden house in Vienna and is today with its original hanging of documents and photos integrated into the Third Man Museum. Documentations about all the actors in the film. Two light-weight 35-mm film cameras, which were rented for the British film team by the Austrian camera man Hans Schneeberger and which he used for shooting several short scenes of the film. A special exhibition about Orson Welles including interviews with his long-time companion and muse Oja Kodar, who gave to the museum some items from her private archive.

The essential screenplays of The Third Man produced for the preparation and for the filming: The draft script, the second draft for the US co-producer David O. Selznick, the script used in Vienna by the cameraman of the 3rd unit Jack Causey, the release script of the British version, the dialogue cutting continuity script. More than 100 editions of Graham Greene's novel The Third Man. More than 70 film posters of The Third Man. A functioning Ernemann VIIb projector from 1936 on which visitors to the Third Man Museum can see a two-minute sequence of the British version screened. Around 2000 additional pieces of memorabilia from the film The Third Man. About 1000 documents about the Allied occupation of Vienna and about the-prewar period; the Third Man Museum annually creates temporary exhibitions: From March 2018 – August 2018: Vienna 1938 - The Road to the Anschluss. From September 2018 – January 2019: 1948 - Vienna becomes a Movie Star. Regular on-topic events: May 2018: Rosebud – The Lives of Orson Welles.

The US director and actor Erik van Beuzekom in May 2018 performs his one-man show'Rosebud-The Lives of Harry Lime' in the Third Man Museum. Monthly concerts by the Austrian Zitherplayer Cornelia Mayer of the complete film music of The Third Man. Rick Steves Vienna, Tirol Hachette 2017, S. 72. ISBN 978-1-6312-1458-5 Website of the museum Vienna Tourism Board Austrian Press & Information Service in the United States Adrian Bridge: The Third Man Museum: uncovering the seedy side of Vienna. In: Daily Telegraph, January 05, 2010 David Stewart White: Side Order: Cue the zithers for a visit to Vienna’s Third Man Museum. In: The Washington Post, October 26, 2012 Kevin Rushby: Five things to do in Vienna, the world’s most liveable city, In: The Guardian, February 23, 2016

Hera Agathon

Isis or Hera Agathon is a fictional character from the reimagined Battlestar Galactica series. Isis or Hera is the first, only, known Cylon-Human hybrid child to be born and she first appears in the episode "Downloaded", she is the daughter of human father Karl "Helo" Agathon. They name her "Hera" after the Colonial goddess; the humanoid Cylons are as biological as they are technological and can mate with humans and produce offspring. This fact seems to be part of the "plan" of the Cylons who want to repopulate the human colonies with a new generation of hybrid beings. Once the Cylons learn of Athena's pregnancy, they decide the child must be protected at all costs and thus have impact on the Cylon agenda in pursuing the refugee fleet. Hera is believed to be the only successful hybrid born, believed to be due to the love between her parents. Attempts at producing hybrids in "farms" on the occupied Colonies have all failed in the early stages of gestation, if they got that far. Fearing that Cylon spies within the fleet would try to kidnap Hera, the President Laura Roslin of the Fleet secretly orders Dr. Cottle to fake the child's death.

Hera had been born with underdeveloped lungs and Cottle uses this fact as the cause of her death. Sharon, refuses to believe this and accuses Cottle of having murdered her child on Roslin's or Admiral Adama's orders. While Helo and Chief Tyrol scatter ashes into space that they believe are Hera's, Roslin and Cottle secretly meet on Colonial One and give Hera to a woman named Maya who had lost a child in a previous Cylon attack. Emphasizing the need for secrecy, Roslin's aide Tory Foster tells Maya that the baby's mother is an anonymous Pegasus officer who cannot care for the child due to political and religious reasons. Maya subsequently names the baby Isis. After a year on New Caprica, Isis is still alive, she had been under the care of Maya in a New Caprica school. Roslin tries to keep her adoptive mother hidden. However, Maya is killed during the evacuation of New Caprica. Hera is taken into the custody of Number Three. During the race to Earth, Hera begins to get sick and her Cylon caretakers cannot determine what the problem is.

During a Cylon diplomatic trip to Galactica, Boomer tells Hera's biological mother Sharon "Athena" Agathon that Hera is still alive and is sick. At Athena's request, her husband Helo shoots and kills her so that she can download to a new body in the Cylon fleet and attempt a rescue of her daughter. On download, Caprica-Six takes her to Hera, under Boomer's care. Hera appears to be comforted by her mother's presence; as Caprica-Six observes, despite Boomer and Athena being biologically identical, Hera can distinguish between them, she has missed her real mother. However, Athena discovers that Hera's belly is hard, indicating a possible blockage in her bowels, advocates that Hera be examined by a human doctor aboard Galactica. With help from Caprica-Six and Hera escape to Galactica, where Hera is examined by Doc Cottle; as a "hybrid", Hera/Isis possesses incredible regenerative properties. Some of her blood is donated to Laura Roslin, which helps treat her cancer to the point where she recovers.

This fact leads to Laura's decision to not have Athena's fetus aborted as she had ordered. It is not yet known if Isis/Hera possesses any of the machine qualities of her mother, such as the fiberoptic neural pathways, she is too young to determine if she has the superhuman physical prowess demonstrated by other humanoid Cylon models such as Leoben Conoy and Number Six. However, in Islanded in a Stream of Stars it is revealed that she possesses the Cylon ability to project; as mentioned, Hera can distinguish her mother apart from the other Number Eights, but whether this is attributed to a Cylon inherited ability or to the emotional bond between a mother and her child is unknown. In Someone to Watch Over Me, Hera gives Starbuck a drawing. Starbuck realizes that the "stars" in Hera's drawing match up with the notes to "All Along the Watchtower" - the song that activated the Final Five. Hera is kidnapped by Boomer who arrives at the daycare dressed as her mother and quickly drugs the little girl with a drink.

Pretending to be Athena, Boomer smuggles Hera onto a Raptor inside a provisions container and jumps away. In the final episode, it is revealed that Hera is the Mitochondrial Eve and lived 150,000 years before the present day, her remains are recovered by the Smithsonian Institution in modern-day Tanzania. List of Battlestar Galactica episodes Hera Agathon at Battlestar Wiki

Jeanne de Fougères, Countess of La Marche and of Angoulême

Jeanne de Fougères, was ruling suo jure Lady of Fougères from 1256. She was the wife of Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulême. Jeanne was responsible for the additions and fortifications of the Chateau of Fougères which provided a greater stability for the town. Jeanne was born at the Chateau of Fougères, in Brittany on an unknown date, the only daughter and surviving child of Raoul III, seigneur of Fougères and Isabelle de Craon, her paternal grandparents were Geoffrey, seigneur of Fougères and Mathilde de Porhoet, her maternal grandparents were Amaury I, seigneur of Craon and Jeanne des Roches, daughter of Guillaume des Roches, seneschal of Anjou, Marguerite de Sablé. Jeanne had a brother Jean de Fougères, but he died after his birth on 6 December 1230; as no more sons were born to her mother, Jeanne became the heiress to her father's lordship of Fougères, which she inherited suo jure upon the death of her father on 24 February 1256. She thereafter held the title of Dame de Fougères; that same year 1256, she issued orders for the expansion of the chateau of Fougères, adding the Melusine and Gobelin towers as well as fortifying the ramparts and gates.

Her efforts provided a greater stability for the town. On 29 January 1254, Jeanne was married to Hugh XII de Lusignan, seigneur of Lusignan and Peyrat, Count of La Marche and Angoulême, she became the Countess of La Marche and Angoulême upon her marriage, recorded in the Chronicon Savigniacense on 4 February 1254. Shortly after 25 August 1270, Jeanne became a widow when her husband Hugh was killed while on Crusade with King Louis IX of France. Jeanne was granted the wardship of her minor children in Nov. 1271. She died on an unknown date after 1273, she left a will dated 20 May 1269. She was buried in Savigny. Upon Jeanne's death, her eldest daughter Yolanda became the Heiress of Fougères. Hugh and Jeanne together had six children: Yolande de Lusignan, suo jure Countess of La Marche, Heiress of Fougères, married firstly Helie-Rudel, seigneur of Pons, by whom she had issue. Hugh XIII of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Angoulême, on 1 April 1276 married Beatrice of Burgundy, their marriage was childless.

Guy I de Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Angoulême, died unmarried and without legitimate issue. Jeanne of Lusignan, married firstly Bernard Ezi III, Lord of Albret, by whom she had two daughters. Isabelle de Lusignan, before 1288 in Cognac married Jean de Vesci, she became a nun at Fontevrault Abbey Marie de Lusignan, in 1288 married Etienne II, Count of Sancerre. Genealogist n.s. 21: 78–82, 163–171, 234–243. La Porta, Les Gens de Qualité en Basse-Marche 1: 1–60. Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln n.s. 3: 816. Cawley, Brittany and Nobility, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Charles, Southwest, Angoulême, La Marche, Périgord, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy