Shark meat

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A cross-section of shark meat
Shark meat at a supermarket in Japan
Fermented shark meat

Shark meat is a seafood consisting of the flesh of sharks. Its consumption by humans has been mentioned since fourth century AD literature.[1] Several sharks are fished for human consumption, such as porbeagles, shortfin mako shark, requiem shark, and thresher shark, among others.[1] Shark meat is popular in Asia, where it is often consumed dried, smoked, or salted.[2] Shark meat is consumed regularly in Japan, India, Sri Lanka, areas of Africa and Mexico;[2] in western cultures, shark meat is sometimes considered as an inferior food, although its popularity has increased in Western countries.[2]

Preparation[edit]

Unprocessed shark meat may have a strong odor of ammonia, due to the high urea content that develops as the fish decomposes,[3] the urea content and ammonia odor can be reduced by marinating the meat in liquids such as lemon juice, vinegar, milk, or saltwater.[4] Preparation methods include slicing the meat into steaks and fillets.[1]

Africa[edit]

In Eastern Africa and islands in the Indian Ocean, shark meat has been traded and has been a significant source of protein for centuries,[1] its consumption may occur primarily in coastal areas. It may be preserved using salt curing to extend its shelf life and to enable easier transportation.[1]

Asia[edit]

Shark meat is common and popular in Asia;[2] in 1999, the combined countries of Asia led in the number of sharks caught.[1] Asian fisheries harvested 55.4% of the world's shark catch in 1996.[1]

Japan[edit]

Japan has a large market share in the trade of frozen and fresh shark meat, for both importation and exportation.[1] Shark meat is typically consumed in prepared forms in Japan, such as in prepared fish sausage, surimi, fish paste, fish balls, and other products.[1]

Korea[edit]

Sanjeok (skewered beef and scallions) and dombaegi (salted shark meat)

In Korea, dombaegi (돔배기), salted shark meat, is eaten in North Gyeongsang Province.

Australia[edit]

Shark meat is popular in Australia, where it is known as flake. Flake is sourced primarily from gummy shark, a small, bottom-feeding species abundant along the east coast of Australia. Flake can be purchased as a ready-made meal from most Australian fish and chip shops, usually in the form of battered or grilled fillets.[5]

Europe[edit]

Per the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), European countries are major markets for shark meat.[1] Pickled dogfish is popular food in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and other northern European countries,[1] the meat is typically processed and consumed in steaks and fillets.[1] In Germany, though, a preference exists for backs, belly, and smoked belly flaps, which are referred to as Schillerlocken.[1] Per the FAO, Italy led globally in the importation of shark meat in 1999, with France and Spain following;[1] in 1999, France imported the second-largest amount of shark meat on a global level.[1]

Iceland[edit]

Hákarl drying in Iceland

In Iceland, hákarl is a national dish prepared using Greenland shark[6] or sleeper shark. The shark meat is buried and fermented to cure it, and then hung to dry for several months.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Vannuccini, S. (1999). Shark Utilization, Marketing, and Trade. FAO fisheries technical paper. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. pp. 66–93. ISBN 978-92-5-104361-5. 
  2. ^ a b c d Carwardine, M. (2004). Shark. Firefly Books. p. PT 126. ISBN 978-1-55297-948-8. 
  3. ^ Kim, S.K. (2014). Seafood Processing By-Products: Trends and Applications. SpringerLink : Bücher. Springer. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4614-9590-1. 
  4. ^ Bashline, Sylvia (January 1980). "Eating Shark - Instead of Vice Versa". Field & Stream. p. 46. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
  5. ^ John Ford, Robert Day: "Flake is sustainable gummy shark, except when it’s not". The Conversation. May 1, 2015.
  6. ^ a b Deutsch, J.; Murakhver, N. (2012). They Eat That?: A Cultural Encyclopedia of Weird and Exotic Food from around the World. ABC-CLIO. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0-313-38059-4.