The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period and it once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before naturally occurring erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines, definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range.
Most broadly, it refers to the mountain range with its surrounding hills. The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were originally part of the Appalachians as well, the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváezs expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15,1528, now spelled Appalachian, it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrezs map of 1562, the name was not commonly used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and often more popular name was the Allegheny Mountains, Alleghenies, in the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the regions of the Appalachians.
In northern parts of the range, it is pronounced /ˌæpəˈleɪtʃᵻnz/ or /ˌæpəˈleɪʃᵻnz/, the third syllable is like lay. There is often debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a commonly accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is /ˌæpəˈlætʃiən/, the whole system may be divided into three great sections, The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are unassociated with the Appalachians, The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia. Southern, The southern section runs from the New River onwards and it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, which is divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, and the Cumberland Plateau
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania, New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state but the 11th-most populous and the most densely populated of the 50 United States. New Jersey lies entirely within the statistical areas of New York City. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, in the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes made the first European settlements. New Jersey was the site of decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities such as Camden, Newark, around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains, around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey.
As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as rivers, swamps. New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact, scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land that is now New Jersey. The Lenape society was divided into clans that were based upon common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign, Turtle and Wolf and they first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade. The Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey, the Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of ownership was not recognized by the Lenape. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which eventually became the Bergen, peter Minuits purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden.
During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and it was from the Royal Square in St. Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton, the area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the states inception, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic, New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin
New Paltz (village), New York
New Paltz is a village in Ulster County located in the U. S. state of New York. It is about 80 miles north of New York City and 70 miles south of Albany, the population was 6,818 at the 2010 census. The Village of New Paltz is located within the Town of New Paltz, New Paltz is home to the State University of New York at New Paltz, founded in 1828. Mannheim was a town of the Palatinate, at the time a center of Protestantism. The settlers lived in Wiltwyck and in 1677 purchased a patent for the surrounding present day New Paltz from a Lenape tribe known as the Esopus. The people of Mannheim use a form of the name Pfalz without the f. Records of the New Paltz Reformed Church, which was formed in 1683, show the name of the settlement was first expressed not in German, nor in English, but in French, Nouveau Palatinat. The community was governed by a kind of called the Duzine. That form of government continued well past the time of the American Revolution, the farms were grouped principally around the heights west and east of the Wallkill River.
The commercial center serving the agricultural base was located on the east shore of the Wallkill River, the street is now known as Huguenot Street. The church, which was used as a school, was located here. Many of the buildings stand today, as a living museum community. Population slowly spread from the Wallkill up along the now known as North Front Street. In the nineteenth century, development continued along what is now Main Street, the secession of the Town of Lloyd and parts of Shawangunk and Gardiner, between 1843 and 1853, reduced New Paltz to its present size. In 1887, the Village of New Paltz was incorporated within a town of the same name, higher education has been one of the main concerns of the community since the 1830s, with facilities on Huguenot Street and North Front Streets. Late in the century, the college was built in the area of Plattekill Avenue and Manheim Boulevard. The Wallkill Valley Railroad reached New Paltz by 1870, and provided service through the town until 1937.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has an area of 1.8 square miles
The Neversink River is a 55-mile-long tributary of the Delaware River in southeastern New York in the United States. The name of the river comes from an Algonquian language phrase meaning mad river, in the 1890s Theodore Gordon expertly matched dry fishing flies to actual insects. Edward Ringwood Hewitt conducted research on insect and flies from his property above the town of Neversink, as a result, the Neversink River is considered by many to be the birthplace of American dry fly fishing. The Neversinks main flow begins just south of the border between present-day Ulster and Sullivan counties, where the east and west branches of the river join near the hamlet of Claryville, both branches begin on the slopes of Slide Mountain, the highest peak in the Catskills. The west branch is joined by major tributaries, such as Biscuit Brook and Pigeon Creek at Frost Valley YMCA in the town of Shandaken. In its upper course, it is a rocky and wild stream, most of the land around it is privately owned and not open to fishermen.
It flows generally southeast through the mountains, not far downriver from the confluence in Neversink, it is impounded to form the Neversink Reservoir of the New York City Water Supply System. It is connected by a 5-mile water tunnel to Rondout Reservoir, development of the Neversink Reservoir resulted in the displacement of many locals, as several towns along the river were flooded to make the reservoir. New York City paid for their relocation and it flows through the town of Fallsburg, the hamlets of Woodbourne, South Fallsburg, and Old Falls. It enters the town of Thompson near Bridgeville, New York State Route 17/Interstate 86 cross it at Exit 107, the Holiday Mountain Ski Area was developed near the river. Southern Sullivan County has less developed country, and the passes over its largest waterfalls, Denton Falls. It flows southeastward into western Orange County, near Cuddebackville, it is joined from the northeast by Basher Kill, flows southwest. US209 runs parallel to the river, which joins the Delaware River at Port Jervis, tristate Rock marks the area of the borders of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, Interstate 84 bridge passes over this point.
Along much of its length, the Neversink is a trout stream. In addition to trout, it sustains brown trout, brook trout. The river is home to fish species such as smallmouth bass, sucker, American eel, and lampreys. Other forms of recreation are rarely pursued on the river, several swimming holes are available, many are on private property or restricted public property. The relative narrow nature of the river is not hospitable to boating, the river is mostly navigable with small watercraft from near its dam in Hasbrouck to its mouth, however, it is seldom traveled
A ridge or mountain ridge is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. Ridges are usually termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size, there are several main types of ridges, Dendritic ridge, In typical dissected plateau terrain, the stream drainage valleys will leave intervening ridges. These are by far the most common ridges and these ridges usually represent slightly more erosion resistant rock, but not always – they often remain because there were more joints where the valleys formed, or other chance occurrences. This type of ridge is somewhat random in orientation, often changing direction frequently. Similar ridges have formed in such as the Black Hills. Sometimes these ridges are called hogback ridges, oceanic spreading ridge, In tectonic spreading zones around the world, such as at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the volcanic activity forming new plate boundary forms volcanic ridges at the spreading zone.
Isostatic settling and erosion gradually reduce the moving away from the zone. Crater ridges, Large meteorite strikes typically form large impact craters bordered by circular ridges, volcanic crater/caldera ridges, Large volcanoes often leave behind a central crater/caldera bordered by circular ridges. Fault ridges, Faults often form escarpments, sometimes the tops of the escarpments form not plateaus, but slope back so that the edges of the escarpments form ridges. Dune ridges, In areas of large-scale dune activity, certain types of dunes result in sand ridges and eskers, Glacial activity may leave ridges in the form of moraines and eskers. An arête is a ridge of rock that is formed by glacial erosion. Volcanic subglacial ridges, Many subglacial volcanoes create ridge-like formations when lava erupts through a glacier or ice sheet. Shutter ridges, A shutter ridge is a ridge which has moved along a fault line, typically, a shutter ridge creates a valley corresponding to the alignment of the fault that produces it
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with indigo-colored berries from the section Cyanococcus within the genus Vaccinium. Species in the section Cyanococcus are the most common fruits sold as blueberries and are native to North America, Blueberries are usually erect, prostrate shrubs that can vary in size from 10 centimeters to 4 meters in height. In the commercial production of blueberries, the species are known as lowbush blueberries. The leaves can be deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate. The flowers are bell-shaped, pale pink or red, the fruit is a berry 5–16 millimeters in diameter with a flared crown at the end, they are pale greenish at first, reddish-purple, and finally dark purple when ripe. They are covered in a coating of powdery epicuticular wax. They have a sweet taste when mature, with variable acidity, the genus Vaccinium has a mostly circumpolar distribution, with species mainly being present in North America, Europe and Africa. Many commercially sold species with English common names including blueberry are currently classified in section Cyanococcus of the genus Vaccinium, many North American native species of blueberries are grown commercially in the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand and South American nations.
See the Identification section for more information, note and range summaries are from the Flora of New Brunswick, published in 1986 by Harold R. These species are sometimes called blueberries and sold as jam or other products. The names of blueberries in languages other than English often translate as blueberry, e. g. Scots blaeberry, blaeberry, blåbær and French myrtilles usually refer to the European native bilberry, while bleuets refers to the North American blueberry. Russian голубика does not refer to blueberries, which are non-native and nearly unknown in Russia, Cyanococcus blueberries can be distinguished from the nearly identical-looking bilberries by their flesh color when cut in half. Ripe blueberries have light green flesh, while bilberries and huckleberries are red or purple throughout, Blueberries may be cultivated, or they may be picked from semiwild or wild bushes. In North America, the most common cultivated species is V. corymbosum, hybrids of this with other Vaccinium species adapted to southern U. S. climates are known collectively as southern highbush blueberries.
So-called wild blueberries, smaller than cultivated highbush ones, have intense color, the lowbush blueberry, V. angustifolium, is found from the Atlantic provinces westward to Quebec and southward to Michigan and West Virginia. In some areas, it produces natural blueberry barrens, where it is the dominant species covering large areas, several First Nations communities in Ontario are involved in harvesting wild blueberries. Wild has been adopted as a term for harvests of managed native stands of lowbush blueberries. The bushes are not planted or genetically manipulated, but they are pruned or burned over two years, and pests are managed
Asher Brown Durand
Asher Brown Durand was an American painter of the Hudson River School. Durand was born in and eventually died in Maplewood, New Jersey, the eighth of eleven children, his father was a watchmaker and a silversmith. Durand was apprenticed to an engraver from 1812 to 1817 and entered into a partnership with the owner of the company and he engraved Declaration of Independence for John Trumbull during 1823, which established Durands reputation as one of the countrys finest engravers. Durand helped organize the New York Drawing Association during 1825, which would become the National Academy of Design, ashers engravings on bank notes were used as the portraits for Americas first postage stamps, the 1847 series. Along with his brother Cyrus he engraved some of the succeeding 1851 issues and his main interest changed from engraving to oil painting about 1830 with the encouragement of his patron, Luman Reed. During 1837, he accompanied his friend Thomas Cole on an expedition to Schroon Lake in the Adirondacks Mountains.
Durand is remembered particularly for his portrayals of trees, rocks. He was an advocate for drawing directly from nature with as much realism as possible. Durand wrote, Let scrupulously accept whatever presents him until he shall, like other Hudson River School artists, Durand believed that nature was an ineffable manifestation of God. He expressed this sentiment and his opinions on art in his essay Letters on Landscape Painting in The Crayon. Wrote Durand, he true province of Landscape Art is the representation of the work of God in the visible creation, Durand is noted for his 1849 painting Kindred Spirits which shows fellow Hudson River School artist Thomas Cole and poet William Cullen Bryant in a Catskills Mountains landscape. This was painted as a tribute to Cole upon Coles death during 1848, at $35 million, however, it would be a record price paid for an American painting at the time. Another of Durands painting is his Progress, commissioned by a railroad executive, the landscape depicts Americas progress, from a state of nature, towards the right, where there are roads, telegraph wires, a canal, warehouses and steamboats.
During 2007, the Brooklyn Museum exhibited nearly sixty of Durands works in the first monographic exhibition devoted to the painter in more than thirty-five years, the show, entitled Kindred Spirits, Asher B. Durand and the American Landscape, was exhibited from March 30 to July 29,2007, Durand is interred in Brooklyn, New York, in Green-Wood Cemetery. List of Hudson River School artists Books Howat, John K, American Paradise, The World of the Hudson River School. New York, NY, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Anatomy of Nature, Geology & American Landscape Painting, 1825-1875. The Life and Times of Asher B, hensonville, NY, Black Dome Press Corp
Tsuga is a genus of conifers in the pine family Pinaceae. The common name hemlock is derived from a similarity in the smell of its crushed foliage to that of the unrelated plant poison hemlock. Unlike the latter, Tsuga species are not poisonous, eight to ten species are within the genus, with four species occurring in North America and four to six in eastern Asia. They are medium-sized to large trees, ranging from 10–60 m tall, with a conical to irregular crown. The bark is scaly and commonly deeply furrowed, with the colour ranging from grey to brown, the branches stem horizontally from the trunk and are usually arranged in flattened sprays that bend downward towards their tips. Short spur shoots, which are present in gymnosperms, are weakly to moderately developed. The young twigs, as well as the portions of stem, are flexible. The stems are rough due to pulvini that persist after the leaves fall, the winter buds are ovoid or globose, usually rounded at the apex and not resinous. The leaves are flattened to slightly angular and range from 5–35 mm long and they are borne singly and are arranged spirally on the stem, the leaf bases are twisted so the leaves lie flat either side of the stem or more rarely radially.
Towards the base, the leaves narrow abruptly to a set on a forward-angled pulvinus. The petiole is twisted at the base so it is almost parallel with the stem, the leaf apex is either notched, rounded, or acute. The undersides have two white stomatal bands separated by an elevated midvein, the upper surface of the leaves lack stomata, except in T. mertensiana. They have one resin canal that is present beneath the single vascular bundle, the pollen cones grow solitary from lateral buds. They are 3–5 mm long, globose, or ellipsoid, and yellowish-white to pale purple, the pollen itself has a saccate, ring-like structure at its distal pole, and rarely this structure can be more or less doubly saccate. Maturation occurs in 5–8 months, and the seeds are shed shortly thereafter, the seed scales are thin and persistent. They vary in shape and lack an apophysis and an umbo, the bracts are included and small. The seeds are small, from 2 to 4 mm long and they contain small adaxial resin vesicles. Seed germination is epigeal, the seedlings have four to six cotyledons, mountain hemlock, T. mertensiana, is unusual in the genus in several respects
Huckleberry is a name used in North America for several plants in the family Ericaceae, in two closely related genera and Gaylussacia. The huckleberry is the fruit of Idaho. The name huckleberry is a North American variation of the English dialectal name variously called hurtleberry or whortleberry /ˈwɜːrtəlˌbɛrɪ/ for the bilberry, in North America the name was applied to numerous plant variations all bearing small berries with colors that may be red, blue or black. The fruit of the species of plant called huckleberries is generally edible and versatile in foods. The berries are small and round, 5–10 mm in diameter, in taste, the berries range from tart to sweet, with a flavor similar to that of a blueberry, especially in blue- and purple-colored varieties. However, many kinds of huckleberries have a tart taste, different from blueberries. Huckleberries are consumed by animals, including bears, deer. The garden huckleberry is not a true huckleberry, but is instead a member of the nightshade family, four species of huckleberries in the genus Gaylussacia are common in eastern North America, especially G. baccata, known as the black huckleberry.
From coastal Central California to southern Washington and British Columbia, the red huckleberry is found in the plant community. The plant grows best in damp, acidic soil having volcanic origin, attaining under optimal conditions heights of 1.5 to 2 m, usually ripening in mid-to-late summer or at high elevations. Where the climate is favorable, certain species of huckleberry, such as V. membranaceum, V. parvifolium, only limited research has been applied to define the content of essential nutrients in huckleberries, showing none with high content. Two huckleberry species, V. membranaceum and V. ovatum, were studied for phytochemical content, showing that V. ovatum had greater total anthocyanin, each species contained 15 anthocyanins but in different proportions. Huckleberries were traditionally collected by Native American and First Nations people along the Pacific coast, interior British Columbia, and Montana for use as food or traditional medicine. Huckleberries can be processed into food products including juice, soup, jam, candy, muffins, pancakes.
Traditional medical applications included treating pain, heart ailments, and infections, huckleberries hold a place in archaic American English slang. The tiny size of the led to their use as a way of referring to something small. The phrase a huckleberry over my persimmon was used to mean a bit beyond my abilities, im your huckleberry is a way of saying that one is just the right person for a given job. The range of meanings of huckleberry in the 19th century was fairly large
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss. It is one of the four types of wetlands. Other names for bogs include mire and muskeg and they are frequently covered in ericaceous shrubs rooted in the sphagnum moss and peat. The gradual accumulation of decayed plant material in a bog functions as a carbon sink, Bogs occur where the water at the ground surface is acidic and low in nutrients. In some cases, the water is derived entirely from precipitation, water flowing out of bogs has a characteristic brown colour, which comes from dissolved peat tannins. In general, the low fertility and cool climate results in relatively slow plant growth, large areas of landscape can be covered many metres deep in peat. Bogs have distinctive assemblages of animal and plant species, Bogs are widely distributed in cold, temperate climes, mostly in boreal ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere. The worlds largest wetland is the bogs of the Western Siberian Lowlands in Russia.
Large peat bogs occur in North America, particularly the Hudson Bay Lowland and they are less common in the Southern Hemisphere, with the largest being the Magellanic moorland, comprising some 44,000 square kilometres. Sphagnum bogs were widespread in northern Europe but have often been cleared and drained for agriculture, a 2014 expedition leaving from Itanga village, Republic of the Congo discovered a peat bog as big as England which stretches into neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo. There are many highly specialised animals and plants associated with bog habitat, most are capable of tolerating the combination of low nutrient levels and waterlogging. Sphagnum moss is generally abundant, along with ericaceous shrubs, the shrubs are often evergreen, which is understood to assist in conservation of nutrients. In drier locations, evergreen trees can occur, in case the bog blends into the surrounding expanses of boreal evergreen forest. Sedges are one of the more common herbaceous species, carnivorous plants such as sundews and pitcher plants have adapted to the low-nutrient conditions by using invertebrates as a nutrient source.
Orchids have adapted to these conditions through the use of fungi to extract nutrients. Some shrubs such as Myrica gale have root nodules in which nitrogen fixation occurs, Bogs are recognized as a significant/specific habitat type by a number of governmental and conservation agencies. They can provide habitat for mammals, such as caribou, the United Kingdom in its Biodiversity Action Plan establishes bog habitats as a priority for conservation. Russia has a reserve system in the West Siberian Lowland
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at 443.8 million years ago, to the beginning of the Devonian Period,419.2 Mya. As with other periods, the rock beds that define the periods start and end are well identified. The base of the Silurian is set at a major Ordovician-Silurian extinction event when 60% of marine species were wiped out, a significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian was the diversification of jawed and bony fish. However, terrestrial life would not greatly diversify and affect the landscape until the Devonian, the Silurian system was first identified by British geologist Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, who was examining fossil-bearing sedimentary rock strata in south Wales in the early 1830s. He named the sequences for a Celtic tribe of Wales, the Silures, inspired by his friend Adam Sedgwick and this naming does not indicate any correlation between the occurrence of the Silurian rocks and the land inhabited by the Silures.
As it was first identified, the Silurian series when traced farther afield quickly came to overlap Sedgwicks Cambrian sequence, charles Lapworth resolved the conflict by defining a new Ordovician system including the contested beds. An early alternative name for the Silurian was Gotlandian after the strata of the Baltic island of Gotland, the French geologist Joachim Barrande, building on Murchisons work, used the term Silurian in a more comprehensive sense than was justified by subsequent knowledge. He divided the Silurian rocks of Bohemia into eight stages and his interpretation was questioned in 1854 by Edward Forbes, and the stages of Barrande, F, G and H, have since been shown to be Devonian. Despite these modifications in the groupings of the strata, it is recognized that Barrande established Bohemia as a classic ground for the study of the earliest fossils. The epoch is named for the town of Llandovery in Carmarthenshire, the Wenlock, which lasted from 433.4 ±1.5 to 427.4 ±2.8 mya, is subdivided into the Sheinwoodian and Homerian ages.
It is named after Wenlock Edge in Shropshire, during the Wenlock, the oldest known tracheophytes of the genus Cooksonia, appear. The first terrestrial animals appear in the Wenlock, represented by air-breathing millipedes from Scotland. The Ludlow, lasting from 427.4 ±1.5 to 423 ±2.8 mya, comprises the Gorstian stage, lasting until 425.6 million years ago, and it is named for the town of Ludlow in Shropshire, England. The Pridoli, lasting from 423 ±1.5 to 419.2 ±2.8 mya, is the final and it is named after one locality at the Homolka a Přídolí nature reserve near the Prague suburb Slivenec in the Czech Republic. Přídolí is the old name of a field area. The high sea levels of the Silurian and the flat land resulted in a number of island chains. The southern continents remained united during this period, the melting of icecaps and glaciers contributed to a rise in sea level, recognizable from the fact that Silurian sediments overlie eroded Ordovician sediments, forming an unconformity. The continents of Avalonia and Laurentia drifted together near the equator and this event is the Caledonian orogeny, a spate of mountain building that stretched from New York State through conjoined Europe and Greenland to Norway