Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Wisconsin's 6th congressional district
Wisconsin's 6th congressional district is a congressional district of the United States House of Representatives in eastern Wisconsin. Located in the rural communities surrounding Madison and Green Bay, it includes a small portion of far northern Milwaukee County around River Hills. The district is represented by Glenn Grothman who came to office in January 2015; the 6th district has a long history of farming livestock in rural areas, is a major producer of both milk and grains. In the 2016 presidential election, the district voted 55% for Donald Trump and 38% for Hillary Clinton. Wisconsin's 6th congressional district came into existence in 1863 following the federal census of 1860; the first elected representative from the district was Walter D. McIndoe of Wausau; the district comprised the counties of the northern and western parts of the state. Following subsequent congressional reapportionment after each decennial census, the district's boundaries shifted eastward; the reapportionment of Congressional districts following the federal census of 1860 gave Wisconsin three additional members in the House of Representatives.
Members elected from the newly created 4th, 5th and 6th districts were chosen in the midterm elections of 1862 and took their seats in the lower house as part of the 38th United States Congress. The 6th District included the counties of Adams, Bad Ax, Burnett, Chippewa, Douglas, Eau Claire, Juneau, La Crosse, La Pointe, Monroe, Pierce, Portage, St. Croix and Wood. Areas of east central Wisconsin, which make up much of the 6th district today, were part of the newly created 5th district. Following the 1870 census Wisconsin gained two seats in the House of Representatives; the new 6th District included many counties in northeast Wisconsin. It included the counties of Brown, Door, Green Lake, Outagamie, Waupaca and Winnebago. Representative Philetus Sawyer of Oshkosh had been elected to Congress from Wisconsin's 5th District since 1865, was elected from the newly configured 6th District, he served the state as a member of the U. S. Senate; the federal census of 1880 showed further population growth in Wisconsin and the state gained a 9th Congressional seat.
Reapportionment of the state moved the 6th District to a more central location within the state, though the representatives elected from the district came from the communities along the shores of Lake Winnebago throughout the decade. The 6th District now included the counties of Adams, Green Lake, Outagamie and Winnebago. Following the census of 1890 Wisconsin gained a 10th Congressional seat; the 6th District shifted eastward to a configuration that resembled that of today's linear east to west shape with a population of 187,001. The state population was enumerated at 1,686,880; the 6th District included the counties of Calumet, Fond du Lac, Green Lake, Marquette and Winnebago. The state's population reached 2,069,042 according to the 1900 federal census and Wisconsin gained an additional seat in the House of Representatives; this was the peak of Wisconsin's Congressional representation and the state maintained 11 members of the House of Representatives until the opening of the 73rd United States Congress in 1933.
The 6th District shifted southward and included the counties of Dodge, Fond du Lac, Ozaukee and Washington. The counties in the vicinity of Lake Winnebago became part of the 8th District; the population of the counties making up the 6th District totaled 184,517. The 1910 census tabulated a population of 2,333,860 citizens for Wisconsin and the 1920 census saw the state's population grow to 2,632,670; as a result of this growth, the state retained its 11 seats in the House of Representatives throughout the 1910s and 1920s. Prior to congressional elections in 1912, the 6th District was reconfigured in manner closer to that of the 1893 apportionment; the district included the counties of Calument, Fond du Lac, Green Lake, Manitowoc and Winnebago. All 11 districts continued in the same configurations until the elections of 1932; the 6th district grew from 201,637 to 214,206 between the two enumerations. Wisconsin lost a congressional seat following the census of 1930; the 6th District now included Calumet, Fond du Lac, Sheboygan and Winnebago counties.
According to the 1950 census, the population of the district was 315,666. This southeastern shift of the district remained in effect for 30 years, ending with the 1962 elections; the state held on to all 10 of its Congressional seats following the 1960 census. As a result of changing population patterns, the districts were reapportioned. Green Lake County was added to the existing counties of the 6th District, which were Calumet, Fond du Lac, Sheboygan and Winnebago; this slight western shift gave the district a population of 391,743. It was during this era, that the Republican Party's domination of the district was broken. Democrat John Abner Race, represented the district from 1965 to 1967. Other than this brief interruption, a Republican has been sent to Washington, D. C. in every election since 1938. The state of Wisconsin gained 465,318 residents for a total of 4,418,683 according to the 1970 census; because this was a lower increase than other areas of the country, the state lost a seat in the House of Representatives, requiring the state's districts to be reapportioned.
The 6th District now extended farther west than at any time other since its original configuration in 1860. It now included all or portions of Adams, Fond du Lac, Green Lake, Manitowoc, Monroe
Wisconsin Highway 28
State Trunk Highway 28 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. It runs east -- west in southeastern Wisconsin between Sheboygan; the route is 59.77 miles long and is two-lane road beyond portions of the road within the city of Sheboygan and the half-mile portion of the highway near Waldo, concurrent with STH 57. WIS 28 begins at a junction with WIS 33 in Horicon; the highway junctions with WIS 67 northeast of Horicon in Mayvillle and follows WIS 67 north into Theresa. The two highways turn north onto WIS 175 there. WIS 28 turns east off the concurrency one mile further north and junctions with Interstate 41 after another two miles east; the Washington County line is at this junction. WIS 28 turns northeast onto WIS 144 north in Boltonville. WIS 144 turns east off WIS 28 one mile north of the Sheboygan County line and WIS 28 continues north, passing through Batavia before turning northeast at its junction with Sheboygan County Trunk Highway S; the highway joins for a half-mile north with WIS 57 in Waldo.
WIS 28 turns east leaves its former alignment for a straight-line road south of Sheboygan Falls, built in the mid-1980s. The road runs through the southernmost reaches of the Kohler Company's landholdings, defines the southern boundary of the Blackwolf Run golf course, along with the Deer Trace shopping center before its intersection with Interstate 43. Reaching Sheboygan city limits, the road is defined as Washington Avenue, running one mile into the city before a northward turn onto South Business Drive, the former US 141, which merges within the city's original plat with 14th Street; the highway's eastern terminus shares the intersection of Erie Avenue and North 14th Street with WIS 23's eastern terminus and WIS 42's southern terminus just north of the Sheboygan River. In 1918, the original routing of WIS 28 was between Dubuque and Spring Green along the present day US 151 and the WIS 23 alignments; the highway was extended a couple years to end in Reedsburg, expanded to Sheboygan along the former routing of WIS 26 in 1924.
Through eastern Sheboygan County, the road's alignment took it through Sheboygan Falls and Sheboygan via what is known as the Lower Falls Road and within Sheboygan, Indiana Avenue
Wisconsin Highway 32
State Trunk Highway 32 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Wisconsin that runs north–south in eastern Wisconsin. It runs from the Illinois border north to the Michigan border, it is named the 32nd Division Memorial Highway after the U. S. 32nd Infantry Division, the highway shields have red arrows—the division's logo—on either side of the number 32. The route of WIS 32 and the Red Arrow marking is set in state statute by the Wisconsin Legislature. WIS 32 shares its designation, or runs concurrently with, at least 16 different state, U. S. and Interstate Highways over its length. They are: WIS 20, for ten blocks in downtown Racine WIS 100, at its north end, for a few blocks in Bayside between Port Washington Road and I-43. I-43, from Bayside to Grafton and from Port Washington to Cedar Grove WIS 57, with I-43 between Mequon and Port Washington, from the Manitowoc–Sheboygan county line to De Pere US 151, for a few blocks in Chilton WIS 54, on West Mason Street in Green Bay I-41/US 41 freeway from exit 168 to 169 near Green Bay WIS 29, from Green Bay to Pulaski WIS 22, in Gillett WIS 64, through the Nicolet National Forest in Oconto County US 8, from Laona to Crandon WIS 55, from Crandon to Argonne US 45, from Three Lakes to the Michigan state line WIS 70, through downtown Eagle River WIS 17, near Eagle RiverWIS 32 is named for the Red Arrow Division, composed of soldiers from Wisconsin and Michigan during World War I.
Because of this, it is sometimes known as the 32nd Division Memorial Highway. Sheridan Road, the highway's designation through much of Kenosha and Racine Media related to Wisconsin Highway 32 at Wikimedia Commons
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
A county commission is a group of elected officials charged with administering the county government in some states of the United States. County commissions are made up of three or more individuals. In some counties in Georgia however, a sole commissioner holds the authority of the commission; the commission acts as the executive of the local government, levies local taxes, administers county governmental services such as prisons, public health oversight, property registration, building code enforcement, public works such as road maintenance. The system has been supplanted in large part as disparate sparsely settled regions become urbanized and establish tighter local governmental control in municipalities, but in many more rural states the county commission retains more control and in some urbanized areas may be responsible for significant government services. William Penn, colonial founder of Pennsylvania is credited with originating the system of County Commissioners in the United States.
On February 28, 1681, Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn to repay a debt of £16,000 owed to William's father, Admiral William Penn. This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history, it was called Pennsylvania. William Penn, who wanted it called New Wales or Sylvania, was embarrassed at the change, fearing that people would think he had named it after himself, but King Charles would not rename the grant. Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission and freedom of religious conviction. County board of supervisors County council County executive Board of chosen freeholders Commissioners' Court Fiscal Court Police Jury Sole commissioner