The Potomac River /pəˈtoʊmək/ is located along the mid-Atlantic Ocean coast of the United States and flows into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is approximately 405 miles long, with an area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States, over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed. The river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of the State of Maryland, exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, and the border with Virginia being delineated from point to point. Except for a portion of its headwaters in West Virginia. The South Branch Potomac River lies completely within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, the Potomac River runs 405 miles from the Fairfax Stone in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles.
The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles, the average flow is 10,800 ft³/s. The largest flow recorded on the Potomac at Washington, D. C. was in March 1936 when it reached 425,000 ft³/s. The lowest flow recorded at the same location was 600 ft³/s in September,1966. The source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant, the source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland County, Virginia. The rivers two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream. The estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, Potomac is a European spelling of Patowmeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village, perhaps meaning something brought.
Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning honking geese and Patawomke below the fall, meaning river of swans. The spelling of the name has many forms over the years from Patawomeke to Patawomeck, Patowmack. The rivers name was decided upon as Potomac by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least two years old, likely extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period and it once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before naturally occurring erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines, definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range.
Most broadly, it refers to the mountain range with its surrounding hills. The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were originally part of the Appalachians as well, the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváezs expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15,1528, now spelled Appalachian, it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrezs map of 1562, the name was not commonly used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and often more popular name was the Allegheny Mountains, Alleghenies, in the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the regions of the Appalachians.
In northern parts of the range, it is pronounced /ˌæpəˈleɪtʃᵻnz/ or /ˌæpəˈleɪʃᵻnz/, the third syllable is like lay. There is often debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a commonly accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is /ˌæpəˈlætʃiən/, the whole system may be divided into three great sections, The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are unassociated with the Appalachians, The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia. Southern, The southern section runs from the New River onwards and it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, which is divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, and the Cumberland Plateau
Blue Ridge Mountains
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. This province consists of northern and southern regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, starting at its southernmost portion in Georgia, ending northward in Pennsylvania. To the west of the Blue Ridge, between it and the bulk of the Appalachians, lies the Great Appalachian Valley, bordered on the west by the Ridge, the Blue Ridge Mountains are noted for having a bluish color when seen from a distance. Trees put the blue in Blue Ridge, from the isoprene released into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the haze on the mountains. Within the Blue Ridge province are two national parks, the Shenandoah National Park, in the northern section, and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The Blue Ridge contains the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile long scenic highway that connects the two parks and is located along the ridge crestlines with the Appalachian Trail, the Blue Ridge extends as far north into Pennsylvania as South Mountain.
The Blue Ridge contains the highest mountains in eastern North America south of Baffin Island, about 125 peaks exceed 5,000 feet in elevation. The highest peak in the Blue Ridge is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet. There are 39 peaks in North Carolina and Tennessee higher than 6,000 feet, by comparison, Southern Sixers is a term used by peak baggers for this group of mountains. The Blue Ridge Parkway runs 469 miles along crests of the Southern Appalachians, in many places along the parkway, there are metamorphic rocks with folded bands of light-and dark-colored minerals, which sometimes look like the folds and swirls in a marble cake. Most of the rocks that form the Blue Ridge Mountains are ancient granitic charnockites, metamorphosed volcanic formations, modern studies have found that the basement geology of the Blue Ridge is made of compositionally unique gneisses and granitoids, including orthopyroxene-bearing charnockites. Analysis of zircon minerals in the completed by John Aleinikoff at the U. S.
Geological Survey has provided more detailed emplacement ages. Many of the found in the Blue Ridge and documented by Tollo. The lack of an affinity and zircon ages less than 1,200 Ma suggest that the Blue Ridge is distinct from the Adirondacks, Green Mountains. The petrologic and geochronologic data suggest that the Blue Ridge basement is a composite orogenic crust that was emplaced during several episodes from a magma source. Field relationships further illustrate that rocks emplaced prior to 1, 078-1,064 Ma preserve deformational features and those emplaced post-1,064 Ma generally have a massive texture and missed the main episode of Mesoproterozoic compression. The Blue Ridge Mountains began forming during the Silurian Period over 400 million years ago, approximately 320 Mya, North America and Europe collided, pushing up the Blue Ridge
The Catawba — known as Issa or Essa or Iswä but most commonly Iswa — are a federally recognized tribe of Native Americans, known as the Catawba Indian Nation. They live in the Southeast United States, along the border of North Carolina near the city of Rock Hill, the Catawba were once considered one of the most powerful Southeastern Siouan-speaking tribes in the Carolina Piedmont. The Catawba and other Siouan peoples are believed to have coalesced as individual tribes in the Southeast, living along the Catawba River they were named one of the most powerful tribes in the south. Primarily involved in agriculture, the Catawba were friendly toward early European colonists, the Catawba allied during the American Revolutionary War with the Patriot colonists against the British. Decimated by earlier smallpox epidemics, tribal warfare and social disruption, the people ceded their homeland to South Carolina in 1840 by a treaty, it was not approved by the United States Senate and was automatically invalided.
Terminated as a tribe by the government in 1959, the Catawba Indian Nation reorganized to reassert its government. In 1973 began its struggle to gain federal recognition and it accomplished this in 1993, along with a $50 million settlement by the federal government and state of South Carolina of its longstanding land claims. It was recognized by the state of North Carolina in 1993. Its headquarters is at Rock Hill, South Carolina, as of 2006, the population of the Catawba Nation has increased to about 2600, most in South Carolina, with smaller groups in Oklahoma, Colorado and elsewhere. The Catawba Reservation, located in two disjoint sections in York County, South Carolina east of Rock Hill, reported a 2010 census population of 841 inhabitants, the Catawban language, which is being revived, is part of the Siouan family. From the earliest period, the Catawba have known as Esaw, or Issa. They called both the present-day Catawba and Wateree rivers Iswa, the Iroquois frequently included them under the general term Totiri, or Toderichroone, known as Tutelo.
The Iroquois collectively used this term to apply to all the southern Siouan-speaking tribes, Albert Gallatin classified the Catawba as a separate, distinct group among Siouan tribes. When the linguist Albert Samuel Gatschet visited them in 1881 and obtained a large vocabulary showing numerous correspondences with Siouan, further investigations by Horatio Hale, James Mooney, and James Owen Dorsey proved that several tribes of the same region were of Siouan stock. They migrated to Kentucky and to Botetourt County, Virginia, by 1660 they had migrated south to the Catawba River, contesting it with the Cherokee in the area. The Kentucky River was known as the Catawba River at times, Catawba Tribe was a subtribe under Cherokee Chiefs authority at times. But, 20th-century anthropologist James Mooney dismissed most elements of Schoolcrafts record as absurd, the invention and surmise of the would-be historian who records the tradition. He pointed out that, aside from the French never having been known to help the Iroquois, Mooney accepted the tradition that the Catawba and Cherokee had made the Broad River their mutual boundary, following a protracted struggle
Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals and fungi for food, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science, the history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology, genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. Agricultural food production and water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts, the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, fruits, meats, fibers include cotton, hemp and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo, other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins, drugs, perfumes and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants.
The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, Agriculture usually refers to human activities, although it is observed in certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle. To practice agriculture means to use resources to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops. This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, even then, it is acknowledged that there is a large amount of knowledge transfer and overlap between silviculture and agriculture. In traditional farming, the two are often combined even on small landholdings, leading to the term agroforestry, Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin, wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 15,000 years ago, rice was domesticated in China between 13,500 and 8,200 years ago, followed by mung and azuki beans.
Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Cattle were domesticated from the aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas, alpacas and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago, cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, and was independently domesticated in Eurasia at an unknown time
Warren County, Virginia
Warren County is a U. S. county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The 2010 census places Warren County within the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area with a population of 37,575, the county seat is Front Royal. By 1672 the entire Shenandoah Valley was claimed for hunting by the Iroquois Confederation following the Beaver Wars, some bands of the Shawnee settled in the area as client groups to the Iroquois and alternately to the Cherokee after 1721. The Iroquois formally sold their entire claim east of the Alleghenies to the Virginia Colony at the Treaty of Lancaster in 1744, Warren County was established in 1836 from Frederick and Shenandoah counties. At that time the county had a population of 7,000 people, wedding records show marriages of people born in the 1770s marrying in the 1800s who head households of four to eight “free colored” so the early demographics of the population are unclear. Joist Hite lead the Sixteen Families into the Lower Shenandoah Valley, some consider that group the first European settlers of the area, others believe different claims.
Either way, Presbyterians of Scotch-Irish lineage and Quakers followed, rail service was established in 1854 with the construction of the Alexandria and Manassas Gap Railroad between Manassas and Riverton. This line was extended to Strasburg in time to become a factor in the Battle of Front Royal on May 23,1862. Lumber, agriculture and grain mills provided employment in the region for decades after the Civil War, the county is named for Joseph Warren. During the Civil War the Battle of Front Royal took place in the county on May 23,1862. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 217 square miles. The population density was 148 people per square mile, there were 13,299 housing units at an average density of 62 per square mile. The demographics of the county is 92. 71% White,4. 83% Black or African American,0. 27% Native American,0. 43% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 46% from other races, and 1. 29% from two or more races. 1. 56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,24. 00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.57 and the family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was out with 25. 60% under the age of 18,7. 60% from 18 to 24,30. 60% from 25 to 44,23. 90% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 96.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males, the median income for a household in the county was $42,422, and the median income for a family was $50,487
John S. Mosby
John Singleton Mosby, known by his nickname, the Gray Ghost, was a Confederate army cavalry battalion commander in the American Civil War. The area of northern central Virginia in which Mosby operated with impunity was known during the war, after the war, Mosby became a Republican and worked as an attorney and supported his former enemys commander, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant. He served as the American consul to Hong Kong and in the U. S. Department of Justice, Mosby was born in Powhatan County, Virginia on December 6,1833, to Virginia McLaurine Mosby and Alfred Daniel Mosby, a graduate of Hampden–Sydney College. His father was a member of an old Virginian family of English origin whose ancestor, Richard Mosby, was born in England in 1600 and settled in Charles City, Mosby was named after his paternal grandfather, John Singleton. Mosby began his education at a school called Murrells Shop, when his family moved to Albemarle County, Virginia in about 1840, John attended school in Frys Woods before transferring to a Charlottesville school at the age of ten years.
Because of his stature and frail health, Mosby was the victim of bullies throughout his school career. In fact, the time he did not lose a fight was when an adult stepped in. In 1847, Mosby enrolled at Hampden–Sydney College, where his father was an alumnus, unable to keep up with his mathematics class, Mosby left the college after two years. On October 3,1850, he entered the University of Virginia, taking Classical Studies and joining the Washington Literary Society and he was far above average in Latin and literature, but mathematics was still a problem for him. In his third year a quarrel erupted between Mosby and a bully, George R. Turpin, a tavern keepers son who was robust. When Mosby heard from a friend that Turpin had insulted him, Turpin became enraged and declared that on their next meeting, he would eat him up raw. Mosby decided he had to meet Turpin despite the risk, to run away would be dishonorable, on March 29 the two met, Mosby having brought with him a small pepper-box pistol in the hope of dissuading Turpin from an attack.
When the two met and Mosby said, I hear you have been making assertions, Turpin put his head down and charged. At that point, Mosby pulled out the pistol and shot his adversary in the neck, the distraught 19-year-old Mosby went home to await his fate. He was arrested and arraigned on two charges, unlawful shooting and malicious shooting, after a trial that almost resulted in a hung jury, Mosby was convicted of the lesser offense but received the maximum sentence. Mosby discovered that he had expelled from the university before he was brought to trial. While serving time, Mosby won the friendship of his prosecutor, when Mosby expressed his desire to study law, Robertson offered the use of his law library. Mosby studied law for the rest of his incarceration and family used political influence in an attempt to obtain a pardon
George Washington was an American politician and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and he is popularly considered the driving force behind the nations establishment and came to be known as the father of the country, both during his lifetime and to this day. Washington was widely admired for his leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. Washingtons incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the system, the inaugural address. His retirement from office two terms established a tradition that lasted until 1940 when Franklin Delano Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term. The 22nd Amendment now limits the president to two elected terms and he was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he inherited.
In his youth, he became an officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress commissioned him as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, in that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and nearly captured that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause and his strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. In battle, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies, after victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism. Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which devised a new form of government for the United States.
Following his election as president in 1789, he worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation and he supported Alexander Hamiltons programs to satisfy all debts and state, established a permanent seat of government, implemented an effective tax system, and created a national bank. In avoiding war with Great Britain, he guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795 and he remained non-partisan, never joining the Federalist Party, although he largely supported its policies. Washingtons Farewell Address was a primer on civic virtue, warning against partisanship, sectionalism. He retired from the presidency in 1797, returning to his home, upon his death, Washington was eulogized as first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen by Representative Henry Lee III of Virginia. He was revered in life and in death and public polling consistently ranks him among the top three presidents in American history and he has been depicted and remembered in monuments, public works and other dedications to the present day.
He was born on February 11,1731, according to the Julian calendar, the Gregorian calendar was adopted within the British Empire in 1752, and it renders a birth date of February 22,1732. Washington was of primarily English gentry descent, especially from Sulgrave and his great-grandfather John Washington emigrated to Virginia in 1656 and began accumulating land and slaves, as did his son Lawrence and his grandson, Georges father Augustine
Luray is a town in Page County, United States, in the Shenandoah Valley in the northern part of the state. It is the county seat, the population was 4,895 at the 2010 census. The town was started by Willian Staige Marye in 1812, whose family was from Luray, Luray is located at 38°39′51″N 78°27′16″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 4.8 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,871 people,2,037 households, the population density was 1,026.8 people per square mile. There were 2,191 housing units at a density of 461.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92. 45% White,5. 52% African American,0. 25% Native American,0. 33% Asian,0. 45% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 35% of the population. 30. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 15. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.85. In the town, the population was out with 22. 1% under the age of 18,6. 7% from 18 to 24,27. 0% from 25 to 44,23. 0% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 41 years, for every 100 females there were 87.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.3 males, the median income for a household in the town was $34,306, and the median income for a family was $39,972. Males had an income of $30,039 versus $19,841 for females. The per capita income for the town was $16,205, about 11. 3% of families and 13. 1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22. 4% of those under age 18 and 9. 6% of those age 65 or over. Luray Caverns is located in the part of Luray. Luray is the nearest town to the Thornton Gap entrance to Skyline Drive, murder Mountain, located off Old Wagon Road in Luray, has become a destination for ghost hunters. The Luray Downtown Historic District is a Virginia Main Street Community and it is home to the 2010 Valley Baseball League Champion Luray Wranglers. One of the dominant hills in the Town of Luray is the location of the Grand Old Mimslyn Inn, the hotel is a popular site for wedding receptions.
First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt visited the Mimslyn during a visit in the late 1930s
Interstate 66 is an Interstate Highway in the eastern United States. As indicated by its route number, it runs in an east–west direction. Its current western terminus is in Middletown, Virginia, at an interchange with Interstate 81, its terminus is in Washington. Because of its terminus in the Shenandoah Valley, the highway was called the Shenandoah Freeway. Much of the route parallels U. S. Route 29 or Virginia State Route 55, Interstate 66 has no physical or historical connection to the famous U. S. Route 66 which is in a different region of the United States. The E Street Expressway is a spur from Interstate 66 into the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, because I-66 is the only Interstate Highway running west from Washington, D. C. into Northern Virginia, traffic on the road is often extremely heavy. In 2005, the Virginia Department of Transportation studied the prospect of implementing a one-lane-plus-shoulder extension on westbound I-66 within the Beltway. In the summer of 2010, construction began on a third lane, the entrance ramp acceleration lane and the exit ramp deceleration lanes were lengthened to form a continuous lane between both ramps.
The 12-foot shoulder lane can carry emergency vehicles and can be used in emergency situations and this project was completed in December 2011. The Orange Line and the Silver Line of the Washington Metro operate in the median of the highway in Fairfax, four stations are located along this segment of I-66. I-66 east has two ramps, one from each side of the highway, to the Inner Loop of I-495 heading northbound. Both exit ramps for the Inner Loop merge prior to merging from the left with the Inner Loop, there is no access from the Outer Loop of I-495 to I-66 east, traffic wishing to make this movement must use State Route 267 east. I-66 east has two exits, one each side of the highway, to the Outer Loop of I-495. One is an exit, while one is a left exit. I-66 is named the Custis Memorial Parkway east of the Capital Beltway in Virginia, the name commemorates the Custis family, several of whose members played prominent roles in Northern Virginias history. Due to heavy traffic, I-66 features a variety of high-occupancy vehicle restrictions.
The eastbound shoulder lane between US50 in Fairfax and the Beltway is open to all traffic from 5,30 to 11,00 a. m on weekdays. The westbound shoulder lane, between the Capital Beltway and U. S. Route 50, is open to all traffic from 2,00 to 8,00 p. m on weekdays