SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Shigeru Miyamoto

Shigeru Miyamoto is a Japanese video game designer and producer at Nintendo, where he serves as one of its representative directors. He is the creator of some of the most acclaimed and best-selling game franchises of all time, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Donkey Kong. Born in Sonobe, Japan, he graduated from Kanazawa Municipal College of Industrial Arts, he would try to have a career in being a manga artist, until being interested in video games and, with the help of his father, would join Nintendo in 1977 when he impressed president Hiroshi Yamauchi with his toys, he would become its first artist and help to create art for the arcade game Sheriff, would be tasked with creating a new arcade unit for the company. This would become Donkey Kong, he would go on to create both Super Mario Bros. and The Legend of Zelda, which became massive successes for the NES and would cement its place in the 80's and help public perception of games. Since his games have been flagships of every Nintendo video game console, with his earliest work appearing on arcade machines in the late 1970s.

He managed Nintendo's Entertainment Analysis & Development software division, which developed many of the company's first-party titles. As a result of Nintendo president Satoru Iwata's death in July 2015, Miyamoto fulfilled the role of acting president alongside Genyo Takeda until being formally appointed as the company's "Creative Fellow" a few months later. Miyamoto was born in the Japanese town of Sonobe, a rural town northwest of Kyoto, on November 16, 1952, his parents were of "modest means", his father taught the English language. From an early age, Miyamoto began to explore the natural areas around his home. On one of these expeditions, Miyamoto came upon a cave, after days of hesitation, went inside. Miyamoto's expeditions into the Kyoto countryside inspired his work The Legend of Zelda, a seminal video game. Miyamoto graduated from Kanazawa Municipal College of Industrial Arts with a degree in industrial design but no job lined up, he had a love for manga and hoped to become a professional manga artist before considering a career in video games.

He was influenced by manga's classical kishōtenketsu narrative structure, as well as Western genre television shows. The title that inspired him to enter the video game industry was the 1978 arcade hit Space Invaders. Nintendo, a small Japanese company, had traditionally sold playing cards and other novelties, although it had started to branch out into toys and games in the mid-1960s. Through a mutual friend, Miyamoto's father arranged an interview with Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi. After showing some of his toy creations, Miyamoto was hired in 1977 as an apprentice in the planning department. Miyamoto went on to become the company's first artist, he helped create the art for Sheriff. He first helped the company develop a game with the 1980 release Radar Scope; the game achieved moderate success in Japan, but by 1981, Nintendo's efforts to break it into the North American video game market had failed, leaving the company with a large number of unsold units and on the verge of financial collapse.

In an effort to keep the company afloat, Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi decided to convert unsold Radar Scope units into a new arcade game. He tasked Miyamoto with the conversion, about which Miyamoto has said self-deprecatingly that "no one else was available" to do the work. Nintendo's head engineer, Gunpei Yokoi, supervised the project. Miyamoto imagined many characters and plot concepts, but settled on a love triangle between a gorilla, a carpenter, a girl, he meant to mirror the rivalry between comic characters Bluto and Popeye for the woman Olive Oyl, although Nintendo's original intentions to gain rights to Popeye failed. Bluto evolved into an ape, a form Miyamoto claimed was "nothing too evil or repulsive"; this ape would be the pet of the main character, "a funny, hang-loose kind of guy." Miyamoto named "Beauty and the Beast" and the 1933 film King Kong as influences. Donkey Kong marked the first time that the formulation of a video game's storyline preceded the actual programming, rather than being appended as an afterthought.

Miyamoto lacked the technical skills to program it himself. He wanted to make the characters different sizes, move in different manners, react in various ways. However, Yokoi viewed Miyamoto's original design as too complex. Yokoi suggested using see-saws to catapult the hero across the screen. Miyamoto next thought with barrels for obstacles; when he asked that the game have multiple stages, the four-man programming team complained that he was asking them to make the game repeat, but the team successfully programmed the game. When the game was sent to Nintendo of America for testing, the sales manager disapproved of its vast differentiation from the maze and shooter games common at the time; when American staffers began naming the characters, they settled on "Pauline" for the woman, after Polly James, wife of Nintendo's Redmond, warehouse manager, Don James. The playable character "Jumpman", was named for Mario Segale, the warehouse landlord; these character names were used in promotional materials.

The staff pushed for an English name, thus it received the title Donkey Kong. Don

Fall of Mazar-i-Sharif

The fall of Mazar-i-Sharif in November 2001 resulted from the first major offensive of the Afghanistan War after American intervention. A push into the city of Mazar-i-Sharif in Balkh Province by the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan, combined with U. S. Army Special Forces aerial bombardment, resulted in the withdrawal of Taliban forces who had held the city since 1998. After the fall of outlying villages, an intensive bombardment, the Taliban and al-Qaeda forces withdrew from the city. Several hundred pro-Taliban fighters were killed. 500 were captured, 1,000 defected. The capture of Mazar-i-Sharif was the first major defeat for the Taliban; the Taliban controlled it thereafter. After taking the city, Taliban fighters committed a massacre against its Shia population; this led to widespread international condemnation, further isolation of the Taliban regime. The decision to launch the war's first major strike against Mazar-i-Sharif came following a meeting between U. S. Army General Tommy Franks and Northern Alliance commander Mohammed Fahim in Tajikistan on October 30, 2001.

In the days leading up to the battle, Northern Alliance troops advanced on population centers near the city, such as Shol Ghar, 25 kilometers from Mazar-i-Sharif. Phonelines into the city were severed, American officials began reporting accounts of anti-Taliban forces charging Afghan tanks on horseback. On November 2, 2001, Green Berets from ODA 543 and small elements of the CIA SAC inserted into the Dari-a-Balkh Valley, after being delayed by weather for several nights, its role was to support General Mohammed Atta Nur and his militia. Together they fought through the Dari-e-Souf Valley and had linked up with General Abdul Rashid Dostum and his force and ODA 595 and the CIA team supporting Dostum, who had battled through the valley, outside Mazar-e-Shariff. General Dostum led the ethnic-Uzbek-dominated faction of the Northern Alliance, the Junbish-i-Milli Islami Afghanistan, in an attack on the village of Keshendeh southwest of the city on November 4, seizing it with his horse-mounted troops.

General Noor, led 2,000 men of the ethnic-Tajik-dominated Jamiat-e Islami forces against the village of Ag Kupruk directly south of the city, along with six Special Forces soldiers and seven others who directed bombing from behind Taliban lines north of the city. It was seized two days later. Ethnic Hazara forces of Mohammad Mohaqiq's Hezbe Wahdat took part in the offensive. Propaganda leaflets were dropped from airplanes, showing a woman being struck by a man and asking if this was how the Afghans wanted to live, listing the radio frequencies over which Americans would be broadcasting their own version of events. Meanwhile, U. S. Special Forces set up laser designators to serve as beacons for guided munitions, highlighting targets around the city. On November 7, the New York University's Director of Studies on International Cooperation, Barnett Rubin, appeared before a hearing of the American House Committee on International Relations on "The Future of Afghanistan", he claimed that with Mazar-i-Sharif on the brink of invasion, the US was responsible to ensure that there were no reprisal killings of Taliban members by the Northern Alliance.

He noted. On November 7 and 8, as the Taliban were moving 4,000 fighters across the countryside towards Mazar-i-Sharif in preparation for battle, American B-52 bombers bombed Taliban defenders concentrated in the Cheshmeh-ye Shafa gorge that marked the southern entrance to the city, as well as the Haji Gak pass, the only Taliban-controlled entrance to the city; this was one of the heaviest campaigns up to that point. The Taliban claimed they had infiltrated 500 fighters into the city to prepare for the coming battle. On November 9, 2001, members of the two ODAs and the CIA team positioned themselves in mountainside hides and began calling in airstrikes against the Taliban at Tangi Pass - the gateway from the Balkh Valley to the city where the US and Northern Alliance agreed to attack; the Taliban responded with indirect fire from BM-21 Grad rockets, which were suppressed by orbiting air support, the airstrikes took their toll on the Taliban and at a signal Atta and Dostum Northern Alliance forces, began their assault by foot, pick up trucks and by some captured BMP armored personnel carriers.

Initial rumors claimed that the Afghan fighters were unimpressed by the American bombardment and believed that their opponents refused to advance on the city. At 2 p.m. Northern Alliance forces, under the command of Dostum and Ustad Atta Mohammed Noor, swept across the Pul-i-Imam Bukhri bridge and seized the city's main military base and the Mazar-e Sharif International Airport; the "ragtag" non-uniformed Northern Alliance forces entered the city from the Balk Valley on "begged and confiscated transportation", met only light resistance. After outlying villages fell to precision air strikes on key command and control centers 5,000-12,000 Taliban combatants as well as members of al-Qaeda and other foreign fighters began to withdraw towards Kunduz to regroup, travelling in pickup trucks, SUVs and flatbed trucks fitted with ZU-23-2's. By sunset, the Taliban forces had retreated to the east; some feared. It was estimated that 400-600 people died in the battle, although it was not possible to separate civilian and combatant deaths.

1,500 Taliban were captured or defected. As many as 900 Pakistani volunteers reac

Haymarket Martyrs' Monument

The Haymarket Martyrs' Monument is a funeral monument sculpture located at Forest Home Cemetery in Forest Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. Dedicated in 1893, it commemorates the defendants involved in the labor unrest and bombing related to the Haymarket Affair. On February 18, 1997, it was designated a National Historic Landmark. Following the Haymarket affair and executions, August Spies, Adolph Fischer, George Engel, Louis Lingg, Albert Parsons were buried at the German Waldheim Cemetery; the Pioneer Aid and Support Association organized a subscription for a funeral monument. In 1893, the Haymarket Martyrs' Monument by sculptor Albert Weinert was raised at Waldheim, it consists of a 16-foot-high granite shaft capped by a carved triangular stone. There is a two step base, which supports a monumental figure of a woman standing over the body of a fallen worker, both in bronze, it was dedicated on June 1893, after a march from Chicago. The inscription on the steps read. There is a quote attributed to Spies, recorded just before his execution by hanging: "The day will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you are throttling today."

On the back of the monument are listed the names of the men. On the top of the monument, a bronze plaque contains text of the pardon issued by Illinois governor John Peter AltgeldThe dedication ceremony was attended by 8,000, with union flags and the American flag draped on the monument. European unions and American organizations sent flowers to be placed. Many activists and labor leaders were subsequently buried nearby. Michael Schwab and Oscar Neebe were buried at Waldheim when they died. Samuel Fielden is the only Haymarket defendant, not buried at Forest Home. For years, annual commemorations were held. Since the 1970s, the Illinois Labor History Society has held the deed to the monument and been responsible for its maintenance and restoration, it conducts monthly guided tours of Forest Home Cemetery from May through October. In October 2016, volunteers and scientists dug near the base of the monument, where they recovered a time capsule, buried under the cornerstone on November 6, 1892, during the monument's construction.

The time capsule, 24 inches tall and 12 inches wide, was made of stone or concrete and capped in marble. According to a list in the records of the Pioneer Aid and Support Association, the time capsule contained newspaper articles, letters to and from the Haymarket defendants, photographs of the men and their families, it held trial documents and letters and testimonials from a number of labor unions and fraternal organizations. In addition, it may contain a bust of August Spies; the time capsule contained an urn instead of. Research is ongoing to determine the location of the time capsule. During the excavation, the volunteers found a cube, believed to be the cremation vault for the ashes of Oscar Neebe, who died in 1916, it was sitting on top of the time capsule. Monuments relating to the Haymarket affair List of National Historic Landmarks in Illinois Haymarket Martyrs Monument, wikimapia "Haymarket Memorial", wikimapia http://chicago-outdoor-sculptures.blogspot.com/2009/03/haymarket-memorial.html