Washitsu, meaning "Japanese-style room", called a "tatami room" in English, is a Japanese term for a room in a house or apartment that has traditional tatami flooring. Washitsu usually have sliding doors, rather than hinged doors between rooms, they may have shōji and, if the particular room is meant to serve as a reception room for guests, it may have a tokonoma. In the past all Japanese rooms were washitsu, Japanese people slept on futons laid on the tatami and sat directly on the tatami or on zabuton set on the tatami. Nowadays, many Japanese houses have only one washitsu, sometimes used for entertaining guests, most rooms are Western-style. Many new construction Japanese apartments do not have washitsu at all, instead using linoleum or hardwood floors; the size of a washitsu is measured by the number of tatami mats, using the counter word jō. Typical sizes are eight tatami mats in a private home. There are half-sized mats, as in a 4.5-tatami room. The furniture in a washitsu may include a low table at which a family may eat dinner or entertain guests, while sitting on zabuton or a low chair intended for use on tatami.
A kotatsu, a particular type of low table that contains a heating element used in the wintertime, may be provided. The antonym is yōshitsu, meaning "Western-style room". Another term for washitsu is nihonma, the corresponding term for yōshitsu is yōma. Higashiyama Bunka in Muromachi period
The Yomiuri Shimbun is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka and other major Japanese cities. It is part of Japan's largest media conglomerate, it is one of the five national newspapers in Japan. The headquarters is in Otemachi, Tokyo. Founded in 1874, the Yomiuri Shimbun is credited with having the largest newspaper circulation in the world, having a combined morning and evening circulation of 14,323,781 through January 2002. In 2010, the daily was the number one in the list of the world's biggest selling newspapers with a circulation of 10,021,000; as of mid-year 2011, it still had a combined morning-evening circulation of 13.5 million for its national edition. The paper is printed twice a day and in several different local editions. Yomiuri Shimbun established the Yomiuri Prize in 1948, its winners have included Haruki Murakami. The Yomiuri was launched in 1874 by the Nisshusha newspaper company as a small daily newspaper. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s the paper came to be known as a literary arts publication with its regular inclusion of work by writers such as Ozaki Kōyō.
In 1924, Shoriki Matsutaro took over management of the company. His innovations included improved news coverage, a full-page radio program guide, the establishment of Japan's first professional baseball team; the emphasis of the paper shifted to broad news coverage aimed at readers in the Tokyo area. By 1941 it had the largest circulation of any daily newspaper in the Tokyo area. In 1942, under wartime conditions, it merged with the Hochi Shimbun and became known as the Yomiuri-Hochi; the Yomiuri was the center of a labor scandal in 1945 and 1946. In October, 1945, a postwar "democratization group" called for the removal of Shoriki Matsutaro, who had supported Imperial Japan's policies during World War II; when Shoriki responded by firing five of the leading figures of this group, the writers and editors performed the first "production control" strike on 27 October 1945. This method of striking became an important union tactic in the coal and other industries during the postwar period. Shoriki Matsutaro was sent to Sugamo Prison.
The Yomiuri employees continued to produce the paper without heeding executive orders until a police raid on June 21, 1946. Matsutaro was released in 1948 after agreeing to work with CIA as a collaborator and informant, according to research by Professor Tetsuo Arima of Waseda University, based on declassified documents stored at NARA. In February 2009, tie-up with The Wall Street Journal for edit and distribution from March the major news headlines of the WSJ's Asian edition are summarized in the evening edition in Japanese, it features the Jinsei Annai advice column. The Yomiuri has a history of promoting nuclear power within Japan. During the 1950s Matsutaro Shoriki, the head of the Yomiuri, agreed to use his newspaper to promote nuclear power in Japan for the CIA. In May 2011, when the Japanese prime minister Naoto Kan requested Chubu Electric Power Company to shut down several of its Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plants due to safety concerns, the Yomiuri responded with criticism, calling the move "abrupt" and a difficult situation for Chubu Electric's shareholders.
It wrote Kan "should reflect on the way he made his request." It followed up with an article wondering about how dangerous Hamaoka was and called Kan's request "a political judgment that went beyond technological worthiness." The next day damage to the pipes inside the condenser was discovered at one of the plants following a leak of seawater into the reactor. In 2012, the paper reported that agricultural minister Nobutaka Tsutsui had divulged secret information to a Chinese agricultural enterprise. Tsutsui sued Yomiuri Shimbun for libel, was awarded 3.3 million yen in damages in 2015 on the basis that the truth of the allegations could not be confirmed. In November 2014, the newspaper apologized after using the phrase "sex slave" to refer to comfort women, following its criticism of the Asahi Shimbun's coverage of Japan's World War II kidnapping program; the Yomiuri Shimbun sometimes considered a centre-right newspaper. The Yomiuri newspaper said in an editorial in 2011 "No written material supporting the claim that government and military authorities were involved in the forcible and systematic recruitment of comfort women has been discovered", that it regarded the Asian Women's Fund, set up to compensate for wartime abuses, as a failure based on a misunderstanding of history.
The New York Times reported on similar statements writing that "The nation's largest newspaper, Yomiuri Shimbun, applauded the revisions" regarding removing the word "forcibly" from referring to laborers brought to Japan in the prewar period and revising the comfort women controversy. More the Yomiuri editorials have opposed the DPJ government and denounced denuclearization as "not a viable option". Yomiuri publishes The Japan News, one of Japan's largest English-language newspapers, it publishes the daily Hochi Shimbun, a sport-specific daily newspaper, as well as weekly and monthly magazines and books. Yomiuri Shimbun Holdings owns the Chuokoron-Shinsha publishing company, which it acquired in 1999, the Nippon Television network, it is a member of the Asia News Network. The paper is known as the de facto financial patron of the baseball team Yomiuri Giants, they sponsor the Japan Fantasy Novel Award annually. It has been a sponsor of the FIFA Club World Cup every time it has been held in Japan since 2006
Zen is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as the Chan school of Chinese Buddhism and developed into various schools. Chán Buddhism was influenced by Taoist philosophy Neo-Daoist thought. From China, Chán spread south to Vietnam and became Vietnamese Thiền, northeast to Korea to become Seon Buddhism, east to Japan, becoming Japanese Zen; the term Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪, which traces its roots to the Indian practice of dhyāna. Zen emphasizes rigorous self-control, meditation-practice, insight into the nature of things, the personal expression of this insight in daily life for the benefit of others; as such, it de-emphasizes mere knowledge of sutras and doctrine and favors direct understanding through spiritual practice and interaction with an accomplished teacher. The teachings of Zen include various sources of Mahayana thought Yogachara, the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras and the Huayan school, with their emphasis on Buddha-nature and the Bodhisattva-ideal.
The Prajñāpāramitā literature as well as Madhyamaka thought have been influential in the shaping of the apophatic and sometimes iconoclastic nature of Zen rhetoric. The word Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪, which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word dhyāna, which can be translated as "absorption" or "meditative state"; the actual Chinese term for the "Zen school" is Chánzong, while "Chan" just refers to the practice of meditation itself or the study of meditation though it is used as an abbreviated form of Chánzong. The practice of dhyana or meditation sitting meditation is a central part of Zen Buddhism; the practice of Buddhist meditation first entered China through the translations of An Shigao, Kumārajīva, who both translated Dhyāna sutras, which were influential early meditation texts based on the Yogacara teachings of the Kashmiri Sarvāstivāda circa 1st-4th centuries CE. Among the most influential early Chinese meditation texts include the Anban Shouyi Jing, the Zuochan Sanmei Jing and the Damoduolo Chan Jing.
While dhyāna in a strict sense refers to the four dhyānas, in Chinese Buddhism, dhyāna may refer to various kinds of meditation techniques and their preparatory practices, which are necessary to practice dhyāna. The five main types of meditation in the Dhyāna sutras are ānāpānasmṛti. According to the modern Chan master Sheng Yen, these practices are termed the "five methods for stilling or pacifying the mind" and serve to focus and purify the mind, can lead to the dhyana absorptions. Chan shares the practice of the four foundations of mindfulness and the Three Gates of Liberation with early Buddhism and classic Mahayana. Early Chan texts teach forms of meditation that are unique to Mahayana Buddhism, for example, the Treatise on the Essentials of Cultivating the Mind which depicts the teachings of the 7th-century East Mountain school teaches a visualization of a sun disk, similar to that taught in the Sutra of the Contemplation of the Buddha Amitáyus. Chinese Buddhists developed their own meditation manuals and texts, one of the most influential being the works of the Tiantai patriarch, Zhiyi.
His works seemed to have exerted some influence on the earliest meditation manuals of the Chán school proper, an early work being the imitated and influential Tso-chan-i. During sitting meditation, practitioners assume a position such as the lotus position, half-lotus, Burmese, or seiza using the dhyāna mudrā. A square or round cushion placed on a padded mat is used to sit on. To regulate the mind, Zen students are directed towards counting breaths. Either both exhalations and inhalations are counted; the count can be up to ten, this process is repeated until the mind is calmed. Zen teachers like Omori Sogen teach a series of long and deep exhalations and inhalations as a way to prepare for regular breath meditation. Attention is placed on the energy center below the navel. Zen teachers promote diaphragmatic breathing, stating that the breath must come from the lower abdomen, that this part of the body should expand forward as one breathes. Over time the breathing should become smoother and slower.
When the counting becomes an encumbrance, the practice of following the natural rhythm of breathing with concentrated attention is recommended. Another common form of sitting meditation is called "Silent illumination"; this practice was traditionally promoted by the Caodong school of Chinese Chan and is associated with Hongzhi Zhengjue who wrote various works on the practice. This method derives from the Indian Buddhist practice of the union of śamatha and vipaśyanā. In Hongzhi's practice of "nondual objectless meditation" the mediator strives to be aware of the totality of phenomena instead of focusi
The kimono is a traditional Japanese garment. The term means "garment", it has come to mean full-length formal robes. The standard English plural is kimonos, but kimono is used for the plural form in English as Japanese does not distinguish plural nouns. Kimonos are worn for important festivals and formal occasions as formal clothing. Kimono have T-shaped, Dambi-straight-lined robes worn so that the hem falls to the ankle, with attached collars and long, wide sleeves. Kimono are wrapped around the body, always with the left side over the right and are secured by a sash called an obi, tied at the back. Kimono are worn with traditional footwear and split-toe socks. Today, kimono are most worn by women on special occasions. Traditionally, unmarried women wore a style of kimono called furisode, with floor-length sleeves, on special occasions. A few older women and fewer men still wear the kimono on a daily basis. Men wear the kimono most at weddings, tea ceremonies, other special or formal occasions.
Professional sumo wrestlers are seen in the kimono because they are required to wear traditional Japanese dress whenever appearing in public. Chinese fashion had a huge influence on Japan from the Kofun period to the early Heian period as a result of mass immigration from the continent and a Japanese envoy to the Tang dynasty. There is an opinion that Kimono was derived from the Chinese hanfu of the Wu region in Jiangnan, China. A traditional culture that Japan women will dress in a kimono and visit a shrine for seijin-shiki, her coming-of-age ceremony when she becomes 20 years-old. During Japan's Heian period, the kimono became stylized, though one still wore a half-apron, called a mo, over it. During the Muromachi age, the Kosode, a single kimono considered underwear, began to be worn without the hakama over it, thus began to be held closed by an obi "belt". During the Edo period, the sleeves began to grow in length among unmarried women, the Obi became wider, with various styles of tying coming into fashion.
Since the basic shape of both the men's and women's kimono has remained unchanged. Kimonos made with exceptional skill from fine materials have been regarded as great works of art; the formal kimono was replaced by the more convenient Western clothes and yukata as everyday wear. Because of the Nishijin silk weavers of Kyoto have endured devastating fires, the wrath of austerity-minded shoguns. After an edict by Emperor Meiji, railroad men and teachers moved to Western clothes; the Japanese began shedding kimonos in favor of Western dress in the 1870s. The Western clothes became the school uniform for boys. After the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, kimono wearers became victims of robbery because they could not run fast due to the restricting nature of the kimono on the body and geta clogs. Kimono produced by traditional methods have become too expensive for the average family. A common price for a kimono- and-obi ensemble is over $1,000, according to the Tokyo Wholesalers Association. Many cost far more.
On some special occasions such as wedding day, an elaborate kimono is de rigueur, most people choose to rent one. The Tokyo Women's & Children's Wear Manufacturers' Association promoted Western clothes. Between 1920 and 1930 the sailor outfit replaced the undivided hakama in school uniforms for girls; the national uniform, Kokumin-fuku, a type of Western clothes, was mandated for males in 1940. Today most people wear Western clothes and wear the breezier and more comfortable yukata for special occasions. In the Western world, kimono-styled women's jackets, similar to a casual cardigan, gained public attention as a popular fashion item in 2014. Kimonos for men should fall to the ankle without tucking. A woman's kimono has additional length to allow for the ohashori, the tuck that can be seen under the obi, used to adjust the kimono to the wearer. An ideally tailored kimono has sleeves. Kimono textiles can to be classified into two categories: Gofuku, which indicates silk textiles in general, for luxuries and cotton/hemp Futomono for everyday wear.
Gofuku was named after 呉 in ancient China. Cotton clothing is called Momenfuku. Cotton/hemp fabrics are called as Futomono as the fiber of these materials are thicker compared to that of silk. Till the end of the Edo period, tailoring of these fabrics were handled at Gofuku store and Futomono stores, after the Meiji period, kimono was not worn as daily wear often and Futomono stores went out of business. Kimonos are traditionally made from a single bolt of fabric called a tan. Tan come in standard dimensions—about 36 centimetres wide and 11.5 metres long—and the entire bolt is used to make one kimono. The finished kimono consists of four main strips of fabric—two panels covering the body and two panels forming the sleeves—with additional smaller strips forming the narrow front panels and collar. Kimonos were taken apart for washing as separate panels and resewn by hand; because the entire bolt remains in the finished garment without cutting, the kimono can be retailored to fit another person. The maximum width of the sleeve is dictated by the width of the fabric.
The distance from the center of the s
The koto is a Japanese stringed musical instrument derived from the Chinese zheng, similar to the Mongolian yatga, the Korean gayageum, the Vietnamese đàn tranh. The koto is the national instrument of Japan. Koto are about 180 centimetres length, made from kiri wood, they have 13 strings that are strung over 13 movable bridges along the width of the instrument. There is a 17-string variant. Players can adjust the string pitches by moving the white bridges before playing. To play the instrument, the strings are plucked using three finger picks; the character for koto is 箏, although 琴 is used. However, 琴 refers to another instrument, the kin. 箏, in certain contexts, is read as sō. However, many times the character 箏 is used in titles, while 琴 is used in telling the number of koto used; the term is used today, but only when differentiating the koto and other zithers. The word for an Asian zither with adjustable bridges is “So”. Variations of the instrument were created, a few of them would become the standard variations for modern day koto.
The four types of koto were all created by different subcultures, but adapted to change the playing style. The ancestor of the koto was the Chinese guzheng, it was first introduced to Japan from China in the 8th century. The first known version had five strings, which increased to seven strings.. The Japanese koto belongs to the Asian zither family that comprises the Chinese zheng, the Korean gayageum, the Vietnamese dan tranh; this variety of instrument came in two basic forms, a zither that had bridges and zithers without bridges. When the koto was first imported to Japan, the native word koto was a generic term for any and all Japanese stringed instruments. Over time the definition of koto could not describe the wide variety of these stringed instruments and so the meanings changed; the azumagoto or yamatogoto was called the wagon, the kin no koto was called the kin, the sau no koto was called the sō or koto. The modern koto originates from the gakusō used in Japanese court music, it was a popular instrument among the wealthy.
Some literary and historical records indicate that solo pieces for koto existed centuries before sōkyoku, the music of the solo koto genre, was established. According to Japanese literature, the koto was used as other extra music significance. In one part of "The Tales of Genji", Genji falls in love with a mysterious woman, who he has never seen before, after he hears her playing the koto from a distance; the Koto of the chikuso was made for the Tsukushigato tradition and only for blind men. Women teach it. With the relief of the rule, women started to playing the koto, but not the Chikuso because it was designed for the blind which led to a decline in use; the two main koto varieties still used today are the Zokuso. These two have stayed the same with the exception of material innovations like plastic and the type of strings; the Tagenso is the newest addition to the koto family, surfacing in the 19th century, it was purposefully created to access a wider range of sound and advance style of play.
The most important influence on the development of koto was Yatsuhashi Kengyo. He was a gifted blind musician from Kyoto who changed the limited selection of six songs to a brand new style of koto music which he called kumi uta. Yatsuhashi changed the Tsukushi goto tunings. Yatsuhashi Kengyo is now known as the "Father of Modern Koto". A smaller influence in the evolution of the koto is found in the inspiration of a woman named Keiko Nosaka. Keiko Nosaka, felt confined by playing a koto with just 13 strings, so she created new versions of the instrument with 20 or more strings. Japanese developments in bridgeless zithers include two-stringed koto. Around the 1920s, Goro Morita created a new version of the two-stringed koto, it was named the taishōgoto after the Taishō period. At the beginning of the Meiji Period, western music was introduced to Japan. Michio Miyagi, a blind composer and performer, is considered to have been the first Japanese composer to combine western music and traditional koto music.
Miyagi is regarded as being responsible for keeping the koto alive when traditional Japanese arts were being forgotten and replaced by Westernization. He wrote over 300 new works for the instrument before his death in a train accident at the age of 62, he invented the popular 17 string bass koto, created new playing techniques, advanced traditional forms, most increased the koto's popularity. He performed abroad and by 1928 his piece for koto and shakuhachi, Haru no Umi had been transcribed for numerous instruments. Haru no Umi is played to welcome each New Year in Japan. Since Miyagi's time, many composers such as Kimio Eto, Tadao Sawai have written and performed w
Du Mu was a leading Chinese poet of the late Tang dynasty. His courtesy name was Muzhi, sobriquet Fanchuan, he is best known for his romantic quatrains. Regarded as a major poet during a golden age of Chinese poetry, his name is mentioned together with that of another renowned Late Tang poet, Li Shangyin, as the Little Li-Du, in contrast to the Great Li-Du: Li Bai and Du Fu. Among his influences were Du Fu, Li Bai, Han Yu and Liu Zongyuan. Du Mu was born in the Tang capital Chang ` an into an elite family, his grandfather was Du You, a minister at the Tang court and the compiler of the Tang Dynasty encyclopedia Tongdian. He passed the jinshi level of the imperial civil service examination in 828 at the age of 25, began his career as a bureaucrat holding a series of minor posts, first as an editor of at the Institute for the Advancement of Literature. A few months he joined the entourage of Shen Chuanshi, a surveillance commissioner, first to Hongzhou a year to Xuanzhou. In 833 he was sent to join Niu Sengru in Yangzhou.
In Yangzhou he began to mature as a poet. In 835 he was appointed investigating censor and returned to the capital where concerned about being drawn into a factional dispute involving his friend Li Gan who had opposed Zheng Zhu, he asked to be transferred to Luoyang; this was granted, he avoided the purge that followed the Sweet Dew Incident which happened in the year. Du Mu held many official positions in various locales through the years, but he never achieved a high rank due to enemies made in a factional dispute at the imperial court in 835. In 837 he returned to Yangzhou to care for his younger brother Mu Yi, sick and had become blind went to work in Xuanzhou, taking his brother with him. In 838 he was appointed Rectifier of Omission of the Left and Senior Compiler of the History Office, he returned to Chang'an. In 840 he was promoted to Vice Director of the Catering Bureau transferred to the position of Vice Director of the Board of Review in 841. Starting in 842 he was made governor of a succession of small poor rural prefectures, first Huangzhou Chizhou and Muzhou.
Du was dissatisfied with the appointment and he appeared to blame it on Li Deyu. He began to feel he expressed his dissatisfaction in his poems. In 848 Du Mu returned to Chang'an after being appointed Vice Director of Merit Titles and was awarded his old post in the History Office, he was transferred to the post of the Vice Director of the Ministry of Personnel in 849 was appointed governor of Huzhou in 850 at his own request. He was recalled to Chang'an in 851 to the post of Director of the Bureau of Evaluation and Drafter, was appointed to the office of Secretariat and Drafter in 852, he died before the next lunar year. Du Mu was skilled in fu and ancient Chinese prose, he is best known as the writer of sensual, lyrical quatrains featuring historical sites or romantic situations, on themes of separation, decadence, or impermanence. His style blends classical imagery and diction with striking juxtapositions, colloquialisms, or other wordplay, he wrote long narrative poems. One of his best-known poems is "Qingming Festival".
It tells of a lonely concubine at the palace whose fan has lost its purpose now that summer has ended. This is taken to be an allusion by the poet of his frustrations at his family's decline in influence; the Cowherd and the Weaver Girl stars in the poem refers to the story of two separated lovers who can only meet once a year: He wrote a commentary on the Art of War and many letters of advice to high officials. A twenty-book collection of his prose works, Fan Chuan Wen Ji, survives. In 1968, Roger Waters of the rock band Pink Floyd borrowed lines from his poetry including "Lotuses lean on each other in yearning" to create the lyrics for the song Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun from the band's second album A Saucerful of Secrets. Chinese poetry Qijue Noguchi, Kazuo. "Du Mu". Encyclopedia Nipponica. Shogakukan. Retrieved 2017-02-28. Burton, Richard F. Plantains in the Rain: Selected Chinese Poems of Du Mu. Wellsweep 1990. ISBN 9780948454080; this is a bilingual text. The Chinese is in traditional characters.
Francis, Mark. Running Under the Ice: Fifty Selected Poems by Du Mu. Oxcidental Press 2012. ISBN 978-1-4681-2831-4; this is a bilingual text. The Chinese is in simplified characters. Young David and Jiann Lin. Out on the Autumn RIver: Selected Poems of Du Mu. Rager Media, 2007. ISBN 0979209153; this is a bilingual text. The Chinese is in traditional characters. "Ten poems of Du Mu". Archived from the original on 2 September 2004. Included in 300 Selected Tang poems, translated by Witter Bynner Du Mu's poems Works by Du Mu at LibriVox "Du Mu's seven-character truncated verses". Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Books of the Quan Tangshi that include collected poems of Du Mu at the Chinese Text Project: Book 520, Book 521, Book 522, Book 523, Book 524, Book 525, Book 526, Book 527
Classical Chinese known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese. Classical Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese that evolved from the classical language, making it different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. Literary Chinese was used for all formal writing in China until the early 20th century, during various periods, in Japan and Vietnam. Among Chinese speakers, Literary Chinese has been replaced by written vernacular Chinese, a style of writing, similar to modern spoken Mandarin Chinese, while speakers of non-Chinese languages have abandoned Literary Chinese in favor of local vernaculars. Literary Chinese is known as kanbun in Japanese, hanmun in Korean, cổ văn or văn ngôn in Vietnamese. Speaking, Classical Chinese refers to the written language of the classical period of Chinese literature, from the end of the Spring and Autumn period to the end of the Han dynasty, while Literary Chinese is the form of written Chinese used from the end of the Han Dynasty to the early 20th century, when it was replaced by vernacular written Chinese.
It is also referred to as "Classical Chinese", but sinologists distinguish it from the language of the early period. During this period the dialects of China became more and more disparate and thus the Classical written language became less and less representative of the varieties of Chinese. Although authors sought to write in the style of the Classics, the similarity decreased over the centuries due to their imperfect understanding of the older language, the influence of their own speech, the addition of new words; this situation, the use of Literary Chinese throughout the Chinese cultural sphere despite the existence of disparate regional vernaculars, is called diglossia. It can be compared to the position of Classical Arabic relative to the various regional vernaculars in Arab lands, or of Latin in medieval Europe; the Romance languages continued to evolve, influencing Latin texts of the same period, so that by the Middle Ages, Medieval Latin included many usages that would have baffled the Romans.
The coexistence of Classical Chinese and the native languages of Japan and Vietnam can be compared to the use of Latin in nations that natively speak non-Latin-derived Germanic languages or Slavic languages, to the position of Arabic in Persia or the position of the Indic language, Sanskrit, in South India and Southeast Asia. However, the non-phonetic Chinese writing system causes a unique situation where the modern pronunciation of the classical language is far more divergent than in analogous cases, complicating understanding and study of Classical Chinese further compared to other classical languages. Christian missionaries coined the term Wen-li for Literary Chinese. Though composed from Chinese roots, this term was never used in that sense in Chinese, was rejected by non-missionary sinologues. Chinese characters are not alphabetic and only reflect sound changes; the tentative reconstruction of Old Chinese is an endeavor only a few centuries old. As a result, Classical Chinese is not read with a reconstruction of Old Chinese pronunciation.
With the progress of time, every dynasty has modified the official Phonology Dictionary. By the time of the Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, the Phonology Dictionary was based on early Mandarin, but since the Imperial Examination required the composition of Shi genre, in non-Mandarin speaking parts of China such as Zhejiang and Fujian, pronunciation is either based on everyday speech as in Cantonese. In practice, all varieties of Chinese combine these two extremes. Mandarin and Cantonese, for example have words that are pronounced one way in colloquial usage and another way when used in Classical Chinese or in specialized terms coming from Classical Chinese, though the system is not as extensive as that of Southern Min or Wu. Japanese, Hokkien-Taiwanese, Cantonese or Vietnamese readers of Classical Chinese use systems of pronunciation specific to their own languages. For example, Japanese speakers use On'yomi pronunciation when reading the kanji of words of Chinese origin such as 銀行 or the name for the city of Tōkyō, but use Kun'yomi when the kanji represents a native word such as the reading of 行 in 行く or the reading of both characters in the name for the city of Ōsaka, a system that aids Japanese speakers with Classical Chinese word order.
Since the pronunciation of all modern varieties of Chinese is different from Old Chinese or other forms of historical Chinese, characters that once rhymed in poetry may not rhyme any longer, or vice versa, which may still rhyme in Min or Cantonese. Poetry and other rhyme-based writing thus becomes less coherent than the original reading must have been. However, some modern Chinese varieties have ce