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Ship class

A ship class is a group of ships of a similar design. This is distinct from a ship type. For example, USS Carl Vinson is a nuclear aircraft carrier of the Nimitz class. In the course of building a class of ships, design changes might be implemented. In such a case, the ships of different design might not be considered of the same class. If ships are built of a class whose production had been discontinued, a similar distinction might be made. Ships in a class have names linked by a common factor: e.g. Trafalgar-class submarines' names all begin with T. Ships of the same class may be referred to as sister ships; the name of a naval ship class is most the name of the lead ship, the first ship commissioned or built of its design. However, other systems can be used without conflict. A descriptive name may be used. In European navies a class is named after the first ship commissioned regardless of when she was ordered or laid down. In some cases this has resulted in different class names being used in European and U.

S. references. The West German Navy used a three-digit type number for every class in service or in advanced project state. Modified versions were identified by a single letter suffix. After the reunification of Germany the German Navy kept the system. Informally, classes are traditionally named after their lead ships; the Indonesian Navy has a traditional naming for its ships. Moreover, the ship's type and missions can be identified by the first number on the ship's three-digit hull number, placed on the front bows and the back of the stern; the naming convention is such as: Hull number begin by 1: great statesmen Hull number begin by 2: Indonesia's main islands and National heroes Hull number begin by 3: national heroes Hull number begin by 4: mythical weapons, National heroes Hull number begin by 5: main and strategic bays, big cities, small cities, National heroes Hull number begin by 6: mythical weapons, traditional weapons, wild animals Hull number begin by 7: every island begin with letter "R" Hull number begin by 8: native fishes and sea creatures, native snakes and wild reptiles, wild insects, geographical places Hull number begin by 9: volcanoes, mythical figures, geographical capes and straits Russian ship classes are formally named by the numbered project that designed them.

That project sometimes, but not always, had a metaphorical name, always had a NATO reporting name. In addition, the ships of the class would be numbered, that number prefixed by a letter indicating the role of that type of vessel. For example, Project 641 had no other name, though NATO referred to its members as Foxtrot-class submarines; the ship classification in Russia does not correspond common designation for destroyer and corvette type ships. Russia has own classification for those ships. In Russia, there is a class of Squadron Torpedo Carriers that traditionally is adapted as Destroyers; the Russian corresponding word for destroyer is used in air force for fighter aircraft. Destroyers could be classified Russian Big Anti-submarine Ships or Big ASW Ships. At the same time Big Anti-submarine Ships could be classified as cruisers; the Russian Big Anti-submarine Ships class has its sub-class of Guard Ships. The Russian Guard Ships traditionally are reclassified as frigate. Another substantial class in Russia is Small Anti-submarine Ships or Small ASW Ships and are adapted as corvettes.

As corvettes were adapted Russian Small Missile Ships or Missile Boats. The British Royal Navy has used several methods of naming classes. In addition to the accepted European convention, some classes have been named after a common theme in the included ships' names, e.g. Tribal-class destroyers, some classes were implemented as an organizational tool, making traditional methods of naming inefficient. For instance, the Amphion class is known as the A class. Most destroyer classes were known by t

List of Westland Lysander operators

The following are units which operated the Westland Lysander. Please note that for some of these Squadrons the Lysander was used in a secondary role for communications and was not the main equipment of the squadron. Royal Australian Air ForceNo. 3 Squadron RAAF No. 451 Squadron RAAF Royal Indian Air ForceNo. 1 Squadron, Indian Air Force No. 2 Squadron, Indian Air Force No. 4 Squadron, Indian Air Force No. 104 Squadron, Indian Air Force No. 1 Air Gunnery School No. 22 AACU Burma Volunteer Air Force Royal Canadian Air ForceNo. 2 Squadron RCAF No. 110 Squadron RCAF No. 111 Squadron RCAF No. 112 Squadron RCAF No. 118 Squadron RCAF No. 121 Squadron RCAF No. 122 Squadron RCAF No. 123 Squadron RCAF No. 400 Squadron RCAF No. 414 Squadron RCAF Royal Egyptian Air ForceNo. 1 Squadron Finnish Air ForceNo. 12 Squadron, Finnish Air Force No. 14 Squadron, Finnish Air Force No. 16 Squadron, Finnish Air Force Free French Air Force Irish Air Corps Polish Air Force in Great BritainNo. 309 "Land of Czerwien" Polish Fighter-Reconnaissance Squadron Portugal Air Force South African Air Force Turkish Air Force Royal Air ForceNo.

2 Squadron RAF No. 4 Squadron RAF No. 6 Squadron RAF No. 13 Squadron RAF No. 16 Squadron RAF No. 20 Squadron RAF No. 24 Squadron RAF No. 26 Squadron RAF No. 28 Squadron RAF No. 81 Squadron RAF No. 116 Squadron RAF No. 135 Squadron RAF No. 138 Squadron RAF No. 148 Squadron RAF No. 161 Squadron RAF No. 173 Squadron RAF No. 208 Squadron RAF No. 225 Squadron RAF No. 231 Squadron RAF No. 237 Squadron RAF No. 239 Squadron RAF No. 241 Squadron RAF No. 267 Squadron RAF No. 268 Squadron RAF No. 275 Squadron RAF No. 276 Squadron RAF No. 277 Squadron RAF No. 278 Squadron RAF No. 280 Squadron RAF No. 285 Squadron RAF No. 286 Squadron RAF No. 287 Squadron RAF No. 288 Squadron RAF No. 289 Squadron RAF No. 309 Squadron RAF No. 357 Squadron RAF - Special Duties No. 510 Squadron RAF No. 516 Squadron RAF No. 598 Squadron RAF No. 613 Squadron RAF - Auxiliary Air Force equipped with Lysanders as main equipment. No. 614 Squadron RAF - Auxiliary Air Force equipped with Lysanders as main equipment. No. 679 Squadron RAF No. 695 Squadron RAF No. 6 Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Unit No. 7 Anti-Aircraft Co-operation UnitFleet Air Arm United States Army Air Forces330th Bomb Squadron 340th Bomb Squadron 2025th Gunnery Flight 2031st Gunnery Flight 496th Fighter Training Group

Kobe Bryant sexual assault case

The Kobe Bryant sexual assault case began in July 2003, when the news media reported that the sheriff's office in Eagle, had arrested professional basketball player Kobe Bryant in connection with an investigation of a sexual assault complaint filed by a 19-year-old hotel employee. Bryant had checked into The Lodge and Spa at Cordillera, a hotel in Edwards, Colorado, on June 30 in advance of having surgery near there on July 2 under Richard Steadman; the woman accused Bryant of raping her in his hotel room on July 1. She filed authorities questioned Bryant about bruising on the accuser's neck. Bryant insisted the sex was consensual; the case was dropped. A separate civil suit was filed against Bryant by the woman; this was settled out of court and included Bryant publicly apologizing to his accuser, the public, family, while denying the allegations. Eagle County Sheriff investigators first confronted Bryant with the sexual assault accusation on July 2. During the July 2003 interview with investigators, Bryant told investigators that he did not have sexual intercourse with his accuser, a 19-year-old woman who worked at the hotel where Bryant was staying.

When the officers told Bryant that she had taken an exam that yielded physical evidence, such as semen, Bryant admitted to having sexual intercourse with her, but stated that the sex was consensual. When asked about bruises on the accuser's neck, Bryant admitted to "strangling" her during the encounter, stating that he held her "from the back" "around her neck", that strangling during sex was his "thing" and that he had a pattern of strangling a different sex partner during their recurring sexual encounters; when asked how hard he was holding onto her neck, Bryant stated, "My hands are strong. I don't know." Bryant stated. Law enforcement officials collected evidence from Bryant and he agreed to submit to a rape test kit and a voluntary polygraph test. On July 4, Sheriff Joe Hoy issued an arrest warrant for Bryant. Bryant flew from Los Angeles back to Colorado, to surrender to police, he was released on $25,000 bond, news of the arrest became public two days after that. On July 18, the Eagle County District Attorney's office filed a formal charge against Bryant for sexual assault.

If convicted, Bryant faced probation to life in prison. On July 18, after he was formally charged, Bryant held a news conference in which he adamantly denied having raped the woman, he insisted it was consensual. In December 2003, pre-trial hearings were conducted to consider motions about the admissibility of evidence. During those hearings, the prosecution accused Bryant's defense team of attacking his accuser's credibility, it was revealed that she wore underpants containing another man's semen and pubic hair to her rape exam the day after the alleged incident. Detective Doug Winters stated that the yellow underwear she wore to her rape exam contained sperm from another man, along with Caucasian pubic hair. Bryant's defense stated that the exam results showed "compelling evidence of innocence" because the accuser must have had another sexual encounter after the incident, she told investigators that she grabbed dirty underwear by mistake from her laundry basket when she left her home for the examination.

On the day she was examined, she said. The examination found evidence of vaginal trauma, which Bryant's defense team claimed was consistent with having sex with multiple partners in two days; the evidence recovered by police included the T-shirt that Bryant wore the night of the incident, which had three small stains of the accuser's blood on it. The smudge was verified to be the accuser's blood by DNA testing and was not menstrual blood because the accuser said she had her period two weeks earlier, it was revealed that Bryant leaned the woman over a chair to have sex with her, which caused the bleeding. This was the sex act in question, as the accuser claims she told Bryant to stop, but he would not, Bryant claims he stopped after asking if he could ejaculate on her face. Trina McKay, the resort's night auditor, said she saw the accuser as she was leaving to go home, "she did not look or sound as if there had been any problem". However, Bobby Pietrack, the accuser's high-school friend and a bellman at the resort, said she appeared to be upset, "told me that Kobe Bryant had forced sex with her".

A few weeks before the trial was scheduled to begin, the accuser wrote a letter to state investigator Gerry Sandberg clarifying some details of her first interview by Colorado police. She wrote, "I told Detective Winters that on that morning; that was not true. When I called in late to work that day, the reason I gave my boss for being late. In all reality, I had overslept... I told Detective Winters that Mr. Bryant had made me wash my face. While I was held against my will in that room, I was not forced to wash my face. I did not wash my face. Instead, I stopped at the mirror by the elevator on that floor to clean my face up. I am disappointed in myself and very sorry to anyone misled by that mix-up of information. I said what I said because I felt that Detective Winters did not believe what had happened to me."Bryant's defense lawyer Pamela Mackey asserted that the accuser was taking an anti-psychotic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia at the time of the incident. Lindsey McKinney, who lived with the accuser, said the woman twice tried to kill he


A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something a dish of prepared food. The term recipe is used in medicine or in information technology. A doctor will begin a prescription with recipe, Latin for take abbreviated as Rx or the equivalent symbol; the earliest known written recipes date from 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia. There are works in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs depicting the preparation of food. Many ancient Greek recipes are known. Mithaecus's cookbook was an early one. Athenaeus mentions many other cookbooks, all of them lost. Roman recipes are known starting in the 2nd century BCE with Cato the Elder's De Agri Cultura. Many authors of this period described eastern Mediterranean cooking in Latin; some Punic recipes are known in Latin translation. The large collection of recipes De re coquinaria, conventionally titled Apicius, appeared in the 4th or 5th century and is the only complete surviving cookbook from the classical world.

It lists the courses served in a meal as Primae Mensae and Secundae Mensae. Each recipe begins with the Latin command "Take..." "Recipe...."Arabic recipes are documented starting in the 10th century. The earliest recipe in Persian dates from the 14th century. Several recipes have survived from the time of Safavids, including Karnameh by Mohammad Ali Bavarchi, which includes the cooking instruction of more than 130 different dishes and pastries, Madat-ol-Hayat by Nurollah Ashpaz. Recipe books from the Qajar period are numerous, the most notable being Khorak-ha-ye Irani by prince Nader Mirza. King Richard II of England commissioned a recipe book called Forme of Cury in 1390, around the same time, another book was published entitled Curye on Inglish, "cury" meaning cooking. Both books give an impression of how food for the noble classes was prepared and served in England at that time; the luxurious taste of the aristocracy in the Early Modern Period brought with it the start of what can be called the modern recipe book.

By the 15th century, numerous manuscripts were appearing detailing the recipes of the day. Many of these manuscripts give good information and record the re-discovery of many herbs and spices including coriander, parsley and rosemary, many of, brought back from the Crusades. With the advent of the printing press in the 16th and 17th centuries, numerous books were written on how to manage households and prepare food. In Holland and England competition grew between the noble families as to who could prepare the most lavish banquet. By the 1660s, cookery had progressed to an art form and good cooks were in demand. Many of them published their own books detailing their recipes in competition with their rivals. Many of these books are available online. By the 19th century, the Victorian preoccupation for domestic respectability brought about the emergence of cookery writing in its modern form. Although eclipsed in fame and regard by Isabella Beeton, the first modern cookery writer and compiler of recipes for the home was Eliza Acton.

Her pioneering cookbook, Modern Cookery for Private Families published in 1845, was aimed at the domestic reader rather than the professional cook or chef. This was immensely influential, it introduced the now-universal practice of listing the ingredients and suggested cooking times with each recipe. It included the first recipe for Brussels sprouts. Contemporary chef Delia Smith called Acton "the best writer of recipes in the English language." Modern Cookery long survived Acton, remaining in print until 1914 and available more in facsimile. Acton's work was an important influence on Isabella Beeton, who published Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management in 24 monthly parts between 1857 and 1861; this was a guide to running a Victorian household, with advice on fashion, child care, animal husbandry, the management of servants, science and industrialism. Of the 1,112 pages, over 900 contained recipes. Most were illustrated with coloured engravings, it is said that many of the recipes were plagiarised from earlier writers such as Acton, but the Beetons never claimed that the book's contents were original.

It was intended as a reliable guide for the aspirant middle classes. The American cook Fannie Farmer published in 1896 her famous work The Boston Cooking School Cookbook which contained some 1,849 recipes. Modern culinary recipes consist of several components The name of the recipe Yield: The number of servings that the dish provides. List all ingredients in the order of its use. Describe it in step by step instructions. Listing ingredients by the quantity. How much time does it take to prepare the dish, plus cooking time for the dish. Necessary equipment used for the dish. Cooking procedures. Temperature and bake time if necessary. Serving procedures. Review of the dish. Photograph of the dish. Nutritional Value: Helps for dietary restrictions. Includes number of calories or grams per serving. Earlier recipes included much less information, serving more as a reminder of ingredients and proportions for someone who knew how to prepare the dish. Recipe writers sometimes list variations of a traditional dish, to give different tastes of the same recipes.

By the mid 20th century, there were thousands of recipe books available. Th


Dumbshow dumb show or dumb-show, is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of English as "gestures used to convey a meaning or message without speech. In the theatre the word refers to a piece of dramatic mime in general, or more a piece of action given in mime within a play "to summarise, supplement, or comment on the main action". In the Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance, Michael Dobson writes that the dumbshow was "an allegorical survival from the morality play", it came into fashion in 16th-century English drama in interludes featuring "personifications of abstract virtues and vices who contend in ways which foreshadow and moralize the fortunes of the play's characters". There are examples in Gorboduc throughout which dumbshow plays a major part, in Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy, George Peele's The Battle of Alcazar and The Old Wives' Tale, Robert Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay and the anonymous A Warning for Fair Women. Shakespeare used dumbshow in Hamlet, for the play within a play staged by Prince Hamlet and the players for King Claudius.

That, like Revenge's dumbshow in The Spanish Tragedy, suggests by mime the action soon to take place in the main spoken drama. In Dobson's view the dumbshow was becoming old-fashioned by Shakespeare's time, the playwright's most elaborate dumbshows are in Pericles, a play intentionally constructed in "a mock-medieval dramatic idiom". In the 17th century, dumbshow survived as an element of the courtly masque, in the Jacobean tragedies of Webster and Middleton dumbshows are featured in masque-within-the-play episodes. From the 1630s the dumbshow no longer featured in mainstream British drama, but it resurfaced in harlequinades and melodramas in the 19th century. Thomas Holcroft introduced a dumb character in his play A Tale of Mystery, the device of using a mute to convey essential facts by dumbshow became a regular feature of melodramas. In his Dictionary of Literary Terms, J. A. Cuddon lists 19th century plays with the titles The Dumb Boy, The Dumb Brigand, The Dumb Recruit, The Dumb Driver and The Dumb Sailor.

Cuddon notes three 20th century instances of dumbshow in André Obey's Le Viol de Lucrece, Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot and Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Cuddon, J A. A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Cambridge: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-20271-4

The Keynes Solution

The Keynes Solution: The Path to Global Economic Prosperity is a nonfiction work by Paul Davidson about The General Theory of Employment and Money by John Maynard Keynes. Davidson sought to explain how Keynesian economic policies can lead the way out of the financial crisis of 2007–2010. Davidson explained how the crisis was created, gave an explanation of Keynesian policies, offered advice on how to reform the current international trade and monetary systems to conform to Keynes’s ideas. In his appendix, he offered his view that “true” Keynesian theory was never taught in American universities and therefore had not been applied to the economy of the United States. 2008–2009 Keynesian resurgence James Pressley. "Keynes Has Answer to China's $2.4 Trillion Problem: Book Review". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 29 September 2010