A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water. Shipwrecking may be accidental. In January 1999, Angela Croome estimated that there have been about three million shipwrecks worldwide. Historic wrecks are attractive to maritime archaeologists because they preserve historical information: for example, studying the wreck of Mary Rose revealed information about seafaring and life in the 16th century. Military wrecks, caused by a skirmish at sea, are studied to find details about the historic event. Discoveries of treasure ships from the period of European colonisation, which sank in remote locations leaving few living witnesses, such as Batavia, do occur as well; some contemporary wrecks, such as the oil tankers Prestige or Erika, are of interest because of their potential harm to the environment. Other contemporary wrecks are scuttled in order to spur reef growth, such as Adolphus Busch and Ocean Freeze. Wrecks like Adolphus Busch and historic wrecks such as Thistlegorm are of interest to recreational divers that dive to shipwrecks because they are interesting to explore, provide large habitats for many types of marine life, have an interesting history.

Well known shipwrecks include the catastrophic Titanic, Lusitania, Empress of Ireland, Andrea Doria, or Costa Concordia. There are thousands of wrecks that were not lost at sea but have been abandoned or sunk; these abandoned, or derelict ships are smaller craft, such as fishing vessels. They may be removed by port authorities. Poor design, improperly stowed cargo and other human errors leading to collisions, bad weather and other causes can lead to accidental sinkings. Intentional reasons for sinking a ship include: intending to form an artificial reef. A ship can be used as breakwater structure. Many factors determine the state of preservation of a wreck: the ship's construction materials the wreck becoming covered in sand or silt the salinity of the water the wreck is in the level of destruction involved in the ship's loss whether the components or cargo of the wreck were salvaged whether the wreck was demolished to clear a navigable channel the depth of water at the wreck site the strength of tidal currents or wave action at the wreck site the exposure to surface weather conditions at the wreck site the presence of marine animals that consume the ship's fabric temperature the acidity, other chemical characteristics of the water at the siteThe above - the stratification and the damages caused by marine creatures - is better described as "stratification and contamination" of shipwrecks.

The stratification not only creates another challenge for marine archaeology, but a challenge to determine its primary state, i.e. the state that it was in when it sank. Stratification includes several different types of sand and silt, as well as tumulus and encrustations; these "sediments" are linked to the type of currents and the type of water, which implies any chemical reactions that would affect potential cargo. Besides this geological phenomenon, wrecks face the damage of marine creatures that create a home out of them octopuses and crustaceans; these creatures affect the primary state because they move, or break, any parts of the shipwreck that are in their way, thereby affecting the original condition of amphorae, for example, or any other hollow places. In addition to the slight or severe destruction marine animals can create, there are "external" contaminants, such as the artifacts on and around the wreck at Pickles Reef and the over-lapping wrecks at the Molasses Reef Wreck, or contemporary pollution in bodies of water, that affect shipwrecks by changing the chemical structures, or further damaging what is left of a specific ship.

Despite these challenges, if the information retrieved does not appear to be sufficient, or a poor preservation is achieved, authors like J. A. Parker claim that it is the historical value of the shipwreck that counts as well as any slight piece of information or evidence, acquired. Exposed wooden components decay quickly; the only wooden parts of ships that remain after a century are those that were buried in silt or sand soon after the sinking. An example of this is Mary Rose. Steel and iron, depending on their thickness, may retain the ship's structure for decades; as corrosion takes place, sometimes helped by tides and weather, the structure collapses. Thick ferrous objects such as cannons, steam boilers or the pressure vessel of a submarine survive well underwater in spite of corrosion. Propellers, condensers and port holes were made from non-ferrous metals such as brass and phosphor bronze, which do not corrode easily. Shipwrecks in some freshwater lakes, such as the Great Lakes of North America, have remained intact with little degradation.

In some sea areas, most notably in Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland, salinity is low, centuries-old wrecks have been preserved in reasonable condition. However, bacteria found in fresh water cause the wood on ships to rot more than in seawater unless it is deprived of oxygen. Two shipwrecks, USS Hamilton and USS Scourge, have been at the bottom of Lake Ontario since they sunk during a violent storm on August 8, 1813, d

Madonna and Child (Duccio)

Madonna and Child was painted by one of the most influential artists of the late 13th and early 14th century, Duccio di Buoninsegna. This iconic image of the Madonna and Child, seen throughout the history of western art, holds significant value in terms of stylistic innovations of religious subject matter that would continue to evolve for centuries. Duccio’s Madonna and Child, or Stoclet Madonna, has only been acknowledged as Duccio’s work for the past century, accessible to scholars for only half a century. Comparing the compact size of this work of 11X8 1/8 in. to larger, more illustrious altarpieces and large scale frescoes, the Madonna and Child is understood to be an intimate, devotional image. Some evocations of this understanding come from the burnt edges on the bottom of the original engaged frame caused by burning candles that would have sat just beneath. Looking past the abrupt simplicity of the image, one can begin to understand the changes Duccio was applying to the depiction of religious figures in painting during the early 14th century.

Duccio followed other innovative Italian artists of the time like Giotto, both of whom strove to move beyond the purely iconic Byzantine canon and attempted to create a more tangible connection between the viewer and the objects in the painting. For example, the parapet that sits at the bottom of the painting works as a visual enticement for the viewer to look past and into the moment, captured between the Virgin and Christ Child. At the same time, the parapet acts as a barrier between the vernacular world and the sacred. Many other elements of Duccio’s interest in humanism are prevalent and can be seen in the tenderly draped robe worn by the Madonna and on Christ’s lap, the childish reach of his hand to the Virgin’s somewhat austere gaze back as she anticipates Christ’s future, the luminous colors employed to the garments, the fine details found on the inner layer of the Virgin’s veil, it is these distinct qualities that would shape the sensibility of Sienese painting and that give Duccio’s Madonna and Child such worthy attention and credibility in the history of art.

Other details found in this image are ones that stay behind in Byzantine tradition and characterize earlier works of Duccio, while the more innovative qualities prosper over time. The details in the gold background are minute and difficult to notice at a far glance but add an important element to the iconicism of the image. Punched designs were employed for the border design, all of which were hand inscribed; the Madonna and Child carries somewhat of a mysterious history in terms of its location for five centuries. Many questions about this timeless image remain unanswered in terms of where or whom it came from before the mid 19th Century, not unusual for duecento and trecento paintings. In 1904 the painting was displayed at the Mostra d’arte antica senese, an exhibition at the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena; the first known owner of the painting brought it to the exhibition organizers whom enabled it to be shown. This person is known to be Count Gregori Stroganoff who held the Duccio as part of his vast collection of art pieces of all disciplines.

There are no known records of who owned or where Duccio’s Madonna and Child was held up to the possession of Stroganoff. Stated in her review of the 1904 Mostra d’art senese exhibition, art historian, Mary Logan Berenson believes this work to be among Duccio’s “most perfect” pieces, therefore it is no surprise the painting caused an awe-inspiring reaction from exhibition viewers and from those in the art and art history arena. Following the death of Stroganoff in 1910, the Duccio joined the assembly of works collected by Adolphe Stoclet, hence the painting’s namesake, the Stoclet Madonna. Stoclet was understood to treat his fruitful collection of art with the most careful attention and held them in the most ideal environments to preserve their unique, many times fragile, qualities; the Duccio was shown at few exhibitions in 1930 and 1935 and to chosen, limited guests of Stoclet at his home. Proceeding the death of Stoclet and his wife in 1949, their children inherited Duccio’s Madonna and Child along with the rest of the collector’s assemblage.

Although the coveted work of art was of interest to scholars, they were unable to access it except through photographs that document the ages of the painting and its process of restoration. Photographs of before it was restored, minor retouching, to what we see now all of which reveal the time past and the true impression of the original painting of 1300; the painting was excitingly acquired in the autumn of 2004 by the Metropolitan Museum of Art for an estimated amount of 45 million USD. This is a valuable acquisition not only for the aesthetic significance in terms of the history of art, but because there are only 13 known paintings by Duccio in the world. There is debate between scholars of what the most accurate chronology of Duccio’s Madonna and Child is. There is more than 20 years of time where scholars do not have accounted works by Duccio leaving a questionable, although certain estimation of the Madonna and Child to be made around 1300. Due to the fact that some qualities of the painting are Bysantinesque like the oval shape of the Virgin’s face and her elegantly long nose, of the “miniature man” nature of Christ Child, the lack of consensus of when it was created proceeds.

But, there are of course many innovative elements to the painting which align it appropriately in the time, now acknowledged to be most accurate. Along with the humanistic qualities between the Virgin and Christ Child, the elegant draping, the marble parapet is a notable detail to the intentions of the painting, serve

Bakhtiyor Hamidullaev

Bakhtiyor Hamidullaev (born 7 March 1978 in Andijan, USSR is a former Uzbek football player. He played the most time of his career for FK Andijan and is considered as one of the best players of FK Andijan history in modern period. Hamidullaev was Best club top scorer in 1999-2002 and 2006 seasons and became Uzbek League Top Scorer in 1999 with 24 goals and in 2002 with 22 goals, he scored over 190 goals in Uzbek League and for national team and member of Gennadi Krasnitsky club of Uzbek top scorers. He finished player career in 2011 and played last season for FK Andijan Bakhtiyor Hamidullaev achieved 8 caps as Uzbekistan national football team player, scoring 3 goals; the most notable of his international appearances was 2001 Merdeka Tournament in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where Uzbekistan team won the tournament for the first time. Hamidullaev scored, his golden goal in overtime of final match against Bosnia and Herzegovina helped Uzbekistan team win match with 2:1. Merdeka Tournament: 2001 Uzbek League Top Scorer: 1999, 2002 Gennadi Krasnitsky club: 191 goals Goals for Senior National Team Bakhtiyor Hamidullaev at Uzbekistan national football team stats Bakhtiyor Hamidullaev at Soccerway