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Shire

A shire is a traditional term for a division of land, found in Great Britain, New Zealand and some other English-speaking countries. It was first used in Wessex from the beginning of Anglo-Saxon settlement, spread to most of the rest of England in the tenth century. In some rural parts of Australia, a shire is a local government area; the word shire derives from the Old English sćir, from the Proto-Germanic skizo, denoting an "official charge" a "district under a governor", a "care". In UK usage, shire became synonymous with county, an administrative term introduced to England through the Norman Conquest, in A. D. 1066. In contemporary British usage, the word "counties" refers to "shires" in places, such as Shire Hall. In regions with rhotic pronunciation, such as Scotland, the word shire is pronounced. In England and Wales, when shire is a place-name suffix, the vowel is unstressed and shortened; the vowel is reduced to a single schwa, as in Leicestershire and Berkshire. The system was first used in the kingdom of Wessex from the beginning of Anglo-Saxon settlement, spread to most of the rest of England in the tenth century, along with the West Saxon kingdom's political domination.

In Domesday the city of York was divided into shires. The first shires of Scotland were created in English-settled areas such as Lothian and the Borders, in the ninth century. King David I more created shires and appointed sheriffs across lowland shores of Scotland; the shire in early days was governed by an ealdorman and in the Anglo-Saxon period by royal official known as a "shire reeve" or sheriff. The shires were divided into hundreds or wapentakes, although other less common sub-divisions existed. An alternative name for a shire was a "sheriffdom" until sheriff court reforms separated the two concepts; the phrase "shire county" applies, unofficially, to non-metropolitan counties in England those that are not local unitary authority areas. In Scotland the word "county" was not adopted for the shires. Although "county" appears in some texts, "shire" was the normal name until counties for statutory purposes were created in the nineteenth century. "Shire" refers, in a narrower sense, to ancient counties with names that ended in "shire".

These counties are named after their county town. The suffix -shire is attached to most of the names of English and Welsh counties, it tends not to be found in the names of shires. Essex and Sussex, for example, have never borne a -shire, as each represents a former Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Cornwall was a British kingdom before it became an English county; the term "shire" is not used in the names of the six traditional counties of Northern Ireland. Counties in England bearing the "-shire" suffix include: Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Cheshire, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire, Staffordshire, Wiltshire and Yorkshire; these counties, on their historical boundaries, cover a little more than half the area of England. The counties that do not use "-shire" are in three areas, in the south-east, south-west and far north of England. Several of these counties no longer exist as administrative units, or have had their administrative boundaries reduced by local government reforms.

Several of the successor authorities retain the "-shire" county names, such as West Yorkshire and South Gloucestershire. The county of Devon was known as Devonshire, although this is no longer the official name. Dorset and Somerset were known as Dorsetshire and Somersetshire, but these terms are no longer official, are used outside the local populations. Hexhamshire was a county in the north-east of England from the early 12th century until 1572, when it was incorporated into Northumberland. In Scotland affected by the Norman conquest of England, the word "shire" prevailed over "county" until the 19th century. Earliest sources have the same usage of the "-shire" suffix as in England; the "Shire" appears as a separate word. "Shire" names in Scotland include Aberdeenshire, Banffshire, Clackmannanshire, Dumfriesshire, East Dumbartonshire, Inverness-shire, Kinross-shire, Kirkcudbrightshire, Morayshire, Peeblesshire, Renfrewshire, Ross-shire, Selkirkshire and Wigtownshire. In Scotland four shires have alternative names with the "-shire" suffix: Angus, East Lothian and West Lothian.

Sutherland is still referred to as Sutherlandshire. Argyllshire, Caithness-shire and Fifeshire are sometimes found. Morayshire was called Elginshire. There is debate about whether Argyllshire was really used. Shires in Wales bearing the "-shire" suffix include: Brecknockshire, Cardiganshire, Denbighshire, Monmouthshire, Montgomeryshire and Radnorshire. In Wales, the countie

2015 SO2

2015 SO2 is an Aten asteroid, a temporary horseshoe companion to the Earth, the ninth known Earth horseshoe librator. Prior to its most recent close encounter with our planet it was an Apollo asteroid. 2015 SO2 was discovered on 21 September 2015 by B. Mikuž observing with the 0.6-m f/3.3 Cichocki telescope at the Črni Vrh Observatory in Slovenia. As of 30 November 2015, it has been observed 84 times with an observation arc of 9 days. 2015 SO2 is an Aten asteroid. Its semi-major axis is similar to that of Earth, but it has a low eccentricity and moderate orbital inclination. Gravitational interaction with Earth causes its orbit to change so that its average period is one year, it alternates between being an Aten asteroid and being an Apollo asteroid, changing dynamical status every 113 years approximately. As of 30 November 2015, this object is the 14th known Earth co-orbital and the 9th known object following a horseshoe path with respect to our planet, its orbital evolution characterized by alternating quasi-satellite episodes.

With an absolute magnitude of 23.9, it has a diameter in the range 50–111 meters. 54509 YORP 2010 SO16 3753 Cruithne Further readingUnderstanding the Distribution of Near-Earth Asteroids Bottke, W. F. Jedicke, R. Morbidelli, A. Petit, J.-M. Gladman, B. 2000, Vol. 288, Issue 5474, pp. 2190–2194. A Numerical Survey of Transient Co-orbitals of the Terrestrial Planets Christou, A. A. 2000, Vol. 144, Issue 1, pp. 1–20. Debiased Orbital and Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Near-Earth Objects Bottke, W. F. Morbidelli, A. Jedicke, R. Petit, J.-M. Levison, H. F. Michel, P. Metcalfe, T. S. 2002, Vol. 156, Issue 2, pp. 399–433. Transient co-orbital asteroids Brasser, R. Innanen, K. A. Connors, M. Veillet, C. Wiegert, P. Mikkola, S. Chodas, P. W. 2004, Vol. 171, Issue 1, pp. 102–109. From horseshoe to quasi-satellite and back again: the curious dynamics of Earth co-orbital asteroid 2015 SO2 de la Fuente Marcos, C. de la Fuente Marcos, R. 2016, Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 361, Issue 1, article 16.

Discovery MPEC 2015 SO2 data at MPC Crni Vrh Observatory News Discovery image The 60-cm Cichocki Sky Survey Telescope 2015 SO2 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

Ruairi Glynn

Ruairi Glynn is an installation artist who has exhibited internationally with shows at the Centre Pompidou Paris, the National Art Museum of China Beijing, the Tate Modern, London. His kinetic and interactive art works reflect on rapid developments in robotics, machine intelligence, exploring "the emerging aesthetics of behaviour permeating across art and design". Performative Ecologies Kunsthaus, Instituto Itaú cultural, São Paulo, Seoul Olympic Museum of Art, National Art Museum of China, Beijing Motive Colloquies Centre Pompidou, Paris Fearful Symmetry Tate Modern, Instituto Itaú cultural, São Paulo Light Touch Buro Happold Lobby, London Between the Lines London Balls Arup Headquarters Lobby, London Twitter Data Visualisation Table Twitter Headquarters, San Francisco, Cannes Lions Festival MyCup Bank of America, Merril Lynch Headquarters, UK commissioned by Create London He directs the Interactive Architecture Lab at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, he is Programme Director for the MArch Design for Performance and Interaction programme at the Bartlett.

He was an Associate Lecturer of MA Material Futures & MA Industrial Design at Central Saint Martins College, University of the Arts London and has acted as visiting tutor at European schools of design including the Angewandte Vienna, ETH Zurich, CITA Copenhagen and TU Delft. Ruairi Glynn received his BSc in MediaLab Arts at the University of Plymouth in 2005, his Diploma and Masters in Architecture from University College London in 2007 and 2008 where he studied under Stephen Gage and cybernetician Ranulph Glanville

List of Doctor Who universe creatures and aliens (0–9, A–G)

This is a list of fictional creatures and aliens from the universe of the long-running BBC science fiction television series Doctor Who, including Torchwood, The Sarah Jane Adventures, K-9 and K-9 and Company. It covers other fictional creatures, but not specific characters. Individual characters are listed in separate articles. Note that some information on the page is taken from spin-off media. Alien creatures, nicknamed "Abzorbaloffs", that can absorb any living thing into its body by touch and digest the organism; the faces of its prey are visible on its body and are conscious of their surroundings. They are from the planet Clom, the twin planet of Raxacoricofallapatorius, the home planet of the Slitheen family. An Abzorbalovian disguised itself as "Victor Kennedy" and infiltrated L. I. N. D. A – a group of people trying to track down The Doctor – although it planned to absorb the Doctor's knowledge, but Elton Pope broke its cane, a limitation field that kept its absorbing abilities under control.

Without the protecting field, the Abzorbaloff was absorbed into the Earth. The Adipose are aliens composed of living fat, featured in the episode "Partners in Crime", their breeding world, Adipose 3, was lost, causing them to turn to "Miss Foster", or Matron Cofelia of the Five Straighten Classabindi Nursery Fleet, Intergalactic Class, to create a new generation. She formulated a drug to morph by parthenogenesis into Adipose children; the process is harmless to the host beyond the loss of body fat. The Shadow Proclamation forbids breeding aliens, on a level-5 planet such as Earth. Level 5 means pre-warp capabilities, as said in "Partners in Crime." According to the "Captain Jack's Monster Files" webcast about the Adipose, the children have been made wards of the Shadow Proclamation, implying that the Adipose First Family have been sentenced for their crimes. In the parallel universe created in "Turn Left", the Adipose incident happened in America instead of the United Kingdom, as London was destroyed when the Titanic crashed into Buckingham Palace because of the absence of the Doctor.

Over 60 million Americans were killed in this timeline as a result. In "The Stolen Earth" and "Journey's End", it is revealed that the breeding planet, Adipose 3, was one of the 27 planets relocated to the Medusa Cascade by the New Dalek Empire. After their defeat, Adipose 3 and the other planets were returned to their original positions. In "The End of Time", an Adipose is shown in a bar along with other aliens the Tenth Doctor had encountered. Five Adipose action figures were released as part of the first series 4 wave. Aggedor is the Sacred Royal Beast of the planet Peladon; the real creature upon which the legend is based is a hairy beast with a single horn. Hunted to near extinction, one Aggedor beast roamed the tunnels below the citadel and, at one stage, was used to judge prisoners who were cast into a pit to face the Judgement Of Aggedor. A hermaphroditic hexapod from Alpha Centauri which, being genderless, is referred to as "it" as opposed to "he" or "she", it is tall, has one large blue eye, six arms, a high-pitched voice.

It hysterics. A translucent humanoid who possessed the body of a 19th-century prostitute named Mary was encountered in the episode "Greeks Bearing Gifts", she was a member of a race which communicated via telepathic pendants, claimed to be a political exile, sent to Earth by a teleporter now in Torchwood's possession. At one point, "Mary" calls, she gave her telepathic necklace to Toshiko, seduced her into letting her into Torchwood to regain the teleporter. On arriving on Earth in 1812, the alien possessed Mary. In this form she needed taking one a year. "Mary" threatened Tosh in order to regain the teleporter and Jack exchanged it for Tosh. However, Jack had reprogrammed the coordinates, sending "Mary" into the center of the Sun instead of back to her homeworld. In The Sarah Jane Adventures story Invasion of the Bane, Sarah Jane Smith helps an alien of the same race to find its way home, it is revealed that this alien was a "Star Poet", from Arcateen V, who gave Sarah Jane a device via which she promised to help her with her poetry whenever she needs it.

Mr Smith's Alien Files on the official The Sarah Jane Adventures website described her race as Butterfly People. The Butterfly People are referenced in the novel Something in the Water where they are called "Arcateenians". Like all Torchwood spin-off media, its canonicity in relation to the television series remains unclear. "Mary" possessed strength large enough to shatter human bones in a manner resembling a gunshot and could move at superhuman speeds possessing acute senses able to notice that there was something different about Jack. The Star Poet in The Sarah Jane Adventures was able to fly home with some assistance from Sarah Jane. "Mary's" opinions of her human form seemed to be mixed: she disliked watching people talk using conventional speech. She expressed a dim view of human nature, considering humans to

National Day Laborer Organizing Network

The National Day Laborer Organizing Network is an American organization dedicated to improving the lives of day laborers. It is based in Los Angeles, California. NDLON functions in a form of direct democracy where day laborers who are in member organizations vote directly for the policies at NDLON's biannual assemblies. NDLON’s vision is to live in a diverse world where day laborers have full rights in an enticement with peace, harmony and mutual respect. National Day Laborer Organizing Network was founded at the first national gathering of day laborer organizations, it has grown to 36 member organizations. NDLON has been an influence in the rise of workers rights campaigns since 2000; these include the wage theft laws passed in multiple states including Illinois, New York, Arkansas and Rhode Island. Day laborer organizing dates back to the mid-1980s with efforts from the community to organize and educate day laborers about their rights as workers and educate them on their civil liberties; these continued efforts in the late 1980s led to pilot programs.

Around the 1990s the government became more involved in certain cities. Some supported. During this time organizers developed a two-step approach; the first step was a litigation strategy in the courts. The second approach was an organizing strategy that allowed day laborers to come together to have more political inclusion and be able to represent themselves in front of governmental officials, law enforcement, local stake holders. In this time period, marked one of the first efforts to discuss day laborer rights through all the trainings and retreats, it helped develop the day laborers as leaders in their communities. In the late 1990s organizers from the different centers were all exchanging strategies and organizing practices like “libretas” that were books that were distributed to the whole country eventually. Towards the end of the decade more formal attempts were made to create a formal organization with the collaboration of all the worker centers. In 1999 a national coordinator was added and a national agenda was created which led to the creation of the NDLON.

In August 9, 2006 after the largest immigration rights demonstrations happened, the AFL-CIO signed an agreement to work together with NDLON to improve the working conditions of immigrant day laborers. This development and the agreement were made possible because of immigrant rights activists trying to progress the rights of day laborers. Two Los Angeles community-based-organizations that helped in this historic movement were the Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles and the Institute of Popular Education of Southern California. Los Angeles has the greatest population of day laborers and these two organizations paved the way to provide day laborers the education and skills to advocate and to develop as leaders; the Los Angeles day laborer organizers developed two strategies. The first strategy was to encourage self-organization among the day laborers; this leadership methodology was based on Paulo Freire principles of popular education. The second strategy was to build a relationship and reduced community conflict between the day laborers and residents and merchants.

This was referred to as ”human relations”. These efforts emerged from the advocates to protect the rights of the day laborers to seek work in public spaces as under the First Amendment. Framing their rights under the First amendment helped solve conflicts between the day laborers and the surrounding residents; the national network was able to emerge as worker centers throughout the different states visited each other. For example Casa Latina from Seattle and CASA of Maryland visited Los Angeles to observe the job centers; these exchanges led to the first National Day Laborer convention. At the national Day Laborer Convention in July 2001 over 150 day laborers and organizers gathered to focus on the priorities for the network, its priorities were defined as 1) protecting the day laborers and their civil rights, 2) creation of more day laborer worker centers, 3) expanding the education and organization of the day laborers, 4) organizing for a legalization program that will help day laborers who are undocumented.

These priorities followed on until the next Day Laborer Convention. In September 2002 the Second National Day Laborer convention was held in Silver Springs, MD at the George Meany Center of the National Labor College. In this meeting over 250 day laborers and 18 community organizations gathered to create additional priorities and to help coordinate the network. After the second convention NDLON’s capacity as a national collaboration of organizations grew and continued to grow their leadership programs that were used to engage in politics and hold a national movement; the Third day Laborer Convention was held at Hofstra University in Hempstead, NY in July 2005 in which they elected the NDLON’s Board of Director that helped NDLON on the path to become an independent organization as 501c3. In this convention they established a regional organizing strategy that will help them respond to attacks on the immigrant community. In August 2007 the fourth National Day Laborer convention was held at the George Meany Center of the National Labor College.

In this convention they looked back on their accomplishments including the legislative visits, the relationship between the AFL-CIO and NDLON and the development of leadership trainings. In 2005, NDLON was instrumental in defeating the Sensenbrenner Bill, aka HR4437, named after GOP

B (S-train)

B is a service on the S-train network in Copenhagen. It runs between Farum and Høje Taastrup and provides stopping services on the S-train system's Farum radia and Tåstrup radial. B is one of the base services on the network, running every 20 minutes from about 5:00 to 1:00 every day, every 10 minutes between about 6:00 to 19:00 on weekdays. On Friday and Saturday nights there is a 30 minutes service throughout the night. Since the first part of the Taastrup radial opened in 1953, letter B has been used for its principal service. Before that the characteristic of service B was. From 1972 to 1979, the service on the Taastrup branch was supplemented on weekdays by service E. In 1979 a separate daytime reinforcement service Bb was created. Under the timetable doctrine followed in those years, a service letter such as B could not be used for more than 3 trains an hour, so a separate service designation was needed for these daytime supplements, they changed their name to L and to B+, were folded into B with the 2007 timetable.

Rush-hour supplements for B ran from 1955