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Wessex

Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in 927. The Anglo-Saxons believed that Wessex was founded by Cerdic and Cynric; the two main sources for the history of Wessex are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex was expanded under his rule. Cædwalla conquered Sussex and the Isle of Wight, his successor, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes and established a second West Saxon bishopric. The throne subsequently passed to a series of kings with unknown genealogies. During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew, Wessex retained its independence, it was during this period. Under Egbert, Sussex, Kent and Mercia, along with parts of Dumnonia, were conquered, he obtained the overlordship of the Northumbrian king. However, Mercian independence was restored in 830. During the reign of his successor, Æthelwulf, a Danish army arrived in the Thames estuary, but was decisively defeated.

When Æthelwulf's son, Æthelbald, usurped the throne, the kingdom was divided to avoid war. Æthelwulf was succeeded in turn by the youngest being Alfred the Great. Wessex was invaded by the Danes in 871, Alfred was compelled to pay them to leave, they were forced to withdraw. In 878 they forced Alfred to flee to the Somerset Levels, but were defeated at the Battle of Edington. During his reign Alfred issued a new law code, gathered scholars to his court and was able to devote funds to building ships, organising an army and establishing a system of burhs. Alfred's son, captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of his sister, Æthelflæd. Edward's son, Æthelstan, conquered Northumbria in 927, England became a unified kingdom for the first time. Cnut the Great, who conquered England in 1016, created the wealthy and powerful earldom of Wessex, but in 1066 Harold Godwinson reunited the earldom with the crown and Wessex ceased to exist.

Modern archaeologists use the term Wessex culture for a Middle Bronze Age culture in this area. A millennium before that, in the Late Neolithic, the ceremonial sites of Avebury and Stonehenge were completed on Salisbury Plain; this area has many other earthworks and erected stone monuments from the Neolithic and Early Bronze periods, including the Dorset Cursus, an earthwork 10 km long and 100 m wide, oriented to the midwinter sunset. Although agriculture and hunting were pursued during this long period, there is little archaeological evidence of human settlements. From the Neolithic onwards the chalk downland of Wessex was traversed by the Harrow Way, which can still be traced from Marazion in Cornwall to the coast of the English Channel near Dover, was connected with the ancient tin trade. During the Roman occupation starting in the 1st century AD, numerous country villas with attached farms were established across Wessex, along with the important towns of Dorchester and Winchester; the Romans, or rather the Romano-British, built another major road that integrated Wessex, running eastwards from Exeter through Dorchester to Winchester and Silchester and on to London.

The early 4th century was a peaceful time in Roman Britain. However, following a previous incursion in 360, stopped by Roman forces, the Picts and Scots attacked Hadrian's Wall in the far north in 367 and defeated the soldiers stationed along it, they laid siege to London. The Romans responded promptly, Count Theodosius had recovered the land up to the Wall by 368; the Romans temporarily ceased to rule Britain on the death of Magnus Maximus in 388. Stilicho attempted to restore Roman authority in the late 390s, but in 401 he took Roman troops from Britain to fight the Goths. Two subsequent Roman rulers of Britain, appointed by the remaining troops, were murdered. Constantine III became ruler, but he left for Gaul and withdrew more troops; the Britons requested assistance from Honorius, but when he replied in 410 he told them to manage their own defenses. By this point, there were no longer any Roman troops in Britain. Economic decline occurred after these events: circulation of Roman coins ended and the importation of items from the Roman Empire stopped.

In An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England, Peter Hunter Blair divides the traditions concerning the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain into two categories: Welsh and English. De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, written by Gildas, contains the best preservation of the Welsh tradition. In brief, it states that after the Romans left, the Britons managed to continue for a time without any major disruptions. However, when faced with northern invaders, a certain unnamed ruler in Britain requested assistance from the Saxons in exchange for land. There were no conflicts between the British and the Saxons for a time, but following "a dispute about the supply of provisions" the Saxons warred against the British and damaged parts of the country. In time, some Saxon troops left Britain. A lengthy conflict ensued, in which neither side gained any decisive advantage until the Britons routed the Saxons at the Battle of Mons Badonicus. Afte

Hanworth, Bracknell

Hanworth is a southern suburb of Bracknell part of the now-defunct civil parish of Easthampstead, in the English county of Berkshire. The Hanworth estate was built in the 1970s upon the site of the wooded Hanworth Plantation, it is bounded by Birch Hill to the east, Great Hollands to the north-west and the Church Hill estate to the north and the Nine Mile Ride and Crown plantations at Crowthorne Woods to the south. The Iron Age hill fort of Caesar's Camp is at Hanworth, although it has been transferred to the parish of Crowthorne. Although Hanworth is a separate ward in Bracknell Town Council it is combined with Birch Hill to form Hanworth ward in Bracknell Forest Council; the south west part of Hanworth, roads Oakengates, Orion, Octavia and Quintilis, is called Roman Hill after nearby Caesar's Camp. There are two schools in The Pines Primary and St. Margaret Clitherow Primary; the Pines site houses Hanworth Community Centre and The Church @ The Pines, a Methodist/Church of England ecumenical church.

Opposite the road is the Canny Man public house. Shops are in Birch Hill. Media related to Hanworth, Bracknell at Wikimedia Commons Roman Hill Residents Association

Tom Yorke

Tom Yorke was a former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1940s and 1950s. He played at club level for St. Helens Schoolboys, St. Helens YMCA, Parr Legionnaires, St. Helens, Warrington, as a prop, hooker, or loose forward, i.e. number 8 or 10, 9, or 13, during the era of contested scrums, coached at club level for United Glass Bottle Manufacturers Limited ARLFC. Tom Yorke played hooker, scored a try and a goal in St. Helens' 74-38 victory over Italy at Knowsley Road, St. Helens on Wednesday 30 August 1950, in front of a crowd of 14,000. Tom Yorke made his début for St. Helens playing loose forward in the 13-2 victory over Buslingthorpe Vale ARLFC in the 1947–48 Challenge Cup first-round second-leg match at Meanwood Road, Leeds on Saturday 14 February 1948, he played his last match for St. Helens playing hooker in the 6-6 draw with York F. C. at Clarence Street, York on Saturday 18 November 1950, he made his début for Warrington on Wednesday 18 April 1951, he played his last match for Warrington on Saturday 21 February 1953.

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